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E4 - Using Pine

Pine is an electronic mail program available on most central system (UNIX) computers at UMD. Pine is particularly easy for new electronic mail users due to its careful selection of features, one-character mnemonic commands, always-present command menu s, immediate user feedback, and high tolerance for user mistakes. For the most part, Pine can be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals. Much of the content of this document was taken directly from Pine's on-line help screens which are availab le by just entering the help command listed at the bottom of all Pine screens.

Pine Features
Mail index showing a message summary which includes the status, sender, size, date and subject of messages.
€View and process mail with the following commands: forward, reply, save, export, print, delete, capture address and search.
€Address book for saving long complex addresses and personal distribution lists under a nickname.
€Multiple folders and folder management screen for filing messages.
€Message composer with easy-to-use editor and spelling checker. The message composer also assists entering and formatting addresses and provides direct access to the address book.
€Online help specific to each screen and context.
€Support for multipart mail conforming to emerging MIME (RFC-1341) Internet standard. This allows attachments to mail messages such as graphics (GIF, TIFF...), sounds, and other files such as spread sheets and binary files.

Pico, Pine's easy-to-use editor
For editing electronic mail messages Pine incorporates an easy to use text editor called Pico. Pico has many useful features, including text justification, spell checking, and inserting text files. A stand-alone version of Pico is also availabl e and can be used for editing text at any % prompt. elm users can also use the Pico editor by changing the editor in their elm options screen to pico -t (most new accounts already have elm set to use the pico edit or by default).

Pine vs. elm
Although UMD Information Services supports both elm and Pine for electronic mail, we are encouraging people to use Pine. Advantages of Pine include an editor (Pico) that is easier to use than vi but that still has needed features than elm's def ault elmed editor lacks; the ability to better deal with mail folders that elm may have problems with; better ability to work with and view your personal addressbook (elm aliases); file management features including being able to rename, cop y, and delete files on your account; and the ability to print to laser and dot-matrix printers directly attached to IBM-compatibles (non-networked printers). One disadvantage of Pine is that people who use Macintosh and Windows communications programs can not scroll back in their windows to select message text that has scrolled off the screen for copying or printing. Since Pine, like elm, makes use of your regular mail spool file (your inbox) you can easily switch back and forth between using elm an d Pine.
.c.The Pine Main Menu

To start Pine, you must log in to your computer account, and then choose EMAIL from the main umenu screen or type pine at any % prompt.

The Pine Main Menu screen will look like this:

The pine Main Menu screen.

? Help: Displays information about these options. Help is available from all mail screens. Help will provide information for the particular screen you are on when you choose Help.

C Compose: Compose a message and send it. You will be prompted for the address, etc., and you may use your address book to select the recipient. You can send mail to an individual address or to a group of addresses.

I Folder Index: Display a one-line summary of each message in the current folder, including the sender and the subject of the message. This is the command to use to begin reading your mail. From the Folder Index you will be able to view and act on individual messages as well as compose and send new messages. If you run Pine from within umenu you will immediately see the Folder Index screen (next page) instead of the Main Menu screen. Note: if you do not use umenu you can have Pine go immediately to the Folder Index by using the command pine -i at the % prompt.

L Folder List: Go to, add, delete, and rename mail folders. All messages are kept in folders. All incoming messages appear in a special folder called inbox. Pine knows how to find the INBOX file for your account even though thi s file is not actually stored in your personal file area.

A Address: Maintain your address book. You can add, delete, and change entries in your address book. This is your personal address book where you can include convenient nicknames that refer to more complex electronic addresses or groups of a ddresses.

S Setup: Allows you to change a number of options include your account password and your current printer settings (see Printing your mail for more information on printing).

Q Quit: Quit Pine. When you do this, all messages marked for deletion in the current mailbox will be deleted.

.c.The Folder Index screen

The Pine Folder Index screen.

The folder index displays the summary information of each message in the current folder. This is useful if you want to quickly scan new messages, or find a particular message without having to go through the text of each message. If the list is too long t o fit on one screen, you can page up and down in the list with the - (minus) and commands. The current message is always highlighted, and its message number is shown in the status line. Each message line contains the following columns:

Status The first column shows the status of the message. It may be blank, or it may contain a D if the message is marked for deletion, or it may contain an N if the message is new (unread) and the text has never been looked at.

Number Messages in a folder are numbered, from one through the number of messages in the folder, to help you know where you are in the folder.

Date Sent The date the message was sent. Note that by default, messages are ordered by the time they arrived, not by date sent. (The Sort command can be used to change the order that messages are presented.)

Sender The name of the person that sent the mail. This may show the address of the sender rather than the full name. If you are the sender of the message, such as when you Cc: yourself on a message, rather than showing your name it will show the na me of the recipient of the message.

Size The number in parentheses is the number of characters in the message.

Subject As much of the message's Subject line as will fit on the screen.

Pine
sorts your mail with the most recently received mail at the bottom of the index list. When you switch to the mail index Pine will select (highlight) the oldest of your new messages.

If you want to be brought directly to the Mail Index screen when you start Pine, use the command pine -i at any % prompt.
.c.Mail Index commands

? Get Help: Display help text for commands available from the Index.

O Other: Change the menu of commands at the bottom of the screen to the list of other commands, such as Export message, Take Address, and Print. Give this command again to get back to the original list of commands. All Mail Index commands ca n be used while in the Mail Index, regardless of which subset of commands are currently being displayed on the menu.

M Main Menu: Go back to the Main Menu.

V View Message: Display the text of the current message. Once displayed, you can display other messages, go directly back to the index, or go to the Main Menu. You may also press as a shortcut to view a message.

P Prev Msg: Move the cursor up to the previous message. If the cursor is at the top of the page, the previous page of the mail index will be displayed. You can also move to the previous message with the key.

N Next Msg: Move the cursor down to the next message. If the cursor is at the bottom of the page, the next page of the mail index will be displayed. You can also move to the previous message with the key.

- Prev Page: Show the previous page of the message index.

SPC Next Page: Show the next page of the message index by pressing the .

D Delete: Mark the current message for deletion. A D will appear on the Index line, but the message will not be deleted until you give the eXpunge command, or exit Pine and confirm that you want to delete all marked messages, or chang e folders and confirm that you want to delete them. Until then, any marked message may be undeleted using the Undelete command. When you delete a message you will automatically be moved to the next message.

U Undelete: Remove the D mark for deletion. The message will then not be deleted when you exit Pine or expunge the folder.

R Reply: Reply to the current message. This command will put you in the message composer with the To:, Cc:, and Subject: lines filled in. If the original message was sent to more than one person you will be asked if you want to reply to all recipie nts. If you say no, your reply will go to only the originator of the message. If you say yes, it will go to everyone listed in the To: field, as well as the Cc: field. You will also be asked if you want to include the original message. If you say no, the message text will be blank. If you say yes, the original message will be put in the message body when you go into the composer. You can then edit or delete parts of it and combine it with your reply.

F Forward: Forward the current message to someone else. This command will put you in the message composer where you can address the message. You may also edit the text of the message.

.c.Other Commands for Mail Index
These commands can be given any time even if the other menu is not displayed.

Q Quit:
Quit from the Pine program.

C Compose:
Compose and send a message.

L List Folders: Go to the Folder List screen.

G Go to Folder :
Close the current folder and open another one. You can type the name of the folder to open, or you can press T to see a list of your folders and then select one. Pine looks for these folders in the Mail subdirectory of y our account.

W Where is: Search the message headers as they are displayed for a string of letters, and move to that message if it is found. This is useful in large folders to get to a particular message quickly.

Y PrYnt:
Print the current message on paper. You can select the printer or the print command via the Setup command on the Main menu.

T Take Addr: Take the return address from the current message and put it in your address book. This command saves you from retyping complicated addresses. You will be asked for a nickname (also called an alias) for the person/address being s aved. You will have a chance to edit the full name and address. Use the arrow and delete keys to edit the address, pressing when done, or just press to accept the name or address as is. You can also edit the entry later after it is in th e address book. Note that the return address that was taken from the message may not always be correct because of faulty configuration of the originating system, or incompatibilities between mail systems. Also, the sender's full name will appear with thei r last name first, so that the address book sorts alphabetically by last name.

S Save: Save the current message in a folder different from your inbox. You will be prompted for the folder name. The default name Pine displays for you is the user name of the person who sent the message to you. Just press return to save it in that folder (or create a folder with that name if it doesn't already exist). You may also type the name of a folder of your choice or you may press ^T (-T) to display a list of your folders.

If you type in the name of a folder that does not already exist, you will be asked if you want to create it. By default, Pine will save this folder in the Mail subdirectory of your account (indicated by ~/ in front of the file name). This is the di rectory Pine displays when you have it display a list of your mail folders. Also see the Export command below.

E Export: Copy the current message to a file in your home directory. You'll be prompted for the file name. If the file already exists you can add the message to the end of the file. You may use any UNIX file system path name.

X eXpunge:
Remove all messages marked for deletion in the currently open folder. This lets you "shorten up" your index list without having to quit Pine and run it again. Once the messages are expunged they cannot be recovered.

$ Sort Index: This command controls the order in which messages will be presented. The choices are: Subject, Arrival time, From, Date, Message size, or Reverse arrival time (newest first). The default is by arrival time (oldest first). Date means t he date/time a message was sent, as opposed to arrival time. Sorting by Subject is handy for grouping threads (messages related to the same conversation) together.

J Jump: Jump to a specific message number. You will be asked for the number of the message to jump to. The cursor will move to that message number, going to a different page of the index if necessary. This is a fast way to move around in a large fo lder.

Tab Next New: Selects the next new message (skipping any messages that you may have already read).


.c.Viewing your mail

The Pine Message Text screen

The upper right corner of the message text screen displays status information about the folder that is currently open and about the current message. It shows the name of the folder, the number of messages in it, the number of the current message and the p ercentage of the current message that has been displayed on the screen. If the message is marked for deletion DEL will appear in the upper right as well.

.c.Commands for viewing your mail

? Get Help: Display help text for commands available from View.

O Other: Change the menu of commands at the bottom of the screen to the list of other commands, such as Export message, Take Address, and Print. Give this command again to get back to the original list of commands. All commands can be used w hile in the message text screen, regardless of which subset of commands are currently being displayed on the menu.

M Main Menu : Go back to the Main Menu.

V View Attachments: Allows you to view or save any attached files. Only attached text files can be viewed on the screen with the current version of Pine.

I Mail Index: View the index of all the messages in the folder that is currently open. This will show the date, sender and subject of each message. You may go to the index to select another message and them return directly to view mail to see text of the selected message.

P Prev Msg: Move to the previous message.

N Next Msg: Move to the next message.

- Prev Page: Show the previous page of the message text.

SPC Next Page: Show the next page of the message text by pressing the .

D Delete: Mark the current message for deletion. A D will appear on the Index line, but the message will not be deleted until you give the eXpunge command, or exit Pine and confirm that you want to delete all marked messages, or chang e folders and confirm that you want to delete them. Until then, any marked message may be undeleted using the Undelete command. When you delete a message you will automatically be moved to the next message.

U Undelete: Remove the D mark for deletion. The message will then not be deleted when you exit Pine or expunge the folder.

R Reply: Reply to the current message. This command will put you in the message composer with the To:, Cc:, and Subject: lines filled in. If the original message was sent to more than one person you will be asked if you want to reply to all recipie nts. If you say no, your reply will go to only the originator of the message. If you say yes, it will go to everyone listed in the To: field, as well as the Cc: field. You will also be asked if you want to include the original message. If you say no, the message text will be blank. If you say yes, the original message will be put in the message body when you go into the composer. You can then edit or delete parts of it and combine it with your reply.

F Forward: Forward the current message to someone else. This command will put you in the message composer where you can address the message. You may also edit the text of the message.


.c.Other Commands for view your messages
These commands can be given any time even if the other menu is not displayed.

Q Quit: Quit from the Pine program.

C Compose:
Compose and send a message.

L List Folders: Go to the Folder List screen.

G Go to Folder :
Close the current folder and open another one. You can type the name of the folder to open, or you can press T to see a list of your folders and then select one. Pine looks for these folders in the Mail subdirectory of y our account.

I Folder Index: Return to the Folder Index screen.

W Where is: Search the message headers as they are displayed for a string of letters, and move to that message if it is found. This is useful in large folders to get to a particular message quickly.

Y PrYnt:
Print the current message on paper. You can select the printer or the print command via the Setup command on the Main menu.

T Take Addr: Take the return address from the current message and put it in your address book. This command saves you from retyping complicated addresses. You will be asked for a nickname (also called an alias) for the person/address being s aved. You will have a chance to edit the full name and address. Use the arrow and delete keys to edit the address, pressing when done, or just press to accept the name or address as is. You can also edit the entry later after it is in th e address book. Note that the return address that was taken from the message may not always be correct because of faulty configuration of the originating system, or incompatibilities between mail systems. Also, the sender's full name will appear with thei r last name first, so that the address book sorts alphabetically by last name.

S Save: Save the current message in a folder different from your inbox. You will be prompted for the folder name. The default name Pine displays for you is the user name of the person who sent the message to you. Just press return to save it in that folder (or create a folder with that name if it doesn't already exist). You may also type the name of a folder of your choice or you may press T to go into the folder screen where you can see a list of your folders.

If you type in the name of a folder that does not already exist, you will be asked if you want to create it. By default, Pine will save this folder in the home (login) directory of your account (indicated by ~/ in front of the file name). However, you wil l most likely want to keep all your mail folders in the Mail subdirectory on your account. This is the directory Pine displays when you have it display a list of your mail folders. In order to have Pine save a new folder in your Mail subdirectory y ou will need to add ~/Mail/ to to the folder name. For example: ~/Mail/foldername. Also see the Export command below.

E Export: Copy the current message to a file in your home directory. You'll be prompted for the file name. If the file already exists you can add the message to the end of the file. You may use any UNIX file system path name.

.c.Composing a message

To compose and send a message to someone, press c. You will then see the following screen;

The Pine Message Composer, options available when cursor is in message header.



The Pine Message Composer, options available when cursor is in body of message.

.c.Control characters
The composer is the only part of Pine where control characters need to be used. Control characters are formed by holding the key down while another key is pressed. They are used to move about the text, perform editing functions, or to invoke commands. Control characters are denoted by a ^ preceding the character. For example, -U would be shown as ^U. Case of alphabetic characters does not matter; for example, ^a is identical to ^A.
.c.Message elements.
Each message has a header and a body. The message header includes destination addresses and the subject line; the body of the message contains the essential text (or attachment) being sent. Some composer commands are the same for both se ctions of the message, but not all. You will see the menu at the bottom of the screen change as the cursor moves from the message header into the body or back. Basic cursor positioning and text editing keys are not shown on the command menu. With the exce ption of page up/down, which is not used in the header, all of these basic functions work while in either the message header or message body.

.c.Header Fields
To:
Type in the electronic addresses you want to send mail to. You may type a full name and address, just the local address, the nickname of someone in your address book, or a local mail alias defined by your system administrator. When you move the cu rsor out of the To: field, the nicknames will be expanded to the addresses in your address book, and the local names will be expanded to include the addressee's full name. The To: field may be several lines long, and have many addresses in it separated by commas. You can move around the To: field and/or the header with the arrow keys.

Examples:
Full address: banderso@ub.d.umn.edu
local address: banderso
address book nickname: bob (expands to banderso@ub.d.umn.edu)
local (system-wide) alias: advisory-committee

Cc: The Cc: (Carbon Copy) field is just like the To: field, except it is used for addressees that you wish to send a carbon copy to (such as yourself). That is, the message is not directly addressed to these recipients, but you wanted them to see t he message. The only difference the recipients see is that their name is in the Cc: field, rather than the To: field.

Attchmnt: This field shows the attachments or other parts of the message you are composing.

The most common use for this field will be to attach a file to your mail message. You can just type the file name here and if the file is found and accessible it will be attached. You will know it is attached when the size of the file is shown. You can also add a description of the file between double-quote marks after the file name. You can remove and edit attachments to your messages by editing the items in this field. If you delete the line, the file will not be included in your message. When yo u attach a file, it will not actually be shown in your message, but the recipient will be able to view and save the attachment(s).

Typing the file name here achieves the same result as using the ^J (Attach) command.

If someone sends you a message which contains attached files, you may forward that message along with its attachments if you like. When you do this the attachments (called parts) will show up in the Attchmts field too, but they will be in sq uare brackets [ ]. These attachments can be images, files, other messages, sounds and even video. The type will be shown. You can remove these attachments if you like by deleting the line from the Attchmts field. This is often something you might w ant to do because messages with attachments can become very large.

MIME is a new standard for sending multipart and multimedia e-mail. It is not widely used yet, but its use is growing and Pine is one of the first mailers to have MIME capabilities. You can send messages with attachments to other users that have MIME base d mailers, not necessarily Pine and they will be able to read them. If you send a message with an attachment to people that don't have a MIME based mailer, they will be able to read the text of your message and, if the file is plain text, see the attached file as part of the your message. It may be difficult for them to extract the attached file if the file was a binary file.
Subject: This is simply a few words summarizing the message that will show up in listings of the header when the recipient gets the message. You can type any text here you like. It's nice to make it as specific as possible; for example, if you're s ending a message to pine-bugs, a subject of "bug in pine" doesn't help the recipient sort out their mail.

There are two additional header fields that are normally not shown. These are Bcc: (Blind Carbon Copy) and Fcc: (File Carbon Copy). You can display these additional fields by using the ^R (Rich Header) command while your cursor is in the message header.

Bcc: Blind Carbon Copy is just the same as the To: and Cc: fields in the way the addresses are entered. The recipients listed here will receive a copy of the message, but there will be nothing in the message header the that indicates a Bcc: was sen t. The To: and Cc: recipients will not know a copy was sent to the Bcc: recipients.

As in the To: field you may type a full name and address, just a local address, the nickname of someone in your address book, or a local mail alias defined by your system administrator. When you move the cursor out of the Bcc: field, the nicknames will be expanded to the addresses in your address book, and the local names will be expanded to include the actual user name. The To: field may be several lines long, and have many addresses in it separated by commas. You can move around the Bcc: field and/or th e header with the arrow keys.

Fcc: File Carbon Copy specifies a folder name in which to save a copy of the message for future reference. You may change this to any folder you like, and may type ^T to get a list all your folders. This is referred to as File Carbon Copy be cause electronic mail folders are basically files.

.c.Editing the message body
Arrow keys
Move the cursor around.

Delete key/Backspace key Erase character and move back one character (also ^D).

^G Help: Display this help screen.

^X Send: Finish composing this message and send it off to the addressees.

^C Cancel: Stop sending this message. Anything you have composed is lost. You have a chance to confirm cancellation.

^J Justify (when cursor is in body of message): Reformat the text in the paragraph the cursor is on. A paragraph is separated by one blank line. This is useful when you have been editing a paragraph and the lines become uneven. The text is left ali gned or justified and the right is ragged. If the text is already justified as typed with autowrap no justification will be done.
Attach (when cursor is in header): Allows you to type in the name of a file you want to attach to the message (see the description of the Attchmt: field on page 9).

^R Read File (when cursor is in body of message): This will allow you to copy in text from an existing file. You will be prompted for the name of a file to be inserted into the message. The file name is relative to your home directory or may begin with / if it is to be an absolute path name. The file will be inserted where the cursor is located. Note that files on PC and Macs must be first transferred to the system Pine is running on before they can be read.
Rich Header (when cursor is in body of message): Displays additional header fields (see previous section).

^W Where is: Search the message for a word or part of a word. Only the message part of your mail is searched, and the cursor is put on the first occurrence appearing after the location of the cursor. The search will wrap to the beginning of the mes sage when it no longer finds matches in the remainder of the message. To search for the same string a second time, press ^W to begin search and then just press to accept the previous search string shown in square brackets rather than enter ing a new search string.

^Y Prev Page: Go back one page in the message text.

^V Next Page: Go forward one page in the message text.

^K Cut Text: Delete the entire line the cursor is currently on. The last batch of lines that were deleted one after another is saved so they can be undeleted elsewhere. You can also "mark" a series of lines by pressing ^6 and then using the up or down arrow keys to extend the selection. Pressing ^K once will delete the the entire marked selection.

^U UnCut Line: Undelete the last line or series of lines you deleted. To delete a series of lines and "undelete" them in another part of your message, be sure to delete all of the lines at the same time. Using the Del Line and Undel Line commands i s a convenient way to move text to a new location in your message.

^O Postpone:
Temporarily stop working on the current message so you may read other messages or compose another message. You can then resume working on the postponed message by going back in to compose. You will be asked if you want to continue the pos tponed message. Only one message can be postponed at a time. When you are ready to resume entering your message, choose Compose. At that point you will be prompted with the question Continue work in progress?. Choose yes and your existing message w ill appear. Choose no, and you will be given a blank screen to compose a new message. You may resume composing the previously postponed message later.

^T To Spell (when cursor is in body of message): Check the spelling in the message you are composing. You will be prompted at the bottom of the screen with each misspelled word. You can correct the word, then press return to actually change it in t he text. If the word is not misspelled or is a name or such, don't change it and just press return to continue the spell check. If a word is misspelled more than once, then you will be prompted to confirm the correction of each occurrence of it. Lines beg inning with > (included mail messages) will not be checked.
To Addressbook (when cursor is in To: or Cc: header fields): Displays your Address Book (see Using your Address Book).
To Files (when cursor is in Attchmnt: header fields): Displays a listing of your files.

Other cursor positioning keys
^A Beginning of line
^E End of line
^@ Next word (or Ctl-)

.c.Control keys not used by Pine
^S
Not used (Unix stop output)
^Q Not used (Unix resume output)
^] Not used (often Telnet escape)
^\\ Not used (often Unix abort)
ESC Not used (except by arrow keys)

Note: even though Pine does not use ^S or ^Q (sometimes known as XOFF and XON), the system you are using may intercept those characters. If you accidentally hit a ^S and your keyboard mysteriously freezes up, try typing a ^Q and see if that puts things ri ght.

.c.Working with your electronic mail file folders

Folders are places where messages are kept. Every message has to be in a folder. Every folder has a name. When Pine starts up you are automatically reading a folder called inbox, into which all your new mail is delivered. inbox is Pine's nam e for your regular system mail spool file, which is not actually located in your account directories.

You may leave all your messages in inbox, but if you want to save them for a long time your inbox folder will eventually get too large to manage. Therefore, you may want save messages in other folders. You may create as many other folders as you wish. Usually they are given short one-word names that indicate the subject of their contents. Just as you can save message from your inbox to another folder, you can also move messages from one folder to another by opening the folder that con tains the message and then saving the message(s) into another folder.

The Folder List screen displays the names of all of your folders and allows you to create, rename, and delete folders. To open a folder from the main menu, use the L command to go into the Folder List screen, move the cursor to the folder you want to open, and use the V (View Folder) command. You can also press instead of V.

From the Folder Index or when displaying a mail message you can open another folder with the G command. You will be prompted for the name of the folder to open. At the prompt you can give the command ^T to display your Folder List.

.c.Folder List Commands
? Get Help:
Display this screen of help text.

O Other Commands: Display other commands such as Quit, Compose, Go to Folder, Current Index screen, Where Is, and Print. All commands can be used regardless of which subset of commands are currently being displayed on the menu.

M Main Menu: Go back to the Main Menu.

V View Folder: Open up the folder the cursor is on in the Folder Index screen so mail messages in it can be read, deleted, answered, etc. When you do this, the folder that is currently open will be closed, and mail in it marked for deletion can be expunged.

P Previous Folder: Selects the next folder (same as or right arrow key).

N Next Folder: Selects the next folder (same as left arrow key).

- Prev Page:
Scroll back one page in the list of folders.

SPC Next Page: Scroll forward one page in the list of folders.

D Delete: Remove a folder and all the messages in it. Once deleted, the folder and all its messages cannot be recovered. If you delete the folder that is currently open the folder will be closed, then deleted and the inbox folder will be reo pened.

A Add: Create a new empty folder. This is not absolutely necessary, because you may create a new folder by saving a message to it.

R Rename: Change the name of a folder. You will be asked for the new name.

G Go to Fldr: Open a folder by typing the name of the folder. This is similar to V above but it prompts for the name rather than opening the one the cursor is on. This is useful opening folders that are not displayed because they are in othe r directories. In order to open a folder not located in your Mail subdirectory you will need to add ~/ to to the file name. For example: ~/filename.

Y PrYnt: Print the list of folders on paper. You can select the printer or the print command via the Setup command on the Main menu.

W Where Is: Search for a folder of a particular name. You will be prompted for the name of folder to search for. The name you give does not have to be complete and the capitalization of the letters in the name does not affect the search. (This feat ure is most useful for very large lists of folders.)

.c.Using your Address Book

The Address Book helps you keep a list of addresses you send mail to so you don't have to remember long or complex email addresses. Each entry in the address book has three parts. The nickname is short, usually less than eight letters, and easy to remember. You type this nickname in as you are addressing a message in the composer and Pine will then look up the email address in the Address Book. The name is a longer field where you can put the full name of the person and other information to clearly identify the address. Usually the full names are put in last name first so they sort nicely in alphabetical order. The third part is the address itself. The Address Book is sorted alphabetically on the full name with distribution lists sort ed to the end of the display.

Pine's distribution lists allow you to have one nickname that refers to a list of addresses to send mail to. Each distribution list has a nickname, a full name and a list of addresses. The addresses may be actual addresses or they may be other nicknames i n your address book. They may even refer to other distribution lists. The command to create a distribution list is S and the command to add entries to an existing list is Z. Use D to delete entries, placing the cursor on the address i f an address is to be deleted, or on the the nickname or full name of the list to delete the whole list.

The distribution lists in Pine are private distribution lists as is the rest of your Address Book and can't be shared among several users.


The Pine Address Book screen.

Address Book Commands

? Help: Display this screen of help text.

O Other Commands: Display other commands such as Quit, Compose To, List Folders, Go to Folder, Index, Where Is, and Print. All commands can be used regardless of which subset of commands are currently being displayed on the menu.

M Main Menu: Go back to the Main Menu.

E Edit: Edit the name, nickname or address the cursor is currently on. You will be prompted with the existing text to edit at the bottom of the screen.

P Previous Field: Selects the previous field in the Address Book lists (same as ).

P Next Field: Selects the next field in the Address Book lists (same as ).

- Prev Page: Scroll back one page in the address book.

SPC Next Page: Use the to scroll forward a page in the address book

D Delete: Delete an entry from the address book. You will be asked to confirm the deletion since once deleted it can't be brought back. To delete a single address from a distribution list put the cursor on it and give this command. To delete a whol e list put the cursor on the nickname or full name of the list and give this command.

A Add: Add an entry to the address book. You will be prompted for the full name, nickname, and the address. Use T mentioned above to add an entry to a distribution list.

S Create List: Creates a new distribution list so you can use one nickname for many addresses. First you'll be prompted for the nickname for the entire list, then a description of the entire list, and then for the addresses to add to the list. When you've added all the addresses to the list that you want, enter a blank address by just pressing at the prompt. The addresses you give may be other nicknames in your address book, and you can give up to 100 addresses when you first create the li st. You can add more later if you want a truly giant list. Distribution lists are always displayed at the end of the address book.

Z Add To List: Use this to add a name to an already created distribution list. Move the cursor to anywhere on the distribution list you want to make the addition to before giving this command. When you give this command you will be prompted for the address to add. The address can be a nickname from your address book, or even another distribution list in your address book.

C Compose To: Begin composing a message addressed to the selected Address Book entry.

L List Folders:
Go to the Folder List screen.

G Go to Folder :
Close the current folder and open another one. You can type the name of the folder to open, or you can press T to see a list of your folders and then select one. Pine looks for these folders in the Mail subdirectory of y our account.

I Index: Return to the Folder Index screen.

W Where is: Search the address book for a word or part of a word. All parts of the address book entry are searched, and the cursor is put on the first occurrence that is found.

Y PrYnt: Print your address book on paper.
Converting your elm aliases into a Pine addressbook
If you have used the elm electronic mail program you may have used aliases, which are very similar to the entries in your Pine address book.You can convert your elm alias file into a Pine addressbook by entering the following comm and at any % prompt.

% elm2pine

Printing your mail

Before you can print your mail for the first time you will need to setup your Pine printing options. You can do this by using the S command to choose the Setup functions from the Main Menu and then press P to choose the printer options You can set your printer to one of three selection:

1. attached-to-ansi Use this when you want to print to a printer directly connected to an IBM PC-compatible, X-terminal, etc. How well this works will depend on the emulation software you are running. For example NCSA telnet, Kermit, WinQVT, WRQ Re flection and VersaTerm Pro are known to work. NCSA telnet requires capfile = PRN in the config.tel and does not work on the Mac. This kind of printing works by sending a standard ANSI escape sequence that causes output to be redirected from the scr een to the printer. A corresponding escape is used when the printing is complete to reset the output to the screen. If you've invoked this accidentally and the printout spilled out all over your screen you can type ^L to refresh your screen. The re ason this varies from one terminal emulator to another is because this feature is not always implemented properly.

2. Standard UNIX print command This prints the file using the enscript command to the default printer for your account. You will need to set a default printer in order to use this option. The easiest way to set the default printer for your a ccount is to use the umenu UNIX menu system.

3. Personally selected print command You may also select your own print command independent of the usual system print command. What you are printing will just be piped into the command in the usual UNIX style. If you want to send your print output to a network laser printer different than the default printer on your account you could specify enscript -Pprintername here, or to not print a banner page for each mail message you could specify enscript -h -Pprintername, or just enscript -h to print without a banner to your default printer. You can also have the print output written to a file by having it set to something like
cat >> filename.

Once you have specified how you want Pine to print your mail you can print any message by using the Y command in the Folder Index or Message Text screens.


Using a signature file

Pine, like elm and other mail programs, can automatically includes a signature file in every message you send out. Your signature file might include your name, email address, phone number, title, etc. To have Pine include a signature file follow th ese steps:

1. Create a file in your login directory containing the information you would like to appear in your signature. You can call this file anything, but we recommend you use the filename "signature" so you'll remember what the file is when you see it listed. You could use the Pico editor to create the file. Entering the command
pico signature
would create a file called signature and open it in the Pico editor.
2. Enter the text of your signature and use the ^X (X) command to save the file and exit the Pico editor.
3. Edit your ".pinerc" file so that it contains the location of your signature file. To do this with the Pico editor you would enter the command
pico .pinerc
(make sure to enter the period at the front of the ,pinerc filename).
Towards the bottom of the file you will see the following lines:
# signature-file specifies the name or path of a file containing text that
# will automatically be inserted in outgoing mail.
signature-file=

4. Add the name of your signature file ("signature") after the signature-file= line.
signature-file=signature
5. By default, Pine will put any text you have included from a message you are forwarding or replying to at the bottom of your message and places your cursor and signature at the top. Towards the bottom of the .pinerc file you will see the followin g lines:
# Use old style forward/reply with new text and signature below included text
# Old-style-reply is obsolete, use signature-at-bottom in feature-list
old-style-reply=

If you would prefer included text to be above your new text and signature lines, add the word "yes" after the old-style-reply= line.
old-style-reply=yes
6. Use the ^X (X) command to save changes to your .pinerc file and exit the Pico editor.
Now when you run Pine and enter Pine's Message Composer you should see the text of your signature file copied into your message automatically.

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