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Flying Bird Image

When Everybody Called Me Gah-bay-bi-nayss,
"Forever-Flying-Bird":
An Ethnographic Biography of
Paul Peter Buffalo

Timothy G. Roufs
University of Minnesota Duluth

a note on tenses
a note on style

orignal tapes information

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Buffalo Image

Paul Buffalo Interviews Index

C

video and audiotape index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
This is an index of the hardcopy transcripts, not the 0n-line chapters.
Index numbers refer only to where a discussion starts, or resumes.

tape number:
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75
76 77 78 79 80 81 82 (videotape)

cabbage 80-21
calendar 70-05
calico 72-28
calumet see "peacepipe"
Campbell 74-27
Campbell, J. C. 78-03
"camper Indians" 67-18
campfires / campfire talks 02-23 (old age thinking of experience; hopiing youngsters will follow; general), 08-02 ff. (moccasin game) (stories), 08-51 (talk), 08-55 (general), 12-01, 13-02 (fire; general), 13-32B (talking about building campfire by Mud Lake), 13-51 (general), 13-118 (general), 13-137 (general), 14-01, 27-34, 43-07 (general), 73-24 (reflecting on, at Mud Lake), see also "lectures"
camps / camping grounds 13-68 (seasonal camps), 13-71 (seasonal camps), 27-73 (winter), 49-06 (location; hunting; general), 49-07 (location; hunting; general), 49-13 (seasonal), 66-32 (and wood), 67-20 (campsites), 79-26 (wood; bugs), see also "wild rice camps," and "winter camps"
Canada / Canadians 09-48, 12-12 (liquor coming in from), 13-76 (people coming in from Canada for fur), 13-78 (Canadian "sly" [dialect]), 17-55 (and Nett Lake school; ling), 52-14 (going for Grand Medicine), 61-17 (beads), 61-20 (beads), 67-09 (and grandmother going to), 67-13 (and grandmother going to), 67-20 (nets)
"Canada John" Qually [sp?] 57-07
candle 08-22
candy 01-12, 09-47, 64-03, see also "taffy"
canned food 55-27
cannibalism 50-08
canning 78-27
canoes / canoeing 09-06 (patching; ricing time; fixing leaks), 12-73, 31-20 (patching; last many years; sewing; ribs; deadhead; took care of; designs; getting out at rapids; ready for ricing), 32-20, 54-09 (Grandmother Buffalo and dredging machine cutting trench, the "Manido"), 57-25 (ling; big canoe, small canoe), 62-11, 62-23 (canoing to Federal Dam?), 64-07 (patching canoes; ling; # ribs on a canoe; basswood, cedar sewing; hand-drawn designs), 67-12 (bought canoes; description), 67-15 (portaging; Great Lakes canoes, 79-22 (betting; patching boat)
"canoe days" 49-13 (1911-1913 travelled by water; knew everyone; visiting with campers), see also "canoes / canoeing"
Canton, IL 51-37
can openers 11-44
"Canuks" 13-78, see also "Canada / Canadians"
cars 06-19 to 06-21, 09-30, 19-20, 41-05, 61-25
Cass Lake, MN 01-08, 07-22 (ball team), 08-81, 11-02 (Indian Office), 12-69, 13-92, 20-14, 53-04, 56-10, 56-11, 58-10, 62-08, 62-27, 72-09, 72-23, 79-30, 80-34, 81-14
Catholics 10-44, 13-92, 14-37, 35-37, 46-45, 52-16
cattle 09-25, 09-31, 56-10, 66-23
Cauken [sp?], George 53-06
CCC see "Civilian Conservation Corps"
CC Camps 78-40
cedar / cedar boughs 14-91 (fumigation), 20-09, 29-09 (roofing), 31-03, 31-06 (weaving cedar bark mats), 59-07 (and sweatbath), 61-01 (ling), 63-08 (cedar threads/bark; resoaking bark, cf. 31-03), 63-20 (boughs in wigiwams, 63-24, 63-27 (63-26 ling; 37-07 cleaning mats; ricing paddles), 69-24 (purifying air), 76-21 (curing horse), 76-25 (purifying air)
cedar poles 66-26, see also "cedar / cedar boughs"
ceremonies 08-22, 09-68, 13-125, 14-88, 14-90, 32-01, 34-01, 37-08, 47-32, 82-17, see also "meetings" and "offerings"
changes 06-18, 06-21, 06-22, 06-25 ff, 08-36, 10-46, 12-28, 14-11, 15-20s (prediction), 16-05, 27-54, 31-01, 31-36, 55-10, 73-01, see also "enculturation"
chaps 46-19
charcoal 55-28, see also "black face"
Charet, Joe 49-26
charging (energy) 10-32
checks 41-03
cherry trees 76-27
chickens 09-33
chiefs 08-69 (Jim Wakenabo, 1911-1912; Ed Wilson; Hole-in-the-Day; Buffalo; divisions; "Old Man" Boyd, ca., 1912; chief; advisory chief; J.S. Smith; Wakefield; etc.; councils -- 1920s; BIA), 09-51 ("Old Man" Jackson), 10-65 (Smith; Wakefield; councils and government; Bena, MN), 12-73, 13-59 (heros, leaders, etc.), 43-32 (Pezeke; and government), *44-02 (Pezeke; general characteristics), 64-33 (32-04 ricing chief), 64-44 (Wayne Cronin ?), 65-13 (and mineral rights), 67-21 ("Leech Lake chiefs stationed"), 80-34 (Green Hill at Cass Lake; divisions; John Smith not chief; Wakefield; "advisory chief"), 80-36 (ling), 80-38 (ling; advisory chiefs), see also "leaders / leadership," "advisors," "speakers," "Indian chiefs," "Pezeke," and the name(s) of the other individual chief(s)
childhood (Paul Buffalo's) 66-16
children 01-10 (children coming up; PB happy to see them; talk to them, learn them), 03-03 (song, sweetheart with baby), 05-04 (has to leave something for the younger generation), 06-29 (now older class wants to listen to the younger class = change intermarriage = no Indians; forgetting Indian ways), 07-06 (and separation), 07-07, 08-55 (campfire talk), *09-50 (training), 10-61 (welfare talking kids from woman), 12-13 (Bena childhood), 12-25 (tell your children your words), 12-48 ff (hate to leave the dhildren; ch. see Paul Buffalo working; Paul Buffalo likes to see them playing; they know Paul Buffalo, etc.), 12-73 (natural resources for children, migwitch; playing in the canoes; children were happy), 13-122 (campfire talks), 14-103 (pop from sumac), 20-05 (? training stories) (training, stories), 22-38 (leave the children a betterment; they'll remember you after you're gone), 43-10 (campfire talk), 47-12 (education coming in, not much interested in the old ways; when lecture is over that's all the farther it goes; but their kids will have to think of something later on; will be easier for them if you teach them to practice the easy way; education and practice; good neighbor policy and children), 47-20 (drink medicine during pregnancy; born on snowshoes), 50-05 (whispering), 62-09 (kids ot asking John Smith questions), 65-09, 65-25 (women nursing and drinking), 67-32 (thinking of their energy), 69-02 (truth of life map), 69-29 (young = new crop coming, your crop; kids crying for nothing = bad sign), 74-26 (TR duty to kids; husband and wife and kids), 80-01 (crying for nothing), see also "youth / younger class"
Chippewa 51-11, see also other listings
chisel 63-44, 64-01
choir

03-11

Christianity 10-44 (Christian holidays; Paul Buffalo's baptism; Ball Club priest; changing times), 12-05 (some power; Christian earth), 35-06 (Ball Club church; missionaries; churches taking hold)
Christian Science 12-20 (Christian Science belief), 61-08 (Christian Science belief)
churches 08-71 (log church), 10-19 (Joe Barnes), 15-12 (boarding school church), 15-14 (White church vs. Indian), 15-15 (White church vs. Indian), 35-06 (see above; open place), 37-16 (and government schools; money; and Grand Medicine), 52-16 (superstition and Fr. Anthanase; log cabin), 66-16 (mother's dream and Baptism), 66-32 (log house), 66-33 (costumes), 69-24
cigarettes 67-01, see also "tobacco"
circles 07-30
cities 01-03
citizenship 04-32, 34-06, 65-12
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) 41-21
civil service 20-24
clams 62-18
clans 52-29, see also "dodaim / dodaim group"
"class" 47-11
cleanliness 14-96
Cloquet, MN 35-25, 67-07
cloth 61-17
clothing 03-12 (betting in moccasin game; wore heavy fur coats), 14-96 (best clothes for wild ricing), *31-08 (scouts; cloth), 53-23 (Finns), 61-17 (velvet; in store 1st, in 1918; and Canadian beads), 66-33 (costumes in church), 67-27 (1907/1908 army surplus), 71-30 (and new at menstrual hut), 73-17 (blanket shoes; wool from Canada, 1910-1912, knitted socks)
coffee 09-15, 70-21
colds 71-34, 73-19
comets 45-26, 45-31, see also "meteors"
commandments 12-34
community 12-48, see also "village"
Community Action 47-14
Community Action Program (CAP) 20-10, 20-33, 27-51, 38-01, 47-14, 48-13
community center 09-31
community development 04-11, 05-01 to 05-04, 08-77, see aldo "betterment," and "development"
committees 18-28 (ricing), 18-29, 18-30, 18-31, 58-09
communion 10-05
commuting 08-90, 09-14
competition 09-23
confession 10-06, 13-93, 14-01, 14-56, 55-15
"confirmation" 79-47
congressmen 04-16
Conner, Kenny 08-54
consensus 64-44
Conservation Department 62-14, see also "forestry"
constitution and by-laws 08-80
conversation 08-43 (Ojibwa)
cooking 03-06, 05-11, 29-12, 46-02
coopertion of people 01-01, 02-20, 05-02, 05-24, 09-14, 10-63, 43-05, 48-17, see also "sharing," and "good neighbor policy"
co-ops 78-34
corn 66-08 (soup), 80-23
cornmeal 66-08
costumes 66-33, see also "clothing"
council 04-23 (and forestry; concilmen = Jack Nason, J.S. Smith, Charlie Wakefield, ca., 1912 and 1914) , 08-29 (chi-sah-gah-sway-dii-wIn; Ball Club approval of TR; cf., 80-13) , 08-32 ("got power in his voice" --ling, 08=83), *08-72 (big general council, ling; chiefs; 08-71 - ling; local councils; BIA; BIA and local councils; Wayne Cronin and Ball Club Local Indian Council), 08-82 ("he listens to what action" - ling; and 81-12 and 81-14), 10-65 (old days; Smith/Wakefield/Rogers and government; drinking deligates and Bena Council), 20-25 (Ball Council and Paul Buffalo on it; Duluth), 32-07 (AIM; CAP [Community Action Program] and local councils; "radical"; Ball Club Council), 49-31 (Gilfillan), 64-44 (Wayne Cronin; White people; "OM"; Indian-White marriages), 73-26 ("mouth"; smoke meething - council and meeting-all-together description), 80-38 (advisory chief; ling; council speakr, ling), 81-01 (ling; general council;p local council, ling; Wilson), 81-11 (reorganization; Ball Club Council advisor), 81-13 (council = su-su-sway-gii-wIn = rel. to smoking), 81-14 (listener / watcher; small council; local council; Wilson)
court (Paul Buffalo in) 62-28
courtship 03-04 (singing as a hint), *06-33 (folks discussing; keeps an eye on her), 06-34 (meet by a tree; ceremonically), *07-16 (desirable qualities in mate), *07-17 (folks discussing, desirable qualities in mate), 13-69 (canoe days), 27-15 (sisters teasing; mother's lecture to daughters; fathers to sons), 32-04 (testing a boy to see if he was man enough; sitting by a tree; giving presents; ceremony), 35-19 ("race" mixture; intermarriage), 35-29, 54-11 (studying one another; feast), 62-26 (Paul Buffalo's wife and in-laws; and wife leaving), 64-34 (#32-05; two fathers talking; ceremony --feast; gifts to in-laws)
cows 08-41, 57-27, 72-38
cradle board 27-01, 61-15
cranberries (after first frost; end of July - 1st of August), 11-54 (high bush and low bush here), 62-14 (ling = "swamp berry"), 76-28 (OK for medicine, but you have to make high-bush cranberries into a sauce)
crappies 66-10
crawlers 21-33 (and stories), 21-34, 21-35, 47-16, 51-49, 62-50, 65-09, 69-31
crayfish 62-18
creation 42-01, 68-01, 68-10, 68-16
credit union 09-12
criticism 81-01
Cronin, Wayne 05-37, 08-82, 64-44, 70-17, 80-25
Crookston 78-10, 78-12
crow 14-53, 22-30, 49-16, 74-28
Crow, Betsy 70-10 (general), 70-16
crow, first one in spring 14-53 (1982 = 14 March; 1981 = 09 March)
Crow, Fred 31-14, 49-03 (store; mother; = Paul Buffalo's grandfather), 62-37 (Crows-Buffalo Landing; logging camps), 63-44 ("breed"; related to grandmother on mother's side), 70-10 (general), see also "grandfather"
Crow's Landing 62-37 (see above)
crying 03-01, 03-02, 07-14, 13-75, 69-29, 76-05, 80-01
"crying eye" 40-02, 44-01, 44-15, 76-14
cucumbers 80-22
cultural loss 38-06
curing 48-22, see also "medicine"
curing ceremonies 13-96, 48-22, 61-03, 69-25
curing failures 10-04
cursing, (swearing) 70-07
Custer, George 65-25
Cut Foot Sioux, MN 49-01, 51-24
cycles 25-01 (yearly), 76-38
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