["The Paleo Diet, popularized by Loren Cordain in a 2002 book of the same title, purports to help people lose weight by encouraging them to imitate the diet of Paleolithic humans. How well does this diet actually resemble what our prehistoric ancestors ate? An international team of researchers, led by the University of Adelaide's Center for Ancient DNA, has recently uncovered new insights into that question through a surprising source: Neanderthal dental plaque. The team examined the plaque of five Neanderthals skulls, ranging in age from 42,000 to 50,000 years old, found at two different cave sites: Spy in Belgium and El Sidron in Spain. Microbiologist Laura Weyrich, the study's lead author, explained, 'Dental plaque traps microorganisms that lived in the mouth and pathogens found in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, as well as bits of food stuck in the teeth - preserving the DNA for thousands of years.' By sequencing and examining this DNA, the research team inferred that Neanderthal diets likely varied widely by region. While Spy Cave Neanderthals ate meat (likely from wild rhinos and sheep), those in El Sidron had a vegetarian diet consisting of pine nuts, mushrooms, and tree bark. In short, as Dr. Weyrich puts it, 'The true paleo diet is eating whatever's out there in the environment.'" -- MMB, The Scout Report, Volume 23, Number 10, 10 March 2017.]
Bescherer Metheny, Karen, and Mary C. Beaudry (Eds.) Archaeology of Food: An Encyclopedia. Lanham, MD:Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.
Brears, Peter, Maggie Black, Gill. Corbishley, Jane Renfrew, and Jennifer Stead (eds). A Taste of History: 10,000 Years of Food in Britain. English Heritage in Association with British Museum Press, London, 1993.
Brothwell, Don R., and Patricia Brothwell. Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early People. London: Thames & Hudson, 1969. (The Johns Hopkins University Press; Expanded edition, 1997.)
Cohen, Mark Nathan. The Food Crisis in Prehistory: Overpopulation and the Origins of Agriculture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
Wynn, Jonathan G., Matt Sponheimer, William H. Kimbel, Zeresenay Alemseged, Kaye Reed, Zelalem K. Bedaso, and Jessica N. Wilson. "Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 26 (2013): 10495-10500.
Zuk, Marlene. Paleofantasy: What Evolution Really Tells Us About Sex, Diet, and How We Live. W.W. Norton, 2013.