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Ancient Middle America

Fall 2014 Calendar

Wikipedia
 map: topographic
  map: Mesoamerica and Its Cultural Areas
  Mesoamerica
 Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica


OWL logo, Online Writing Lab, Purdue University.
class slides on-line
(free PowerPoint Viewer 2010)


 

Sunday, 21-Dec-2014 16:37:57 GMT

 

Aztec Map

Map of the Aztec Empire

 

Cortes' Route into Mexico

Cortes' Route into Mexico

(larger map)

 

Cortez Attacking Tenochtitlan

Cortés attacking Tenochtitlán

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Secrets of the Dead:
"Aztec Massacre"

60 min., 2008, DVD 1580

video homepage

Aztec Massacre video.

 

The remains at the the scene of a massacre at Zultepec suggest that major fighting occurred between Aztec and Spanish forces.

The remains at the the scene of a massacre at Zultepec suggest that major fighting occurred between Aztec and Spanish forces.

Forensic archaeological investigations at this ancient site have uncovered four hundred skeletal remains buried in a mass grave. How did they discover some of the human remains belonged to Spanish Conquistadors?

Aztec HomePage

Conquistadores HomePage

Abstract Terms / Concepts Notes
Cultures Sites Individuals Bibliography / Resources

Wikipedia:
Conquistador

Mesoamerica > Aztec

search Conquistador on JSTOR
search Aztec on JSTOR

 

Aztec Sunstone Calendar

Aztec Sunstone Calendar

Aztec "Calendar"

 

Aztec eagle in cactus.

Aztec legendary eagle

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In the news...

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Aztec eagle in cactus.

"According to new research, some Aztec warriors (above)
fiercely attacked Spanish conquistadors
"

 

A re-enactment of an Aztec human sacrificefrom the eighth season of Secrets of the Dead.

"A re-enactment of an Aztec human sacrifice
from the eighth season of Secrets of the Dead.”

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Terms / Concepts

  • forensic anthropologists

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Notes

  • ritual war

    • the skilled Aztec warrior was judged by his ability to take captives unmarked and in perfect condition

    • 1487 -- thousands of prisoners were sacrificed at the inauguration of a new church on Lake Texcoco

      • continued for four days

    • by 1502 "the bloody empire extended from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean"

    • the maintenance of their empire required no garrisons or occupation forces

    • The Spanish made war in a new way

      • they did not take prisoners
      • they were not interested in prisoners for sacrifice, just elimination
      • They joined forces with the enemies of the Aztec
        • esp. the Tlaxcalans

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  • tzompantli (Aztec skull rack)

      • skulls in Mesoamerica generally represent death and the promise of resurrection

      Aztec tzompantli, or skull rack.

      Tzompantli, or skull rack



  • in 1519 the Indian population = 20,000,000

    • by 1608 it had declined to about 1,000,000

  • disease brought in by the Spanish eventually killed many more than war

  • The Aztec calendar predicted the return of a fair-skinned God at year "One Reed" (1519)

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  • The Aztec had more than 1000 gods

    • they represented birth, death and rebirth
    • many were decorated with skulls and snakes
    • earthquakes and volcanoes reminded the Aztecs that the gods controlled this world
    • every night the earth goddess devoured the sun
    • only human blood offering would bring it back
  • Aztec goddess.
    Aztec goddess

  • religious syncretism

    • Dia de los Muertos
      • the skull is not a mecabre representation, but a fact of life, representing death and the promise of resurrection

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Cultures

    • capital = Tula, Hidalgo

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Sites / Locations

  • Teotihuacán (Teotihuacanos)

    • was abandoned more than 500 years before the arrival of the Aztecs

    • Aztec mythology was built around this mysterious city

  • Tula, Hidalgo (Toltecs)

  • Lake Texcoco

  • Tenochtitlán (Aztec)

    • "The Venice of the Americas"

    • in the early 1500s = 300,000 people

      • four times the size of London of Henry VIII

    • "One of the most spectacular cities on earth."


  • Zultepec

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Individuals

  • Mochtezuma II
  • Quetzalcoatl
  • Hernán Cortez

Cortez Attacking Tenochtitlan
Cortés attacking Tenochtitlán

 

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