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Anthropology in the News

Canvas

Tuesday, 17 September 2019, 04:09 (04:09 AM) CDT, day 260 of 2019

Prehistoric Cultures

Fall 2012 Calendar -- DAY [archive]

Fall 2012 Calendar -- EVENING [archive]

Dates and Times to Remember

class slides on-line
(free PowerPoint Viewer 2010)

Tuesday, 17 September 2019, 09:09 (09:09 AM) GMT, day 260 of 2019
. . . in History
  . . . in Headlines

      Babel Fish Translation
~ translate this page

Cutting Costs for College Textbooks

general textbook information
OWL logo, Online Writing Lab, Purdue University.

Lefthand Illustration

Daily Class Schedule

To Jim Belote's Sections
For Tim Roufs' sections, see below:

Righthand Illustration

Fall 1999

Section 002: 06:00 p.m. -- 09:30 p.m. Monday, Cina 214
Section 003: 02:00 p.m. -- 03:05 p.m. MWF, Cina 214

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Day Date Class Topics and Assignments
Except for most of the video materials, actual presentation will likely vary from this schedule,
including the date for the midsemester quizes.
Week 01
 REM: PCForum
Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

[an error occurred while processing this directive]

(01) Wed.

08
Sept.

1999


SCHEDULE / ASSIGNMENT CHANGES

The course materials schedule may be changed to meet the particular needs of this group, and to adjust to unforeseen circumstances (earthquakes, snowstorms, floods, deaths, and other "acts of god"). You are responsible for any amendments to the schedule that are announced in class or on E-mail.



PCForum Assignments:

  1. At a minimum of once a week post a meaningful message on the class discussion on-line chat board located at PCForum. At least one topic of your weekly posting(s) should be related to the class topic(s) of the week. (I.e., in Week 02, for example, you should discuss a topic related to what is happening in class d uring Week 02.) At the very end of the semester, i.e., in Week 15, post a course evaluation of the class itself.

WorldWide Web Assignment:

  1. Log on to the course WorldWide WebHomePage and look over the remainder of this Reading and Class Materials Schedule. Its URL (Web Address) is:

    http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1602/pcreadsc.html

    (The easiest way to get to the class HomePage from the UMD HomePage is to add a
    ~troufs and then click on "Prehistoric Cultures.")

Reading Assignment:

  1. All readings are from Humankind Emerging (7th ed), by Bernard G. Campbell and James D. Loy (NY: Harper Collins, 1996). It's an excellent text. The text was adapted in part from materials published by Time-Life Books in two series: The Emergence of Man and The LIFE Nature Library.

  2. Read assignments following the course outline. Do not get behind in your readings. Please read the assigned material by the date listed on the schedule, and be prepared to discuss it (and / or write about it) in class.

  3. Some of the assigned readings we will discuss in class, others we will not. Whether or not we discuss the assignments you should read them carefully and think about the exercises following each reading.

  4. You should usually read the assignments prior to consideration of their related topics in class. If you have read the texts prior to presentation of the materials in class, you will more easily keep track of what is going on.

  5. If you have any difficulty with either the terms or with any of the various topics, stop by my office and I'll go over the materials with you. However, please do not wait until the day before the quiz or exam.

  6. Read "Introduction," pp. xv-xvii

  7. Look over the "Glossary," pp. 549-565

  8. Read "New Discoveries" Article(s) TBA


(02) Fri.

10
Sept.

1999



WorldWide Web Assignment:

  1. Case Study #1: What's New? Current Trends and New Discoveries.

    First of all, have a look at the Texas A & M WebSite Anthropology in the News found at http://www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html. Scroll through the site, noting, in general, the of items that are being reported in the area of Prehistoric Cultures.

    • "Kinds of items" includes things like people in the news, new fossils found, new prehistoric archaeological sites discovered, current controversies discussed, what's new with non-human primates (especially the great apes: chimps, gorillas, orangutans ) reviewed, new methods explained, old things reinterpreted, unusual and / or special events noted, and things like that.

  2. After you have had a look at the entire Texas A & M WebSite, Anthropology in the News, write a paragraph or two about what you found. If one or more of the subjects sounds interesting to you, or the "headline" doesn't make sense to you, click on it and have a look. After you have had a look at the entire Texas A & M WebSite, write a paragraph or two about what you found. This will be the "Introduction" to your first Case Study.

  3. For this Case Study -- and all of the Case Studies -- you may also use traditional library materials, and, where appropriate, interviews and videotapes. So have a look at one or more of the daily papers to see what t hey're reporting.

  4. Next, pick one of those trends or discoveries that you mentioned in your introduction and explore it in greater depth. If you are looking at Anthropology in the News those items lis ted with several entries grouped together are usually the easiest ones to do.

    • Try getting more information by looking at other sites on the web:

      • Try surfing the web by searching with the "Search Engines" button found on all of the course WebPages. Or use the search engines found on the course Search Engines Page.

      • Hint: When you do a search on an item that has more than one word, like "stone tools," click on the "phrase" button of the search engine -- otherwise it will search out everything with "stone" and everything with "tools," and the list of "hits" could get quite large. (I once got 52,000+ hits on one search.)

      • These keywords might be useful to your project:

        anthropology, archaeology, prehistory, human origins, paleoanthropology, primates, nonhuman primates, apes, hominids, lithics, stone tools, and ice age

  5. Use the PCforum to discuss your paper with others in the class.

  6. You may work on any or all Case Studies in a small group (3 - 5 people), but when you do that you need to first check with the instructor.

  7. On day (04) you will be required to find and translate at least one foreign language source AltaVista Translation Service (which is found at the top of each class WebPage). You might want to start that part of the project now, especially if your project deals with something found in another country (for e.g., Neanderthal in Germany, Chauvet Cave in France, "Ötzi" the "Iceman" now in Bolzano Italy).

    If you are not familiar with foreign languages, use the Language Identifier WebPage to help you figure out a WebPage's language. Language Identifier identifies more than a dozen languages: 1. English, 2. French, 3. Spanish, 4. German, 5. Italian, 6. Dutch, 7. Afrikaans, 8. Norwegian, 9. Danish, 10. Swedish, 11. Portuguese, 12. Icelandic, and 13. Latin.

    Or use Xerox's "Language Identifier."

  8. Due on or before Day (10). Unexcused late Case Study papers will result in a loss of 2% of the final course grade.

  9. Suggestion: Don't put off the Web Assignments. The web doesn't always work when you want it to.

  10. See the "Preparing the Final Draft" section of the Sociology - Anthropology -Criminology - Humanities / Classics Writin g Guide to see the details of what your Case Study report should look like when you hand it in. Basically, it should look like this:
Case Study #1:

[Title]

What's New?
Current Trends and New Discoveries
in Prehistoric Cultures

Introduction

Put your paragraph(s) summarizing the Texas A & M site here.

Put a transitional statement about finding a item of interest here that's a good example of some current trend or new discovery.

Body

Describe and discuss your chosen topic(s) here. (If you do a comparison / contrast paper you will need more than one topic, otherwise a single topic is fine.) Use some form of organizational structure. T he "Journalist's Questions," Who,What, When, Where, How and Why are often helpful.

Use the Paradigm Online Writing Assistant if you do not have much experience writing college papers.

Conclusions

Put your conclusions here.

Name

page number

References

Your "References" or "Works Cited" information should go on a separate page.

See "Documenting Electronic Sources in Specific Disciplines" from OWL for information on how to cite items from the web.

Reading Assignment:

  1. Ch. 1 -- "The Search for Human Origins," pp. 2-18

(03) Mon.

13
Sept.

1999


  • Review of Case Study #1 Assignment

  • Introduction to Anthropology: The Nature of Anthropology

    The main characteristics of anthropology include:

  1. culture: as a primary concept

  2. comparative methods: as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure

  3. wholism: or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology

    • The approach used in this class emphasizes the "wholistic" anthropological view which combines observations of "culture" and behavior with considerations of the physical and developmental aspects of humans and their civilizations.

  • Recommendations on studying for this course


  • WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Go back to the Web and start refining your search. If, for example you searched on the keywords from Day 02 "primates, nonhuman primates, apes, and hominids," and found something you found interest ing about apes, this time try more specific items like "gorilla, chimpanze, bonobo, gibbon, and orangutan."

    2. Hint: Keep good records of where you find things. The Encyclopædia Britannica Online suggests the following citation when looking at their entry for "bonobo":

      To cite this page:
      "bonobo" Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
      <http://www.eb.com:180/bol/topic?eu=82793&sctn=1>
      [Accessed September 7 1999].

    3. See "Documenting Electronic Sources in Specific Disciplines" from OWL for information on how to cite items from the web.

    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch. 1 -- "The Search for Human Origins," pp. 19-34

    Week 02
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (04) Wed.

    15
    Sept.

    1999



    PCForum Assignment
    1. Posting(s) for Week 02

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Find at least one foreign language web site and translate it using the AltaVista Translation Service found at the top of each class web page. See also note from Da y 02.

      If you are not familiar with foreign languages, use the Language Identifier WebPage to help you figure out a WebPage's language. Language Identifier identifies more than a dozen languages: 1. English, 2. French, 3. Spanish, 4. German, 5. Italian, 6. Dutch, 7. Afrikaans, 8. Norwegian, 9. Danish, 10. Swedish, 11. Portuguese, 12. Icelandic, and 13. Latin.

      Or use Xerox's "Language Identifier."

    2. Write a rough draft of paper #1.

    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch. 2 -- "Evolutionary Mechanisms I. The Riddle of Heredity," pp. 35-42

      • Read this for basic historical and conceptual ideas.
      • Do not try to memorize this chapter.

    (05) Fri.

    17
    Sept.

    1999

    xxxxx
    • "The Search . . . " continues

    • Videotape: Yanomamö: A Multidisciplinary Study (1970, 45 min., VC 1290)

        Cultures
        Terms / Concepts:
        • ethnographic analogy
        • interdisciplinary research
        • hukura
        • anthropometric measurements
        • slash and burn ("swidden") agriculture
        • population structure (birth rates, death rates. . . .)
        • invention, diffusion, migration
        • trade / trade routes, reciprocity,

        Individuals:
        Publications::
        • Chagnon, Napoleon A. 1967. "Yanomamö -- The Fierce People." Natural HIstory Magazine 76:1:22-31.
        • Chagnon, Napoleon A. 1968. Yanomamö The Fierce People. NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
        • Chagnon, Napoleon A. 1968. "Yanomamö Social Organization and Warfare in War: The Anthropology of Armed Conflict and Aggression by Morton Fried, Marvin Harris, and Robert Murphy (eds.). NY: Natural History Press.
        • Studying the Yanomamö. NY: Hold, Rinehart and Winston.
        • "The Ecology of Swidden Cultivation in the Upper Orinoco Rain Forest, Venezuela." The Geographical Review 64:4:475-495.
        • Kensinger, Kenneth M. 1971. Review. American Anthropologist 73:500-502.

        Notes:
        • N.B. what geneticist Jameas V. Neel says when they're loading the boats.
        • N.B. importance of kinship, child spacing, fertility differences, village fission / fusion, "disease pressures" (measles, maleria, yellow fever), "stress," polygamy. . . .
        • Post-Columbian introductions: "The Yanomamó are not 'uncontacted primitive man' [sic.]."
          • cooking bananas are not indigenous
          • "a battered machete or two" arrived early on through various trade routes.
        • Map of Venezuela
        • Oronoco River


    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. "Pre-Darwinian Theories" and "Darwin and Natural Selection" from Early The ories of Evolution -- Dennis O'Neil

    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch. 2 -- "Evolutionary Mechanisms I. The Riddle of Heredity," pp. 42-51

      • Read this for basic historical and conceptual ideas.
      • Do not try to memorize this chapter.

    (06) Mon.

    20
    Sept.

    1999


    • . . . "The Search" continues: Early Studies of Prehistoric Peoples: Darwin to Mendel . . .


    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. "Evidence of Evolution" from Early Theories of Evolution -- Dennis O'Neil
      (Personal Note: You do not have to believe in evolution, but you should know evolutionists' basic arguments. The same is true of the creationists' arguments. If you are interested in the creationist / evolutionist debate, have a loo k at the Prehistoric Cultures Evolution and Creationism Page.)

    Reading Assignment:

    1. Review Ch. 2 -- "Evolutionary Mechanisms I. The Riddle of Heredity," pp. 35-51


    Mon.
    20 Sept.
    1999
    End of second week -- last day to change grading option or cancel a course and not have it recorded on your transcripts.
    No fall registrations accepted after this date. Last day to add classes.

    Mon.
    20 Sept.
    1999
    Yom Kippur holiday, classes in session.
    Week 03
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (07) Wed.

    22
    Sept.

    1999


    • . . . "The Search" continues: Early Studies of Prehistoric Peoples

    • Conceptual Changes 19th to 20th centuries (ca. 1850 -- Present)

    • Major Characteristics of "Modern Physical Anthropology" (WWII to present)


    PCForum Assignment
    1. Posting(s) for Week 03

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Have a look at The Basic Principles of Genetics: An Introduction to Mendelian Genetics -- Dennis O'Neil

    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 3 -- "Evolutionary Mechanisms: II. Genes and Populations," pp. 52-63

      • If you do not have a lot of science background, Ch. 3 may be difficult.

      • For purposes of this course, read Ch. 3 in order to understand the following concepts.

        You should at least know what the following bioscience things are even if you are not sure exactly how they all work: dominance / recessiveness, chromosomes, sex-linked trait, genes, mitochhondria [you'll need this for "Mitochondrial Eve" on days (40) and (38), DNA [deoxyribonucleic acid], mutation, gene pool, population/population genetics, gene flow, phenotype, genotype, directional natural selection, sexual selection, fitness, bioaltruism, kin selection, extinction, genome, and bioethicist.

        Pay attention to the "running glossary" in the margins of the pages -- that should help.


    (08) Fri.

    24
    Sept.

    1999



    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. "The Nature of Fossils," "Overview of Dating," and Relative Techniques, from The Record of Time -- Dennis O'Neil

    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 3 -- "Evolutionary Mechanisms: II. Genes and Populations," pp. 63-73 (see Ch. 3 note above.)

    (09) Mon.

    27
    Sept.

    1999



    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. "Chronometric Techniques: Part I" and "Chronometric Techniques: Part II" from The R ecord of Time -- Dennis O'Neil

    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 3 -- "Evolutionary Mechanisms: II. Genes and Populations," pp. 73-84 (see Ch. 3 note above.)

    Optional:

    1. Decoding Danebury (50 min., VC 1285)
    2. Other People's Garbage (60 min., VC 747)
    3. The Ancient Mariners (60 min., VC 195)

    Week 04
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (10) Wed.

    29
    Sept.

    1999




    PCForum Assignment
    1. Posting(s) for Week 04

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Due: Case Study #1 (Web Assignment #1)

    2. Case Study #2: Analysis of a Site, Location, or Fossil Find
      (This should be a different topic from the one you did for Case Study #1.)
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch. 4 -- "Humans Among the Primates," pp. 85-101

      As you read Chs. 4 - 18 note the following major areas of change:


    (11) Fri.

    01
    Oct.

    1999


    • Catch up / Review

    • Discussion of the First Quiz

    • Brief introduction to the primates


    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Review WorldWide Web Assignment / Sites from Days (01) - (09)
    Reading Assignment:
    1. Ch., 4 -- "Humans Among the Primates," pp. 101-122

    (12) Mon.

    04
    Oct.

    1999


    • First Quiz


      WorldWide Web Assignment:

      1. Pick out a Site, Location, or Fossil Find from Case Study #2. You may select a Site, Location, or Fossil Find other than those listed at Day 10. You may also select two sites, two locations or two fossil finds and write a comparison / contrast report.
      Reading Assignment:
      1. For next time read Ch., 5 -- "The Behavior of Living Primates," pp. 123-145

    Day Date Class Topics and Assignments
    Week 05
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (13) Wed.

    06
    Oct.

    1999


    • Return First Quiz
      (Note: if you took or will take a makeup quiz / exam, it may take several days for you to get your quiz / exam back.)

    • "Living Primates": An Overview


    PCForum Assignment
    1. Posting(s) for Week 05

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Work on the Site, Location, or Fossil Find that you picked out for Case Study #2. If you haven't picked one out yet, select one today. The list from Day 10 should be helpful. If you want, you may also select two sites, two locations or two fossil finds and write a comparison / contrast report.
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 5 -- "The Behavior of Ch. 5 -- Living Primates," pp. 145-169

    (14) Fri.

    08
    Oct.

    1999



    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Work on the Site, Location, or Fossil Find that you picked out for Case Study #2. Start making a rough draft.
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 6 -- "Apes and Other Ancestors: Prehominid Evolution," pp. 170-181
    2. Have a look at the photographs between pages 174 and 175
    Optional:

    1. Gorilla (60 min., VC 876)

    2. Have a look at the WebSite "Mountain Gorilla Protection Project"

    3. Life on Earth; No. 12 (55 min., VC 228)

    (15) Mon.

    11
    Oct.

    1999



    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 6 -- "Apes and Other Ancestors: Prehominid Evolution," pp. 181-195

    Week 06
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (16) Wed.

    13
    Oct.

    1999


      Cultures:
      Sites:
      Terms / Concepts:
      • chimps make and use tools (nest building, termite collecting, wadding and chewing leaves to use as sponges, "weapons")
      • knuckle walking
      • dominance hierarchy: males are ranked and ranked adult males dominate society
      • aggression ("warfare," "gang attacks," "killing and cannibalism"; concentrated feeding in camp --> "violent aggression" and intragroup conflict)
      • "rain dance"

      Individuals:
      Publications:
      Notes:
      • chimps are animals of great extremens (e.g., noisy - calm. . . .)
      • chimps systematically hunted other chimps, killed and ate them (3 -6 chimps in "gang attacks," "brutal attacks")
      • chimps get human diseases (e.g., polio)
      • chimps have largely a vegetarian diet (eating much fruit), but they also hunt and eat some meat
      • are as distinct from one another as humans -- Jane Goodall gave them names
      • "learned behavior [is] pased on for generations"
      • because much of maternal behavior is learned, Flo is a role model for her daughter Fifi
      • females give birth only every 5 - 6 years (and they start having children about xxx)
      • males take no part in child rearing
      • "the only stable social bond is mother - child"
      • chimps are stronger than humans and if they lose their fear they could be dangerous
      • life expectancy of chimps living in the wild is guessed at 40 - 50 years
      • baboons outnumber chimps at Gombe Stream 4 : 1


    PCForum Assignment
    1. Posting(s) for Week 06

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 7 -- "The Transvaal Hominids," pp. 196-209

    (17) Fri.

    15
    Oct.

    1999


    • Review of rererence materials (handouts)

    • "The Transvaal Hominids": Australopithecus ("Southern Ape")

    Family Subfamily Genus
    Hominids
    (Hominidae)
    Australopithecines Australopithecus . . .
    Paranthropus . . .
    Hominines Homo . . .

    Cf., p. 207 of the text


    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 7 -- "The Transvaal Hominids," pp. 209-219

    (18) Mon.

    18
    Oct.

    1999


    • Film: The Man Hunters(54 min., M 339)
      [Note distance: 4 million years = 3 miles; one step = 500 years.] Moderator: E. G. Marshall

      This film will essentially start at the top of the Times to Remember page, and go downward through the Australopithicines.


    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 8 -- "The Great Savanna," pp. 220-230

    Week 07
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (19) Wed.

    20
    Oct.

    1999



    PCForum Assignment
    1. Posting(s) for Week 07

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Due: Case Study #2 (Web Assignment #2)

    2. Case Study #3: Analysis of a group or stage (period) or tradition

    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 8 -- "The Great Savanna," pp. 231-240

    (20) Fri.

    22
    Oct.

    1999



    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 8 -- "The Great Savanna," pp. 240-251

    (21) Mon.

    25
    Oct.

    1999


    • Videotape: The Making of Mankind: One Small Step (51 min., VC 398) [Note Owen Lovejoy's "provisioning hypothesis."]


      Cultures / People:

      Sites:

      • Hadar (Ethiopia) (1972 - )
      • Lake Turkana (fka Lake Rudolf)
        Homo erectus postmortem: The most complete Homo erectus skeleton ever found, but it was diseased (with vitamin A poisioning, perhaps do to eating to too much raw liver?)
        pelvis change -- quadruped to biped.
      • Laetoli (Tanzania) (oldest hominid footprings in the world -- see below)
      • "The First Family" (close to 100 individuals, at Locality 333)
        -- Are these the same or different from Mary Leakey's finds at Laetoli?

      Terms / Concepts:
      • bipedalism / bipedality
      • hominid (human family)
      • pongid (ape family)
      • "provisioning hypothesis" (Lovejoy)
      • tool making
      • "weapons"
      • meat eating / hunting
      • scavaging
      • frugiverous / herbiverous / carnivorous / omnivorous
      • opposability / prehensility

      Individuals:
      Publications:
      Notes:
      • In the 19th century and early 20th centuries] "people expected to find a large brain on a more primitive [sic.] ape-like body," and almost wanted to find this. But the large brain came later.]
      • Oldest footprints in the world are those found by Mary Leakey, and date to 3.5 -3 .7 mya
        • short 4 - 5 ft. people (2 adults and a child)
        • freestriding walk, keeping in step with one another
        • no stone tools
      • "The change from a quadrupedal animal to a bipedal animal requires major anatomical change."
      • One problem in Prehistoric Cultures is to find a behavioral pattern that is powerful enough to make changes useful and necessary.
      • "We would expect bipedalism to be a forest adaptation, not an adaptatio to the savanah" -- Owen Lovejoy.
      • The earliest fossil that shows any change from the eating habits of the ancestors is Homo erectus. Homo erectus had a radically different diet. About 1.5+ mya, for the first time in human [pre]history there is a major change in diet, f rom frugiverous / herbiverous to meat eating.
      • Teeth provide a clue to the diet of prehistoric animals.
      • bigger brains --> better tools --> bigger brains -->, etc.
      • Richard Leakey: There are three species of hominids. Each occupied a different niche and were not competing with one another: (1) Robust Australopithecus (ca. 5 ft), (2) Australopithecus africanus (ca. 4 ft.), and Homo habilis (ca. 5 ft., with a larger brain).
      • "very primitive" = "very ape-like" in terms of anatomy

      Question(s):


      WorldWide Web Assignment:

      1. WWW Assignment TBA

      Reading Assignment:

      1. Ch., 8 -- "The Great Savanna," pp. 251-263

    Week 08
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (22) Wed.

    27
    Oct.

    1999


      Cultures / People:
      Sites:
      Terms / Concepts:
      • mandible
        -- mandibular ramus
      • innominate bone (side of the pelvis)
        -- animated left hip of Lucy
      • saggital crest
      • supraorbital tori (brow ridges)
      • hominid
      • record casts
      • fossil reconstruction
      • upright posture -- bipedalism (posture and locomotion)
      • provisioning hypothesis
      • knuckle walking
      • geological dating
      • potasium-argon (K / Ar) dating
      • range of variation
      • "primitive" = "ape-like"

      Individuals:
      Publications:
      • Johanson, Donald C.; and Edey, Maitland A. 1981. Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind. NY: Simon and Schuster.
      • Leakey, Richard E.; and Lewin, Roger. 1978. People of the Lake: Mankind and Its Beginnings. NY: Avon.

      Notes:
      • The quality of scientific analysis in the lab can be more important than what happens in the field.
      • Archaeology has changed from an individuals doing small projects by themselves to large multidiciplinary teams of international scientists doing coordinate excavations. The 1975 International Afar Research Expedition, for example, took 15 sci ence specialists to the field.
      • A large collection of fossils allows anthropologists to understand "range of variation." With the Hadar "First Family" collection from Locality (Site) 333, "there is a "gradient" from large to small; that is, there are fossils that 'span the gap' between large and small." The brain, jaws, teeth and dentition are very "primitive" (i.e., ape-like).
      • Unexpected sequence: bipedalism (3.7 mya) -->tool manufacture (2.4 mya) --> brain expansion (1.8 mya)
      • No other animals bones other than hominid were found at Locality (Site) 333. The paleontologists only fossil hominid bones.


    PCForum Assignment
    1. Posting(s) for Week 08

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 9 -- "The Evolution of Hominid Behavior," pp. 264-274

    (23) Fri.

    29
    Oct.

    1999



    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Review WorldWide Web Assignment / Sites from Days (10) - (22)
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 9 -- "The Evolution of Hominid Behavior," pp. 274-287
    2. Review Chs. 5 - 9 for the Second Quiz . . .

    (24) Mon.

    01
    Nov.

    1999


    • Second Quiz


      WorldWide Web Assignment:

      1. tba
      Reading Assignment:
      1. For next time read Ch., 10 -- "Discovering Homo erectus," pp. 289-301

    Mon.
    01 Nov.
    1999
    End of eighth week -- cancellation of courses after this date will not be permitted.
    Day Date

    Class Topics and Assignments

    Week 09
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (25) Wed.

    03
    Nov.

    1999



    PCForum Assignment

    1. Posting(s) for Week 09

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 10 -- "Discovering Homo erectus," pp. 301-311

    (26) Fri.

    05
    Nov.

    1999


    (27) Mon.

    08
    Nov.

    1999



    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 11 -- "Environment and Technology of Homo erectus," pp. 324-336

    Week 10
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (28) Wed.

    10
    Nov.

    1999



    PCForum Assignment

    1. Posting(s) for Week 10

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Finish final draft of Case Study #3: Analysis of a group or stage (period) or tradition to hand in on or before Day (29).

    2. Case Study #4: Ethnographic Analogy -- !Kung San

      Start getting sources for your Case Study paper on modern-day !Kung San by searching "the web". The keywords listed below will help you get started with this pro ject. For this paper you should (1) list and (2) discuss the characteristics of modern-day !Kung San which might be used to help interpret prehistoric cultures represented in and by the archeological and ethnohistorical records. In your discussion be su re to indicate why you think any particular modern-day trait would be a useful model for understanding the past. (3) Finally, discuss the reasons you think the !Kung San peoples might not be a good group to use in ethnographic analogy.

      Reminder: For this Case Study -- and all of the Case Studies -- you may also use traditional library materials, and, where appropriate, interviews and videotapes.

      • Keywords: TBA

    3. Due on or before Day (38). Unexcused late Case Study papers will result in a loss of 2% of the final course grade.
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 11 -- "Environment and Technology of Homo erectus," pp. 336-346

    (29) Fri.

    12
    Nov.

    1999


    • "Hunting, Gathering and the Evolution of Society" continued: Introduction to the films The Desert People and The Hunters . . .

    • Videotape: The Desert People (51 min., VC 1094)

        Cultures:
        • Australian "aborigines"

        Sites:
        • Western Austrailian Desert

        Terms / Concepts:
        • bitty -- dish
        • band societies
        • desert ecology
        • "ground meats" (collected, not hunted)
        • digging stick (dibble, coa)

        Individuals:
        Publications:
        Notes:
        • About 1/3 way through the film the coverage switches from a family belonging to the Mandjindara tribe occupying a territory near the Clutterbuck Hills to a northwestern group of the Ngadadjara tribe. The latter's territory lies around Tekatek a and Jalara, west and southwest of the Rawlinson Ranges, in Western Australia. They represent the last families just coming into touch with the Western world.

        • Watch relationships between pepople. What do the women do? What do the men do? Waht do the children do? What do the teenagers do?

          Stones for making tools are obtained from well-known quarries in the Western Desert, but old tools can often be found in the desert and reused. (caldedony; quartsite = hammerstone)

          Watch use of fire.

          Watch irrelationships with the land. What do they eat (bread, lizard, bandicoute, fruit, "bush tobacco," grub worms, mice)? How do they obtain food? Who gets it?

          Note material culture. What would be left if you came back in a 1000 years and you did an archaeological excavation of their camps?

          Sometimes a family may have to travel 20 miles or more in moving from well to well.

          It can get to below freezing in the night, even though it is very hot during the day.

        • "This important series is the product of a 1965 film expedition sponsored by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies into the 'Western Desert,' a cultural-linguistic region embracing half a million square miles and the ancestral home of the nom adic Aborigines. Purpose of the the expedition was to document on film the disappearing Aboriginal culture and community. The result was some 25,000 feet of black-and-white film which has been edited into ten films totaling some three hours' viewing tim e. These films record the lives of Djagamara and his family, who were met in the desert; of Djun, one of the film unit guides who exhibits sacred boards and leads a tour of the ancestral site; and of Minma and his famiily, who were returned from civiliza tion to the desert to make the fillm."

          "The Aborigines of Australia's Western Desert have almost all migrated to federal campgrounds, into the cities, or to large cattle ranches. When this film was made, only a handful held to their traditoinal way of life, wandering form water source to wate r source, gathering food on the way. Soon the traditions of the Aborigines will probably disappear altgether, and this film will remain as one of the rare documents of their past. Two family groups are followed as they go through their normal activities . Djagamara and his family are camped by an unusually plentiful water supply, whereas Minma and his family must spend their day travelling form one well to another gathering food as they go."

          -- Tindale, N. Review, American Anthropologist, Vol. 70, No. 2, April, 437-438.

        Question(s):


      WorldWide Web Assignment:

      1. Due: Case Study #3 (Web Assignment #3)
      Reading Assignment:

      1. Ch., 12 -- "Hunting, Gathering, and the Evolution of Society," pp. 346-354

    (30) Mon.

    15
    Nov.

    1999


    • Videotape: The Hunters (#152S99), Part I (29 min., M 333, VC 2305)


      Cultures:
      • !Kung San (aka "Bushmen")

      Sites:
      • Kalahari Desert

      Terms / Concepts:
      • hunting
      • bow and (poisoned) arrow
      • digging stick (dibble; coa)
      • pan (shallow water source)
      • spoor (the track or trail of an animal)

      Individuals:
      Publications:
      • Lee, Richard B. 1968. "What Hunters di for a Living, or, How to Make Out on Scarce Resources," in Man the Hunter by Richard B. Lee and Irven De Vore (eds.). Chicago: Aldine.
      • Lee, Richard B. 1969. "!Kung Bushmen Subsistence: An Input-Output Analysis," in Human Ecology: An Anthropological Reader by A. P. Vayda (ed.). NY: Natural History Press.
      • Lee, Richard B. 1972. "The !Kung Bushmen of Botswana," in Hunters and Gathers Today by Marco G. Bicchieri (ed.). NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
      • Marshall, John. 1958. "Man as Hunter." Natural History 67:6:291-309; 67:7:376-395.
      • Thomas, Elizabeth M. 1959. The Harmless People. NY: Knopf, Vintage.
      • Thomas, Elizabeth M. 1963. "Bushmen on the Kalahari." National Geographic 123:6:866-888.

      Notes:
      • Watch (1) the relationship of the peple to each other, (2) what the women do, (3) what the children do, (4) what the men do, (5) the relationship of the people to the earth, (6) their material cultural (huts, tools, etc), (7) their knowledge o f the area, the animals, and technology, and (8) what an archaeologist might discover if they came back in a 1000 years to investigate.
      • Waterholes are considered owned by the headmen of bands, and one must ask permission of the owner to drink. Permission is always granted.
      • "From the ceasless labors of the women comes most of the food."
      • "Hunting is the work of men, their passion, and the passion of the boys." Boys must start young to learn to chase, shoot and track. Boys are not taught to hunt. There is little formal instruction, competition is rare, practice is frequent.
      • Note how the video portrays the individual personalities of the four hunters.
      • Tau, "a natural hunter," also serves as the group's shaman, including going into trance for them. On the day that he consummated his marriage shot and killed 5 wildebeests of a herd of 30, and brought home the meat of 4 of them.
      • When they came upon the kudu that had been eaten by the scavengers they broke the bones and ate the marrow.
      • On the 13th day since their departure they came home, travelling 2 days from the butchering site to get there. There was enough meat for 9 days.
      • Since it was an old man, Gau, whose arrow first hit the giraffe it was his job to distribute the meat to his kinsmen and to those who were not family of the hunters.
      • Note the discussion of the hunt: "Old men remembered, and young men listened, and so the story of the hunt was told."

      Question(s):


      PCForum Assignment

      1. Posting(s) for Week 11

      WorldWide Web Assignment:

      1. WWW Assignment TBA
      Reading Assignment:

      1. Ch., 12 -- "Hunting, Gathering, and the Evolution of Society," pp. 355-365
      Optional:

      1. The Search for Mind (58 min., VC 749)

      2. Novels:
      3. Videos:
        • "Arranged marriages": an excerpt from N!ai, the Story of a !Kung Woman (10 min., VC 182)
        • N!ai, the story of a !Kung woman (59 min. VC 2371)

    Week 11
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (31) Wed.

    17
    Nov.

    1999


    • Videotape: The Hunters, Part II (43 min.)


    PCForum Assignment

    1. Posting(s) for Week 11
    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 13 -- "The Evolution of Language and the Brain," pp. 367-381
    Optional:

    1. The Compulsive Communicators (55 min., VC 229)
    2. Language (58 min., VC 1330)

    (32) FRi.

    19
    Nov.

    1999



    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 13 -- "The Evolution of Language and the Brain," pp. 381-394

    (33) Mon.

    22
    Nov.

    1999




    "Archaic" Homo sapiens =

    1. Swanscombe / Steinheim . . .

    2. Neandertal . . . *



    * But Neandertal may be a special case "archaic".

    Or is it a separate species?

    • Videotape: Out of the Ice (55 min., VC 2013)

    • Video: Search for Neanderthal (23 min., VC 2179)


        Cultures:
        • Neanderthal

        Sites:
        • Neander Valley (Germany)
        • Combe Grenal (France)
        • La Chapelle-aux-Saints (France)

        Terms / Concepts / Features:
        • giant cave bear
        • woolly mammouth
        • used "thrusting tools" (which were not thrown)

        Individuals:
        • Marcellan Boule
        • Erik Trinkaus
        • Louis Binford

        Publications:
        Notes:
        • 100,000 ybp the ice sheet was 1 mi. thick over Scandinavia.
        • Neanderthal "diagnostics": low forehead, high brow ridges, large nasal opening, prognathasm, recessed chin, and "teardrop shaped head."
        • Louis Binford: Neanderthals made inefficient use of fire. They also didn't plan ahead and take advantage of predictable events (like a salmon run). They were exploiting the environment "on an encounter basis" rather than on "a tactical one." They also seemed to have an unusual relationship between men and women. The men and women led mostly separate lives, with men bringing few things back to the cave that didn't need processing of some sort. There was not much concern for family. They d idn't have speech abilities like modern humans.
        • Erik Trinkaus: But there was concern for family. They were burying their dead, for example.

        Question(s):


      WorldWide Web Assignment:

      1. "Adapting to Climate Extremes" from Human Biological Adaptability -- Dennis O'Neil
      Reading Assignment:

      1. Ch., 14 -- "Discovery of Neandertals and their Contemporaries," pp. 395-406
      Optional:

      1. TBA

    Week 12
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (34) Wed.

    24
    Nov.

    1999



    PCForum Assignment
    1. Posting(s) for Week 12

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 14 -- "Discovery of Neandertals and their Contemporaries," pp. 406-416


    Thurs.
    - Fri.

    26
    -27
    Nov.

    1999


    • Thanksgiving holiday, offices closed.
    (35) Mon.

    29
    Nov.

    1999


    • Catch up / Review

    • Discussion of the Third Quiz

    • Topic TBA


    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Review WorldWide Web Assignment / Sites from Days (24) - (34)
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 14 -- "Discovery of Neandertals and their Contemporaries," pp. 416-423
    2. Review Chs. 10-14 for the third quiz . . .

    (36) Wed.

    01
    Dec.

    1999



    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. "Skin Color Adaptation" from Human Biological Adaptability -- Dennis O'Neil
    Reading Assignment:
    1. For next time read Ch., 15 -- "Archaic Homo sapiens: Culture and Environments," pp. 424-437

    2. Have a look at the photographs between pages 430 and 431

    Day Date

    Class Topics and Assignments

    Week 13
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (37) Fri.

    03
    Nov.

    1999



    • Return Third Quiz
      (Note: if you took or will take a makeup quiz / exam, it may take several days for you to get your quiz / exam back.)

    • Steinheim Peoples
      ("Early Homo sapiens" or Homo sapiens steinheimensis or Archaic Homo sapiens)


    PCForum Assignment
    1. Posting(s) for Week 13

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 15 -- "Archaic Homo sapiens: Culture and Environments," pp. 437-453

    (38) Mon.

    06
    Dec.

    1999


    • Videotape: Dead Men Talk (50 min., VC 2175)

      • Includes discussion of Qafzeh, Skhûl, Tabûn, Amud, and Kebara sites
      • This video presents the "Multiregional Hypothesis" concerning the development from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Cf, Day (40) for presentation of opposing argument, "The Out of Africa," or "Mitochondrial Eve" theory.]


      Cultures:
      • Neanderthal
      • Cro-Magnon

      Sites:
      • Cave sites: Qafzeh, Skhûl (is "100 yards from Tabûn") Tabûn (is "100 yards from Skhûl"), Kebara, Amud (near Sea of Galilee; inbreeding), Jebel Irhoud, and La Ferrassie.

      Terms / Concepts / Features:
      • "multiregional hypothesis" ("Total Replacement model")
      • "Out of Africa hypothesis" ("Eve model")
      • Neanderthal "diagnostics": low forehead, high brow ridges, large nasal opening, prognathasm, recessed chin, and "teardrop shaped head."
      • Carbon 14 (radiocarbon dating: measures the amount of carbon 14 remaining in fossils)
      • ESR (electron spin resonance dating: measures the amount of radiation trapped in animal teeth)
      • TL (thermoluminescence dating: measures the radiation trapped in flints used to keep cooking fires together.
      • mitochondria
      • mitochondrial DNA
      • "mitochondrial Eve"
      • mutation: alteration of the genetic structure of the DNA
      • PCR (polymerase chain reaction: enzyme reproduces genetic sequences)

      Individuals:
      • Milford Wolpoof
      • Christopher Stringer
      • Rebecca Cann
      • Philip Lieberman
      • Qafzeh boy

      Publications:
      Notes:
      • 100,000 ybp Qafzeh boy is one of the oldest examples of an anatomically modern human being ever found.
      • Milford Wolpoof: "We are descendents of Neanderthals." Others say no.
      • One problem is deciding the relationship between Qafzeh and Cro-Magnon. For Qafzeh we have modern forms but no evidence of modern behavior. They looked like us, but their behavior evidences an earlier organization. But some aregue that the Qafzeh boy clutching horns suggests ritual burial. But, in general, "they have pre-modern behavior." Between 100,000 and 40,000 important changes may have taken place in the soft tissues (the brain). Standardization of most of the tools suggest that Cr o-Magnons were conceptualizing things in "a whole different way."
      • The extinction of Neanderthals may have been brought about by a process of marginalization by Cro-Magnon.
      • Philip Lieberman: Impacted molars was a fatal disease prehistorically.

      Question(s):
      • When did we become modern?
      • Where did we become modern?


    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Due: Case Study #4 (Web Assignment #4)
    2. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 16 -- "The Final Transformation," pp. 454-472

    (39) Wed.

    08
    Dec.

    1999


    • "The Final Transformation": "Moderns" (Homo sapiens sapiens)

    • Videotape: Mammoths of the Ice Age (NOVA) (59 min. in process)

      Cultures:
      Sites:
      Terms / Concepts / Features:
      Individuals:
      Publications:
      Notes:
      Question(s):


      WorldWide Web Assignment:

      1. WWW Assignment TBA
      Reading Assignment:

      1. Ch., 16 -- "The Final Transformation," pp. 472-485

    Week 14
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (40) Fri.

    10
    Dec.

    1999


    • Videotape: Children of Eve (58 min., VC 961)
      • The first part of this video is a good review for the Final Exam. Dates change rapidly in Prehistoric Cultures; ignore the dates in this video. The latest dates are included in "Times to Remember."

      • Cf, Day (38) for presentation of opposing argument, the "Regional Continuity," or the "Multiregional Hypothesis," concerning the development from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens].


      Cultures:
      Sites:
      Terms / Concepts / Features:
      Individuals:
      Publications:
      Notes:
      Question(s):


      PCForum Assignment
      1. Posting(s) for Week 14

      WorldWide Web Assignment:

      1. WWW Assignment TBA
      2. REM: PCForum, including final posting evaluating the course
      Reading Assignment:

      1. Ch., 17 -- "Technology, Magic, and Art," pp. 486-498

    (41) Mon.

    13
    Dec.

    1999


    • Videotape: Out of the Past: "The Collapse" (60 min., VC 2135)


      Cultures:
      Sites:
      Terms / Concepts / Features:
      Individuals:
      Publications:
      Notes:
      Question(s):


      WorldWide Web Assignment:

      1. WWW Assignment TBA
      Reading Assignment:

      1. Ch., 17 -- "Technology, Magic, and Art," pp. 498-514

    (42) Wed.

    15
    Dec.

    1999


    • Videotape: The Iceman ["Ötzi"] (60 min., VC 1981)


      Cultures:
      • Neolithic (Stone Age)

      Sites:
      • Bolzano, Italy
      • Innsbrook, Austria
      • Similann Glacier (where the Iceman died)
      • River Adige -- all settlements built on lake
      • Hornstaad Hornlee -- on the edge of Lake Constance

      Terms / Concepts / Features:
      • adipocere
      • "Atlantic Period" (in climtic terms)

      Individuals:
      • "Ötzi"

      Publications:
      Notes:
      • Bronze Age (copper and tin); bronze first appeared ca. 4,500 years ago
      • March dust, May covered, July snow melted, 19 Sept. 1991 Iceman found. In August 1992 a second, more extensive, excavation was undertaken which found mor than 400 more items.
      • Janet Levy: "Archaeology is multidisciplinary. It involves botanists, geologists, doctors, museum directors. . . ."
      • Iceman: 5' 2", 25-35 years old, 110 bs, size 6 leather boots; c14 dating = 5,300 ybp; not bronze, but Neolithic (Stone Age)
      • tattoos -- 2,500 years older than any seen before; on knees, ankles, and groups of lines on his back which had to be made by a different person; unusual in that they wre covered with clothing.
      • 3,300 B.C. copper first appears in the Neolithic (Stone Age)
      • ca. 2,200 B.C. the Bronze Age begins
      • Flint was traded widely. The Monte Lessini hills are rich in flint.
      • Castel Juval is a highly defensible site in the area.

      Question(s):


      WorldWide Web Assignment:

      1. Have a look at the WebSite: "The Iceman" ["Ötzi] -- University of Innsbruck Institut fuer Anatomie"

      Reading Assignment:

      1. Ch., 18 -- "The Human Condition," pp. 515-534
      Optional:

      1. The Chaco Phenomenon (60 min., VC 750)
      2. The Incas (60 min., VC 751)

    Week 15
     REM: PCForum
    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

    (43) Fri.

    17
    Dec.

    1999


    • Discussion of Final Exam

    • Course Evaluation Videotape: Excavations at La Venta (29 min., VC 3284)


    PCForum Assignment
    1. Posting(s) for Week 15

    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. Modern Human Variation -- Dennis O'Neil

    2. Review WorldWide Web Assignment / Sites from Days (36) - (42)
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Ch., 18 -- "The Human Condition," pp. 535-548

    2. Review all materials for the semester -- including in-class videos / movies, important E-mails, and lectures -- with a some emphasis on Chs. 15 - 18. The Final Exam will cover materials from the entire semester. See notes in the Daily Class Schedule.


    EXTRA CREDIT PAPERS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED AFTER THIS DATE.

    TURN IN TWO COPIES, AND ALL OF YOUR DRAFTS. NO EXTRA CREDIT WILL BE GIVEN WITHOUT DRAFTS. All extra credit papers must be word-processed or typed.
    See "Extra Credit Options, Handing in Extra Credit Papers" for instructions.

    (44) Mon.

    20
    Dec.

    1999


    • Final Exam for the day class will be on Monday, 20 December 1999, 02:00-03:55 in Cina 214. For the day class there are

    • Final Exam for the night class will be on Monday, 20 December 1999, 06:00-07:55 in Cina 214. For the day class there are

      NOTES:

      1. Final Exam will be cumulative, but with some emphasis on the materials covered since the last quiz. Review all materials for the semester -- including in-class videos / movies, important E-mails, and lectures -- with a some emphasis on Chs. 15 - 18.

      2. There will be eighty questions on the true / false - multiple choice exam, six questions on the essay exam.

      3. Review sample multiple-choice exam questions, pp. 4-6 (Nos. 24-47), or sample essay exam questions.

      4. Reviews on the WorldWide Web

      5. Please bring your ID number and No. 2 pencil to exam.

      6. Please see me if you need to make other arrangements for your final exam.

      7. Check your score and your final course grade on the web at
        "Quiz and Exam Scores and Extra Credit Points"


    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Reading Assignment TBA

    (45) Thurs.

    23
    Dec.

    1999


    • Pick up extra credit papers and results of final exam (215 Cina)


    WorldWide Web Assignment:

    1. WWW Assignment TBA
    Reading Assignment:

    1. Reading Assignment TBA

    Week: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    [an error occurred while processing this directive]

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    (John E. Pfeiffer, The Emergence of Humankind, 4th ed. NY: Harper and Row, 1985, p. 358.)

    Have a good break.

    -- Tim Roufs

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