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Culture and Personality
(Psychological Anthropology)


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Basic Conceptions of
Culture-Personality Relations

After Philip K. Bock. Rethinking Psychological Anthropology, Second Ed.
(Long Grove, IL: Waveland, 1999), p. 114.

Position
Formula
 
Approaches and leading figures
 
         
Psychological reductionism

P — > C

 

Orthodox psychoanalysis
(Freud, Róheim)

social motivation
(McClelland)

 
         
Personality is culture

P = C

 

Configurationalism
(Benedict, Mead, Gorer)

 
         
Anti-culture and personality

C — > P

 

Cultural determinism
(White)

materialism
(Marx)

symbolic interactionism
(Goffman)

 
         
Personality mediation

C— > P — > C2

 

Basic personality
(Kardiner)

modal personality
(DuBois)

cross-cultural correlations
(Whiting and Child)

 
         

Interaction

("two systems")

P < — > C

 

Psychocultural adaptation
(Spiro, Edgerton)

congruence
(Inkeles)

neo-Freudianism
(Erickson, Fromm)

 

 

After Philip K. Bock. Rethinking Psychological Anthropology, Second Ed.
(Long Grove, IL: Waveland, 1999), p. 114.
which, in turn, is after Robert A. LeVine. Culture, Behavior, and Personality, Second Ed. (Chicago: Aldine, 1982)

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