2013. "Do African Immigrants Enhance Their Home Nations’ Trade With Their Hosts?" The Journal of Developing Areas, 47(2):199-228. (Accepted December 1, 2012). Co-Author: Roger White (Franklin and Marshal College, Lancaster, PA)
Abstract: Employing data on the immigrant stocks of 43 African home countries who reside in 110 host countries and on trade flows between these countries during the year 2005, we examine whether African immigrants exert positive effects on their home countries’ trade with the typical host country. Estimates from Tobit regression models indicate a one percent increase in the number of African immigrants in a given host country increases that country’s exports to and imports from the typical home country by 0.132 percent and 0.259 percent, respectively. Further evaluation of these effects from the perspective of each African home country reveals that, in several instances, immigrants do not exert positive and significant influences on trade flows. The considerable variation in the presence of pro-trade influences and the dissimilarity of estimated significant effects suggests that highly divergent immigration and trade structures among African countries may affect whether African immigrants exert pro-trade influences.

2013. "The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Horizontal Export Diversification: Empirical Evidence," Applied Economics, 45(2):141-159. (Accepted June 3, 2011). Co-Author: Elias K. Shukralla (Siena College, Albany, NY)

Abstract: Using data on stocksof Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from 131 countries spanning the years 1984 to 2004 and the number of products exported by each country, we examine the effect of FDI on horizontal export diversification. To quantify the effects, we utilize parametric (quantile) and semi parametric econometric methods. Results from both approaches indicate that, in general, an increase in the stock of FDI enhances the horizontal diversification of exports. The actual magnitude of the effect however, varies greatly across countries depending on the existing stock of FDI and stage of diversification, giving rise to an almost inverted U-shaped relationship. A further look at our resultsprovides useful insights on the circumstances under which FDI may aid or inhibit the horizontal expansion of exports.

2012. "Do Immigrants Enhance International Trade in Services? The Case of US Tourism Services Exports," International Journal of Tourism Research, 14(6):576-585 (Accepted May 1, 2010).Co-Author: Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA.

Abstract:That immigrants affect trade in goods between their home and host countries is well-established in the literature. Little evidence exists, however, as to whether immigrants also affect trade in services. Using data on international tourist arrivals from 86 countries into the United States during the years 1995-2004, we provide the first empirical evidence on the effect of immigrants on exports of tourism services. Our results suggest that immigrants significantly enhance exports of tourism services (as measured by the number of tourist arrivals in the US from different home countries).

2011. "Tourism and Economic Growth in Latin American Countries (LAC): Further Empirical Evidence"; Tourism Economics, 17(6):1365-1373. (Accepted June 6, 2010). Co-Author: Fayissa, B.(Middle Tennessee State University, Mufreesbro, TN) and Nsiah, C(Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD)

Abstract: Using panel data that span from 1990 to 2005, we investigate the impact of the tourism on the economic growth of 18 heterogeneous Latin American countries within the framework of the conventional neoclassical growth model.  Results from our empirical models show that revenues from the tourism industry positively contribute to both the current level and growth rate of the per capita GDP of the countries in the region as are investment in physical and human capital. Our findings imply that Latin American economies may enhance their economic growth in the short-run by strategically strengthening their tourism industry while not neglecting the traditional sources of economic growth.

2011 (Book). International Migration and Economic Integration: Understanding the Immigrant-Trade Link, with Roger White, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA.

In this book, we examine the influence of immigrants on the process of international economic integration-specifically, their influences on bilateral and multilateral trade flows. The book extends beyond the identification and explanation of the immigrants- trade link, and offers a more expansive treatment of the subject matter, making it the most comprehensive volume of its kind. We present abundant evidence that confirms the positive influences of immigrants on trade between their home and host countries; however the immigrant and trade link may not be universal. The operability of the link is found to depend on a variety of factors related to immigrants' home countries, their host countries, the types of goods and services being traded and the anthropogenic characteristics of the immigrants themselves. 

2011."Emigrant Effects on Bilateral Trade: Reexamining the Immigrant-Trade Link from the Home Country Perspective" Eastern Economic Journal, 37(2): 289-310.Co-Author: Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA

Abstract: Abstract: A voluminous literature examines the immigrant-trade link. The available studies evaluate the link largely from the host country perspective and generally indicate that immigrants exert positive influences on trade between their host and home countries. Few studies, however, have explored the immigrant-trade relationship from the home country perspective (i.e., the effects of emigrants on trade). Using data representing the stocks of emigrants from 131 home countries that resided in 110 host countries during the year 2005, we extend the related literature by examining the immigrant-/emigrant-trade link from both the home country perspective and the host country perspective. By doing so, we provide the first comprehensive estimates of pro-trade emigrant effects for each home country in our study.

2010. "The Effects of Refugee and Non-refugee Immigrants on US Trade with their Home Countries," The Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, 19(2):289-317. Co-Author: Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA

 
Abstract: Employing data on US immigrants and trade with 59 home countries for the years 1996-2001, we compare the extent to which refugee and non-refugee immigrants affect US trade with their home countries and provide the first evidence of variation in the US immigrant-trade relationship across immigrant types. We also consider the abilities of refugee and non-refugee immigrants to offset the trade-inhibiting influence of cultural distance. Our results show that while immigrants, in general, exert positive influences on US imports from- and exports to- their home countries, the influence of refugee immigrants is quite minimal when compared to that of non-refugee immigrants. For both immigrant types, however, evidence supporting the notion that immigrants act to offset cultural distance is observed. To conceptualize the economic meaning of our results, we provide estimates of the extent to which each type of immigrants offset transport costs.

2010. Does Cultural Distance Hinder Trade in Goods? A Comparative Study of Nine OECD Member Nations", Open Economies Review 21(2):237-261. Co-Author: Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA
Abstract: Using data for 67 countries, we examine the effect of cultural distance, a proxy for the lack of minimum reservoir of trust necessary to initiate and complete trade deals, on bilateral trade. Utilizing a modified gravity model that accounts for the standard factors thought to inhibit/facilitate trade flows, we find the cultural dissimilarity of nations reduces aggregate and disaggregate bilateral trade flows, with estimated effects varying in magnitude and economic significance across the OECD reference countries and product classifications. Our findings imply that estimates from prior studies, which fail to account for the effect of cultural distance, are generally biased.

2010. "Cultural Distance as a Determinant of Bilateral Trade Flows: Do Immigrants Counter the Effect of Cultural Differences?" Applied Economics Letters, 17(2):147-152. Co-Author: Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA

Abstract: We introduce "cultural distance" as a measure of the degree to which shared norms and values in one country differ from those in another country, and employ a modified gravity specification to examine whether such cultural differences affect the volume of trade flows. Employing data for US state-level exports to the 75 trading partners for which measures of cultural distance can be constructed, we find that greater cultural differences between the US and a trading partner reduces state-level exports to that country. This result holds for aggregate exports, cultural and non-cultural products exports as well, but with significantly different magnitudes. Immigrants are found to exert a pro-export effect that partially offsets the trade-inhibiting effects of cultural distance.


2009 (Book). Foreign direct Investment, Trade and Exchange rate Volatility, Lap Lambert Publishers, ISBN 978-3-8383-1491-4, Paperback, 172 pages.

Description: The desire of firms to enhance their global presence, diversify their production and the interest of policymakers to augment domestic production with more efficient foreign technology has contributed to a surge in the cross border flow of capital. By taking into account market characteristics such as market maturity and export platform status of Japanese FDI hosts during the 1990s, this dissertation examines the link between FDI, trade and exchange rate volatility. More specifically, the following questions are addressed: What induces multinational firms to reach diverse destinations? Which of the host country characteristics attract investing firms most? Are trade flows among partners related to the volume of FDI flows between them? What does the geographical distribution of FDI reflect: efficiency, technological advances, or liberalization of trade and FDI policies? Given the diminishing role of the traditional FDI driving factors (such as factor abundance and cheap labor), to what extent do market maturity, export platform status and size of the host nations matter in determining the inflow of FDI?

2009. (Book Chapter) Cultural Diversity, Immigration and International Trade: An Empirical of the Relationship in Nine OECD Host Countries: In Cultural Diversity: Issues, Challenges and Perspectives. Nova Science Publishers: Hauppauge, NY). Co-Author Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA

Abstract: Employing a variant of the standard gravity equation and data from nine OECD immigrant host countries and 67 trading partners for the years 1996-2001, we examine the immigrant-trade relationship. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential influences of host country cultural diversity and host-home cultural distance. Data from the World Values Surveys and the European Values Surveys are used to calculate the cultural distances between immigrants’ host and home countries. Cultural distance is taken to be a proxy measure for the extent to which immigrants’ host countries are culturally divergent from their home countries. To estimate the cultural diversity of each host country’s population during our reference period, we calculate Simpson Index of Diversity values. We find that greater cultural differences inhibit both host country imports and exports, with imports seemingly affected to a greater extent. We also observe that immigrants increase trade flows, perhaps by exploiting superior information regarding host country markets (relative to their home country counterparts) and home country markets (relative to their host country counterparts) and/or by acting as conduits that bridge cultural differences between their host and home countries. Greater cultural diversity within the host country population is found to be positively correlated with the estimated proportional influences of immigrants on trade. Our findings imply that immigrants play greater roles in facilitating international trade than is generally discussed in the literature: fully or partially offsetting the influences of the lack of trust and commitments that may correspond with greater cultural differences between potential trading partners.

2009. "Volatility in Exchange Rate Components and the Volume of International Trade," The Journal of International Trade, 23(2):110-141

Abstract: By decomposing the changes in the real exchange rate series into fundamental and transitory components (market microstructure and stochastic element) and modeling the volatility in each via a GARCH process, this paper examines how volatility in exchange rate affects the volume of aggregate and disaggregate US trade with Canada, Germany and Hong Kong during the 1989-2002 period. The results indicate significantly different impacts of volatility due to the fundamental and transitory components of the exchange rate series on US bilateral trade. While the findings suggest heterogeneous responses of traders to volatilities arising from different components of the real exchange rate, the impact of the volatility due to the fundamental component is also found to vary across commodities, implying disparities in the inter- and intra-trading arrangements made by traders of different goods in counteracting foreign exchange risk arising from changes in the economic fundamentals.

2008. "Immigrants, Cultural Distance and U.S. State-Level Exports of Cultural Products," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance,19(3):331-338. Co-Author Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA

Abstract: We examine the relationships between immigrants, cultural distance and state-level exports, employing state-specific immigrant stocks and total US immigrant stocks, separately, and a measure of cultural distance recently introduced by Tadesse and White (2007). A positive link between immigrants and aggregate exports is reported and, while cultural distance is found to reduce exports, immigrants partially offset the effects of cultural distance by increasing both the intensity of existing exports and the likelihood that exporting occurs. However, heterogeneity in immigrant effects is observed across cultural product sub-classifications, suggesting variation in the ability of immigrants to influence trade by overcoming information asymmetries.

2008. "The Impact of Tourism on Economic Growth and Development in Africa," Tourism Economics, 14(4):807-818

Abstract: During the 1990s, Africa experienced a rise in tourist arrivals from 8.4 million to 10.6 million and a growth in receipts from US$2.3 billion to US$3.7 billion. According to the World Tourism Organization, the tourism industry in sub-Saharan Africa enjoyed a robust annual market share growth rate of 10% in 2006. In spite of this, there are few empirical studies that investigate the contributions of tourism to the economic growth and development of African economies. Using panel data of 42 African countries for 1995 to 2004, this study explores the potential contribution of tourism to the economic growth and development within the conventional neoclassical framework. The results show that receipts from the tourism industry contribute significantly both to the current level of gross domestic product and to the economic growth of sub-Saharan African countries, as do investments in physical and human capital. The authors' findings imply that African economies could enhance their short-run economic growth by strengthening their tourism industries strategically.

2008. "Do Immigrants Counter the Effect of Cultural Distance on Trade? Evidence from U.S. State Level Exports," The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(6):2304-2318. Co-Author: Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA

Abstract: We examine the effects of immigrants and cultural distance on US state-level exports, and discuss the economic significance of the extent to which immigrants may offset the influence of cultural distance on the initiation and intensification of state level exports. We find greater cultural differences between the US and immigrants’ home countries reduce the likelihood that exporting occurs and, when exporting is taking place, immigrants intensify exports, thus exerting a pro-export effect that partially offsets the trade-inhibiting effects of cultural distance. While the effects of cultural distance and immigrants are larger on the level of exports than the likelihood of exports to occur, we find significant variation across states both in the export initiation and intensification effects of immigrants and cultural distance.

2008. "The Impact of African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) on U.S. Imports from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)," The Journal of International Development, 20(7):920-941

 
Abstrac: We evaluate the impact of the unilateral trade policy concession known as African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) on U.S. imports from eligible Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Using U.S.-SSA countries' trade data that span the years 1991-2006, we find that AGOA has contributed to the initiation of new and the intensification of existing U.S. imports in both manufactured and non-manufactured goods and several product categories. However, compared to its import initiation impact, the import intensification effect of the Act has been marginal. Our results have important policy implication for further intensification of African exports to the U.S. markets.

2008. "Social Capital and Self-Rated Health: Results from the US 2006 Social Capital Survey of One Community", Journal of Social Science & Medicine, 67(4):606-61

Abstract: Using data from the 2006 Social Capital Community Survey in Duluth, Minnesota, and Superior, Wisconsin, USA, we investigate associations between individual social capital measures (attitudes on trust, formal group involvement, informal socializing, organized group interaction, social support and volunteer activity) and self-rated health after controlling for individual and economic characteristics. In particular, we address issues of social capital as an endogenous determinant of self-reported health using instrumental variables probit estimation. After accounting for the endogeneity of these various measures of individual social capital, we find that individual social capital is a significant predictor of self-rated health.

2008. "Culutral Distance and the US Immigrant-Trade Link, The World Economy," 31(8): 1078-1096. Co-Author: Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA

Abstract: Using data from the World and the European Values Surveys, we estimate cultural distances between the US and 54 immigrant home countries and examine the influence of cultural distance and immigrant populations on US-home country trade for the years 1997-2004. Our study indicates that the trade-enhancing effect of immigrants partially offsets the trade-inhibiting effect of cultural distance. Further, decomposing our measure of cultural distance and revisiting the immigrant-trade relationship, we find significant variation in the extent to which immigrants counter the trade-inhibiting influences of underlying dimensions of culture on imports and exports. Our findings have the implication that by countering the trade-inhibiting influences of cultural differences between their home and host countries, immigrants exert pro-development effects.

2008. Does a Unilateral Policy Change Promote Export? The Case of African Growth and Opportunity Act," Review of Developement and Cooperation, 2(1):87-104. With Bichaka Fayissa,Middle Tennesse State University, TN)

Abstract: Employing data for Italy and 68 trade partners that span the period 1996-2001, we examine the role of immigrants in influencing Italian exports to and imports from their respective home countries. Particular emphasis is placed on variation in the immigrant-trade relationship across Former Soviet Republic (FSR) and Post-Communist (PCOM) home country classifications relative to immigrants from non-FSR and non-PCOM home countries. The findings provide information that may assist in policy formulation and lead to more enlightened public and political debates of the issue. Immigrants are generally found to exert pro-trade influences; however, the typical immigrant from an FSR or PCOM home country exerts greater absolute influences on Italian-home country trade as compared to immigrants from non-FSR and non-PCOM home countries.

2007. "East-West Migration and The Immigrant-Trade Link: Evidence From Italy," The Romanian Journal of European Studies. With Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA

Abstract: Employing data for Italy and 68 trade partners that span the period 1996-2001, we examine the role of immigrants in influencing Italian exports to and imports from their respective home countries. Particular emphasis is placed on variation in the immigrant-trade relationship across Former Soviet Republic and Post-Communist country classifications relative to immigrants from non- and non- countries. The findings provide information that may assist in policy formulation and lead to more enlightened public and political debates of the issue. Immigrants are generally found to exert pro-trade influences, with proportional immigrant effects being somewhat comparable across home country classifications. However, estimated per-immigrant effects, in absolute terms, of immigrants from or countries are greater in magnitude as compared to the effects of immigrants from non- and non-countries.

2007. "Immigration Policy, Cultural Pluralism and Trade: Evidence from the White Australia Policy," Pacific Economic Review, 14(4):489-510. With Roger White, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA

Abstract: We examine a potential immigrant-trade link for Australia using data for 101 trading partners that span the years 1991-2000. We report that immigrants from nations privy to preferential treatment under the White Australia policy have negligible effects on Australian trade. However, immigrants from nations that, historically, were not afforded preferences typically increase exports to and imports from their respective home countries by $1,887 and $865, respectively. This suggests immigration that increases cultural pluralism may positively influence trade. Immigrants increase trade in differentiated products to a greater extent than trade in homogenous products. Similarly, with respect to non-manufacturing products, immigrants tend to increase exports more than imports. However, when considering the influence of immigrants on trade in manufacturing products we see that imports increase more than exports.

2005. Export Platforms, Industry Specific FDI and the FDI-Trade Relationship: Journal of Economic Integration. With Ryan, Michael, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI.


2004. Host Market Characteristics, FDI and the FDI-Trade Relationship. The Journal of International Trade and Development Economics. With Michael Ryan, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI.


2002. Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Demand for Children in Jimma City, Ethiopia: An Application of Count Data Model. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. With Sisay Asefa, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI



1999. Anthropogenic Determinants of Success in Agricultural Education: The Case of Jimma College of Agriculture, Ethiopia. Eastern Africa Social Science Research.

Abstract: Using cross-section data on urban households from Jimma city, Southwestern Ethiopia, in this paper we apply the economic theory of consumer choice and examine some endogenous household characteristics that affect the demand for children among urban households in Ethiopia. Based on parameter estimates derived from a count data model, we also simulate the average number of children desired by a woman of median urban household characteristics and assess the extent to which an exogenously set population policy goal of lower fertility can be achieved. The results of our study indicate that enhancing paternal and maternal education, altering the economic value of children, increasing household income, and delaying the marriage age as important policy measures that should be pursued to reduce fertility. Institutional approaches that involve “faith-based initiatives” are also relevant. An important implication of the study is that by using measures that target these socio-economic variables via market incentives, fertility levels among urban households in Jimma and other urban areas of Ethiopia with similar demographic features can be reduced.

2002. What Should Be Done to Enhance Maize Technology Adoption in Orormia? Some Strategy Options: The Journal of Oromo Studies



1998. Measuring Inequality: An Experience using Indian Data. Ethiopian Journal of Economics


1997. Technical Efficiency in Paddy Farms of Tamil Nadu: An Analysis Based on Farm Size and Ecological Zone, Agricultural Economics. With Krishnamoorthy, A., Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India


1996. Determinants of the Household Probability to Cross the Poverty Line: An Application of Tobit Analysis, Journal of Rural Development

Abstract