Home Resources 96 Ways of Learning
96 Ways of Learning (or Teaching) Anything Using Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences

“The process is often as important as the content.” – anon.

These suggestions will fit in more than one category and they are by no means comprehensive. The lists are arranged alphabetically.

Verbal/Linguistic

1. Analyzing Life Experience – Learning from the analysis of a significant life experience with others.

2. Formal Debate – Learning by putting forward arguments from both sides of an issue, concern or question.

3. Group Discussion – Learning by verbal interaction with other learners.

4. Humor – Learning from looking at situations from new or surprising points of view.

5. Impromptu Presentation – Learning by giving or listening to impromptu presentations on a variety of topics.

6. Lecture – Learning by listening to experts. Most common method of learning in education and one of the least effective as measured by enduring effect.

7. Metaphor – Learning from pictures or stories that symbolically depict new ideas and concepts. The most frequently used method of teaching in many cultures is through stories or parables (including Jesus in the New Testament).

8. Poetry – Learning by reading or creating a variety of poem and prose forms.

9. Question/Answer – Learning from question-answer sessions with instructors or other learners.

10. Reading – Learning by reading books, pamphlets, magazines and other printed material.

11. Storytelling – Learning by listening to, telling or talking about stories or narratives.

12. Writing – Learning by writing down experiences of self and others including creative writing, journalism, documenting historical facts, etc.

Logical/Mathematical

13. Abstract Symbols and Formulas – Learning through deciphering and extrapolation of symbolic representations of phenomena. Includes codes, calculations, number sequences, etc.

14. Behavior Modification – Learning by using a planned stimulus-response effort of reward and consequences. This method works better in training animals than educating human beings, but is often found in many classrooms.

15. Case Study and Problem Based Learning – Learning by solving problems or discussing life dilemmas based on real situations.

16. Classroom Seatwork – Learning from supervised study like doing the “questions at the end of the chapter.” Second most common method used in education. This method is often used for expediency rather than efficacy of the method.

17. Deductive Method – Learning from planned presentations that reduce information to concrete conclusions and logical categories useful in high-level thinking. The deductive method uses an if-then approach to problem solving and learning.

18. Demonstration – Learning by observing and analyzing an expert performance.

19. Inductive Teaching/Learning Method-A method of learning that expands new information into categories and concepts and promotes intellectual reasoning and theory building.

20. Laboratory Method – learning from experimentation using social or science research models as well as action research and experience,

21. Logic – Learning through logical analysis of arguments, relationship and associations.

22. Operant Conditioning – Learning from scientific teaching methods which connect new learning with immediate reward and consequences.

23. Project Method – Learning from designing and executing individual or group projects as both development and demonstration of learning.

24. Research – Learning from individual inquiry through social interviews, library research, or laboratory pursuits as in the experimental method of science.

Visual/Spatial

25. Audio-Visual – Learning from listening to radio, audio tape, or through instructional film or slide tape.

26. Color – Learning through the use of color.

27. Exhibitions – Learning by observing exemplary products or performance (like a museum, bulletin board, or display).

28. Graphic Organizers – Learning through organizing information visually, including mind maps, graphs, tables, flow charts, etc.

29. Models of Excellence – Learning from observing and emulating exemplary performance. What you do speaks so loudly I can't hear what you say. Learners can subtly model incompetence and mediocrity as well as excellence. “Example is not the best way to influence people, it is the only way.” – Albert Schweitzer

30. Patterns / Designs – Learning from creating or recognizing patterns or designs within a product or situation.

31. Pictures – Learning through visual representation including, photographs, video, drawing, painting, etc.

32. Purposeful Redundancy – Learning from planned and repeated activity using multiple modes or sensory activities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic).

33. Sculpture – Learning through the skills of creating or appreciating three dimensional models and objects representing a variety of knowledge, concepts and attitudes.

34. Super-Learning – Learning by using a series of new-brain research techniques that rely on subliminal sounds, sights, and pacing.

35. Television – Learning from watching television. Like instructors or books, some television programs are more educating than others.

36. Visualization – Learning from an individual mental process of visualizing new levels of performance or new ways of being ... may be similar to mental rehearsal or neuro linguistic programming.

Body/Kinesthetic

37. Active Practice – Learning from experiential activity in a safe, controlled situation such as a lab environment.

38. Brain Based Learning – Learning by planned efforts based on new brain research by identifying the unique processing style of each learner (includes Neuro-Linguistic Programming).

39. Dance – Learning through the interpretive movement of dance in a variety of styles.

40. Games – Learning in which players contend with each other according to a set of rules. May include popular games such as: Jeopardy and various card and board games that have been adapted for specific learning environment.

41. Learning by Doing, Apprenticeship – Learning by physical practice of actual tasks with an expert. Includes: mechanics, surgery, martial arts, architecture, etc.

42. Mastery Method – Learning through formal, planned process of accommodating learner uniqueness and adjusting time and method appropriately.

43. Paradigm and Mind-Set-Shifts – Learning through organizing ideas or activities in a new context or a new model of reality or a shift in the perception of the learner.

44. Performance – Learning from performance of a final product.

45. Practice – Learning from performance. Practice makes better: providing the learner doesn't repeatedly practice incompetence and mediocrity.

46. Simulations – Learning from simulations including socio-drama and role-play.

47. Sports – Learning by engaging in competitive individual or group activities that emphasize body movement such as gymnastics, basketball, hockey, etc.

48. Trance States and Hypnosis – Learning from self-hypnosis or externally induced trance states.

Musical/Rhythmic

49. Drill and Repetition – Learning from repeated musical or rhythmic performance.

50. Music Composition – Learning by creating music.

51. Musical Appreciation – Learning by valuing the nuances of music.

52. Rhythmic Patterns – Learning by hearing and identifying a variety of rhythmic patterns under various circumstances, such as: mechanical patterns of sound and vibration, body rhythmic vital signs, etc.

53. Setting Words to Music – Learning by associating concepts with music or rhythms as a memory aid, including songs, dub poetry, rap, etc.

54. Sounds of Group Dynamics – Learning to identify sounds that characterize of stages of interactions, including: leadership, followership, teamwork, etc.

55. Singing – Learning about cultural norms through singing.

56. Playing Music – Learning about various cultures through their music such as ethnomusicology and other disciplines.

57. Background sounds – Learning through using sounds to create a specific environment.

58. Movement or Variation – Learning through the regular recurrence or alternation of different quantities or conditions such as the rhythm of the tides.

59. Speech – Learning through the patterned, recurring alternations of contrasting elements of sound or speech.

60. Communication Patterns – Learning through specific kinds of metrical patterns or flow of communication such as: iambic rhythm (written or spoken).

Interpersonal

61. Socratic – Learning from give-and-take interaction with a instructor or scholar.

62. Coaching – Learning from an expert through feedback on performance and assistance to “correct-in-flight”.

63. Mentoring – Learning from admired and competent models through observation and analysis. Mentoring is more effective if the learner respects the mentor.

64. Testing as Teaching – Learning from assessment and performance feedback. Not all testing results in new learning.

65. Teaching Others – Learning by teaching others or tutoring. One of the most effective and enduring methods. Research promises 90% retention of learning which the learner is required to teach to others.

66. Cooperative Groups – Learning by participating in groups who assist each other and compete with other groups rather than individually. Cooperative groups use the concept of an athletic team as applied to new learning.

67. Classroom Meeting Method – Learning by including a group of learners in making decisions about the (What?) and (How?) of learning.

68. Peer Tutoring – Learning from planned efforts of tutoring and being tutored by peers. Similar to the cooperative group method and one of the most effective ways of learning if participants have prerequisite tutoring skills.

69. Interviewing Experts – Learning by questioning experts about how they became expert.

70. One-To-One Tutorial – Learning through individualized instruction is highly desirable but is often not practical or efficient as a method in education.

71. Giving and Receiving Feedback – Learning by the empathic and respectful exchange of information about a specific situation.

72. Group Dynamics – Learning from the interaction of a group process like brainstorming, creative problem solving, and synergy.

Intrapersonal

73. Advanced Organizer Model – Learning from planned instruction which recognizes the need for prior learning being linked and integrated with new learning. Most students understand clearly what's expected of them only after they've failed to meet the expectations.

74. Challenge Activity – Learning from a first-time or demanding life activity. One of the most enduring of all learning activities for reorganizing a learner's perception of self and extending capacity for new action.

75. Distributed Learning – Learning from specially constructed print, audiovisual, computer, Internet, etc. materials for self-instruction.

76. Dream Learning – Learning during sleep or through the analysis of dream activities.

77. Failure – Learning from analyzing your own life experience and correcting past mistakes. Learning from failure is easier in environments that value risk taking and failure at demanding tasks.

78. Guided Imagery / Mental Rehearsal – Learning from planned activities that stimulate creativity and invention through free association and cluster thinking. This may also use mental practice as a rehearsal for life performance, applying a new skill or knowledge.

79. Independent Study – Learning from an individual effort at mastery. Preferred by learners who consider themselves unique and distinctive or prefer working alone.

80. Inquiry – Learning by initiating one’s own questions.

81. Intuitive Insights and Psychic Experience – Learning from any combination of extra sensory perception or sudden intuitive insight. Occurs most often with right brain learners.

82. Reflection – Learning from quiet thought and reflection and contemplation, which includes analysis of past experience or fantasy about the future. May also include meditation or spiritual practices.

83. Self-Directed Learning – Learning by designing and directing one's own learning. 80% or 4/5 of all we learn is a result of self-initiated efforts rather than formal schooling.

84. Self-Education – Learning from independently planned efforts using informal sources. Self-instruction is more engaging and enduring than other-directed learning.

Naturalistic

85. Discovery Learning – Learning from informal experience and exploratory activities through trial and error in a variety of natural environments. The 'ah-hah' reaction so essential in new learning often results from groping and exploring as an integral act of learning.

86. Field Trips – Learning by visiting the natural environment to learn in that context.

87. Geomancy – Learning through analyzing the interactions of natural elements in a specific environment.

88. Intuition – Learning from following non-systematic organization of information and feelings about natural situations.

89. Nature Appreciation – Learning through awareness of natural surroundings.

90. Observation – Learning by observing and describing patterns in the natural environment.

91. Predicting – Learning by examining and then predicting futures trends or events from the natural world.

92. Process Application – Learning by choosing and applying natural processes to various situations.

93. Relationship Analysis – Learning by connecting the relationship between and among elements of the environment.

94. Serendipity – Learning from life experiences through analyzing “the happy accidents of life”, including identifying the interconnections of various natural phenomena.

95. Sorting and Classifying – Learning by exploring natural taxonomies.

96. Travel – Learning from observing and experiencing natural environments.

This is not the end. Invent and add your own favorite methods of learning.

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Last modified on 06/24/13 02:53 PM
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