MEASUREMENTS, SUBSTITUTIONS & EQUIVALENTS

Measurements

a pinch     =   1/8 teaspoon or less
3 teaspoons     =   1 tablespoon
4 tablespoons     =   1/4 cup
8 tablespoons     =   1/2 cup
12 tablespoons     =   3/4 cup
16 tablespoons     =   1 cup
2 cups     =   1 pint
2 pints     =   1 quart
4 quarts     =   1 gallon
8 quarts     =   1 peck
4 pecks     =   1 bushel
16 ounces     =   1 pound
32 ounces     =   1 quart
8 ounces liquid     =   1 cup
1 ounce liquid     =   2 tablespoons

(For liquid and dry measurements, use standard measuring
spoons and cups. All measurements are level.)



Substitutions & Equivalents

Ingredient Quantity Substitute
self rising flour 1 cup     =   1 cup all-purpose flour, 1/2 tsp salt, and 1 tsp. baking powder
cornstarch 1 tablespoon     =   2 T. flour or 2 tsp. quick-cooking tapioca
baking powder 1 teaspoon     =   1/4 tsp. baking soda plus 1/2 tsp. cream of tartar
powdered sugar 1 cup     =   1 c. granulated sugar plus 1 tsp. cornstarch
brown sugar 1/2 cup     =   2 T. molasses in 1/2 cup granulated sugar
sour milk 1 cup     =   1 T. lemon juice or vinegar plus sweet milk
         to make 1 cup (let stand 5 minutes)
whole milk 1 cup     =   1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water
cracker crumbs 3/4 cup     =   1 cup bread crumbs
chocolate 1 square
(1 oz.)
    =   3 or 4 T cocoa plus 1 T butter
fresh herbs 1 tablespoon     =   1 teaspoon dried herbs
fresh onion 1 small     =   1 T. instant minced onion, rehydrated
dry mustard 1 teaspoon     =   1 T. prepared mustard
tomato juice 1 cup     =   1/2 c. tomato sauce plus 1/2 c. water
catsup or chili sauce 1 cup     =   1 c. tomato sauce plus 1/2 c. sugar and
          2 T. vinegar (for use in cooking)
dates 1 lb.     =   1 1/2 c. dates, pitted and cut
bananas 3 medium     =   1 c. mashed
mini marshmallows 10     =   1 lge. marshmallow
butter 1 stick     =   8 T. or 1/2 cup
buttermilk 1 cup     =   1 cup yogurt
coconut, flaked 3 1/2 oz.     =   1 1/3 cups
cream, sour 1 cup     =   3 T. butter plus 7/8 cup sour milk


In substituting cocoa for chocolate in cakes, the amount of flour must be reduced.
Brown and White Sugars: Usually may be used interchangeably.



Abbreviations
 

Cookery Links

Glossary of Cooking Terms

Glossary of Food Terms

Herbs, Spices, and Seasonings

Measurements, Substitutions, & Equivalents

 


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