Department of Sociology and Anthropology
- Starts in the U.S. after WWII
- The emergence of functionalism in sociology is really due to the influence of cultural anthropology that was dominated by
- see society and social relations as a system of parts that are connected to each other and to the system as a whole
- function refers to the consequences that a part has for other parts or the system as a whole
- usually positive functions, therefore, producing and reproducing the social system of set of relationships
- maintains the system, producing harmony, equilibrium, stability
- culture becomes the cultural system
- social relationships become the social system
- the system is always made up of interrelated and integrated parts
- Although there is a lot of variation between functionalists they have a lot in common
- look at structures and functions of social system and cultural system with an eye towards survival of healthy society
Problematic of Order
Why doesn't society breakdown into a war of all against all
- must have effective way to interact or respond to environment
- a. how to take what you need/ want without destroying it.
- b. other social system - trade, communication, defense etc.
- must have adequate way to encourage sexual relations for reproduction
- sufficient differentiation of roles - and way to assign people to roles (believe societies must be stratified to survive)
- adequate communication system - shared symbolic system,; lang.
This makes cultural system possible and this in turn is what holds society together
- shared system of values - look at world the same way
- normative systems - regulates means to achieve goals
- regulate affective expression - must have some control on emotions
- socialization of new members
- way to control disruptive behavior
KINGSLEY DAVIS AND WILBERT MOORE WROTE ON STRATIFICATION IN 1945; ROBERT MERTON ON DYSFUNCTION AND MANIFEST AND LATENT FUNCTIONS IN 1949
DAVIS AND MOORE STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF STRATIFICATION
- STRATIFICATION IS UNIVERSAL AND NECESSARY
- NO SOCIETY IS UNSTRATIFIED
- STRATIFICATION IS A FUNCTIONAL NECESSITY
- STRATIFICATION DOES NOT REFER TO PEOPLE, BUT, TO A SYSTEM OF POSITIONS
WE ATTACH PRESTIGE TO DIFFERENT POSITIONS
- THE FOCUS BECOMES ON HOW PEOPLE GET INTO "PROPER" POSITIONS. HOW DOES SOCIETY INSTILL IN INDIVIDUALS THE DESIRE TO FILL A POSITION? ONCE IN POSITIONS, HOW DO YOU GET FOLKS TO FULFILL THE REQUIREMENTS?
- WE RANK POSITIONS ACCORDING TO:
- SOME ARE MORE PLEASANT THAN OTHERS
- SOME ARE MORE IMPORTANT TO SURVIVAL OF SOCIETY THAN OTHERS
- SOME REQUIRE DIFFERENT ABILITIES AND TALENTS
- ASSUME THAT THE POSITIONS AT THE TOP ARE LESS PLEASANT, MORE IMPORTANT, AND MORE DIFFICULT
- IF WE ATTACH SIGNIFICANT REWARDS TO TOP POSITIONS THOSE WITH THE TALENT AND DRIVE WILL DEFER GRATIFICATION AND STRIVE FOR THE TOP POSITIONS
THE CREAM RISES TO THE TOP!!
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Copyright: © 2001, John Hamlin
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