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University of Minnesota Duluth
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The Department of Psychology

The College of Education & Human Service Professions


Christopher Lake

Assistant Professor

Industrial-Organizational Psychology

May advise Plan B Projects


Ph.D. Industrial-Organizational Psychology, Bowling Green State University, 2014
M.A., Industrial-Organizational Psychology, Bowling Green State University, 2010
B.A., Psychology and Business Administration, Central Washington University, 2008

Applied Experience

Christopher has provided consulting services (e.g., test development, survey design, employee assessment and selection) for a wide variety of organizations including Fortune 500 companies, federal and local government entities, and universities.

Research Interests

Job Satisfaction and Commitment
Employee Turnover and Withdrawal
Judgment and Decision Making in the Workplace
Advanced Quantitative Methods (Item Response Theory; Structural Equation Modeling)
Technology in Organizational Research



Highhouse, S., Wood, N. L., Lake, C. J., Kirkendall, S. R. (2014). Dispositional and contextual moderators of public outrage over outsized executive bonuses. Corporate Reputation Review, 17, 290-299.

Dalal, D. K., Carter, N. T., & Lake, C. J. (2014). Middle response scale options are inappropriate for ideal point scales. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 463-478.

Lake, C. J. & Highhouse, S. (2014). Assessing decision-making competence in managers. In S. Highhouse, R. S. Dalal, & E. Salas (Eds.), Judgment and Decision Making at Work (pp. 326-343). New York, NY: Routledge.

Carter, N. T., Kotrba, L. M., & Lake, C. J. (2014). Null results in assessing survey score comparability: Illustrating measurement invariance using item response theory. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 205-220.

Lake, C. J., Withrow, S., Zickar, M. J., Wood, N. L., Dalal, D. K., & Bochinski, J. (2013). Understanding the relation between attitude involvement and response latitude using item response theory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 74, 690-712.

Carter, N. T., Kotrba, L. M., Diab, D. L., Lin, B. C., Pui, S., Lake, C. J., Gillespie, M. A., Zickar, M. J, & Chao, A. (2012). A comparison of a subjective and statistical method for establishing score comparability in an organizational culture survey. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27, 451-466.

Zickar, M. J. & Lake, C. J. (2011). Innovative uses of technology-enhanced assessment. In N. T. Tippins & S. Adler (Eds.). Technology-Enhanced Assessment of Talent (pp. 394-417). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Carter, N. T., Dalal, D. K., Lake, C. J., Lin, B. C., Zickar, M. J. (2011). Using mixed-model item response theory to analyze organizational survey responses: An illustration using the Job Descriptive Index. Organizational Research Methods, 14, 116-146.

Carter, N. T., Lake, C. J., & Zickar, M. J. (2010). Toward understanding the psychology of unfolding. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3, 511-514.