ENGL 5562 - Victorian Literature

University of Minnesota-Duluth
Spring 2013, MW 11:00-12:50
, LSBE 265
Dr. Carolyn Sigler

Amy LevyElizabeth Gaskellrossetti

ENGL 5562 Moodle site (password required)

e-Gradebook (password required)

Visit Planet Century 19, a meta-blog of all things Victorian

LINKS TO VICTORIAN RESOURCES ONLINE

Dickens writing
 

BIBLIOGRAPHIES FOR VICTORIAN STUDIES

  • The Victorian Studies Bibliography: Since 1933, the Victorian Bibliography has listed noteworthy publications (including articles, books, and reviews) that have a bearing on the Victorian period. The Victorian Bibliography annually indexes over 400 journals, representing scholarship across a range of disciplines in Victorian studies.
  • Rosemary VanArsdel's Victorian Periodicals: Aids to Research, A Selected Bibliography offers an annotated bibliography of selected titles to aid students and scholars interested in Victorian newspapers and magazines.
  • New Books in Nineteenth-Century Studies describes itself as "an interdisciplinary guide to scholarship on nineteenth-century Britain. The site's searchable database gives you access to publication information for scholarly works on the British Romantic and Victorian periods. You will find authors, titles, tables of contents, cover art, publishers, prices, ISBN numbers, and links to online bookstores for new and forthcoming critical works, anthologies, and critical editions of nineteenth-century materials. In addition, brief original reviews are available for selected works. The site's focus is on critical, scholarly texts, so you won't find primary works here. Instead, our goal is to provide the academic community with an easy-to-access source to find the most recent word on nineteenth-century issues and debates.This site is maintained by an editorial board of graduate students in the English Department at the University of Southern California."
  • A bibliography of primary and secondary sources.
  • A cross-referenced bibliography of secondary sources.
  • A collection of bibliographies on various topics from The Victorian Web

WRITING, DOCUMENTATION, AND RESEARCH TOOLS

  • Zotero: "Zotero is an easy-to-use yet powerful research tool that helps you gather, organize, and analyze sources (citations, full texts, web pages, images, and other objects), and lets you share the results of your research in a variety of ways. An extension to the popular open-source web browser Firefox, Zotero includes the best parts of older reference manager software (like EndNote)—the ability to store author, title, and publication fields and to export that information as formatted references—and the best parts of modern software and web applications (like iTunes and del.icio.us), such as the ability to interact, tag, and search in advanced ways. Zotero integrates tightly with online resources; it can sense when users are viewing a book, article, or other object on the web, and—on many major research and library sites—find and automatically save the full reference information for the item in the correct fields. Since it lives in the web browser, it can effortlessly transmit information to, and receive information from, other web services and applications; since it runs on one’s personal computer, it can also communicate with software running there (such as Microsoft Word). And it can be used offline as well (e.g., on a plane, in an archive without WiFi)" (http://www.zotero.org/about/).
  • Digital Research Tools: As more and more scholars grow interested in the world of digital research, this tremendously useful wiki will be one that they will tell their colleagues about. Created by Lisa Spiro, the director of the Digital Media Center at Rice University, this collaborative wiki collects information about tools and resources that can help scholars conduct research more efficiently or creatively. Visitors can browse through topical headings that include "Authoring", "Blogging", and "Data Mining", among others. Within each heading, visitors can read short descriptions about each resource. Under the "Types of Tools" section visitors can search for specific tools that can help them collect data, edit images, make a dynamic map, and so on. Additionally, visitors can sign up to join the wiki here and also learn more about Spiro and her other projects (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Guide to integrating and citing quotations
  • Using literary quotations from the UW Madison Writer's Handbook
  • Writing a bibliography using MLA Style
  • Using MLA format from the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)
  • Two Sites on College Writing: Dartmouth Writing Program and University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Handbook . The Dartmouth College Writing Program contains a number of helpful materials, such as some well-written essays that answer the question "What is an academic paper?" and also provide information on researching topics for papers. The site also includes information on such topics as writing about film, writing for sociology courses, and helpful suggestions on writing from fellow students. The second site is offered by the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Writing Center and contains material on how best to cite references, avoiding common grammar and punctuation mistakes, a guide to MLA style, as well as information on academic writing and research issues from thesis statements to quoting, paraphrasing and documentation.. Taken together, these sites provide a host of materials that will allow students to become better writers in their various courses during their time in the world of higher education and beyond (Copyright 1994-2008 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • KU Writing Center [pdf]: The University of Kansas has a number of fine academic programs, and they also provide writing support for students who might be having trouble getting started with their own assignments or term papers. While visitors may not be able to make the trek on over to Lawrence, they can certainly hop online here to take advantage of some of their writing tutorials and guide sheets. Most visitors will probably want to start at the 'Students' section, where they can then click on sections specifically designed for undergraduates or graduate students. Some of these materials have been created specifically by the professionals at KU’s Writing Center, including some very helpful guides to crafting an effective thesis statement and working on pre-writing strategies. Also, the 'Writing Guides' section includes a sample writing gallery and an assignment planner" (Copyright 1994-2008 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • The Nuts and Bolts of College Writing: This site is the online version of a new writing primer, developed by Michael Harvey (a professor at Washington College in Maryland), that will be of great help to many students who find themselves grappling with writing college-level assignments and papers. The homepage for the guide contains hypertext links to various sections, including those dealing with style, structure, evidence, and paper mechanics. From the main page, students can access any of the primer's many sections quickly, such as those dealing with the use of the historical present, finding a voice, and nominalizations. All of these sections are complemented by a profuse number of examples that illustrate the different writing tools and potential pitfalls that students may encounter (Copyright 1994-2005 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).

LITERARY BACKGROUND AND CRITICISM

  • The Internet Public Library Online Literary Criticism Collection:  This literary metasite contains over 1,000 annotated metasites and articles devoted to literary criticism, biographical, and other information about 123 authors from Dante Alighieri to Arthur Miller to William Butler Yeats. The links to criticism information can be to sites or articles (some of which have access restrictions). Visitors can browse the site by author, title, or literary period (for British and American literature). In addition, both a literary criticism guide and a pathfinder are provided for those who wish to further explore web and print resources on the topic (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Literature Criticism Online offers a searchable library of critical reference series, including Children's Literature Review (CLR), Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism (NCLC) and Poetry Criticism (PC).
  • The Voice of the Shuttle literary resources
  • Key Literary Terms
  • A Glossary of Poetic terms

ELECTRONIC TEXTS

  • Project Bartleby offers an online collection of reference texts, as well as fiction, poetry and nonfiction.
  • Project Gutenberg offers an extensive on-line text collection- although unfortunately opposed to preserving any bibliographical information.
  • Books On-line by John Ockerbloom at the University of Pennsylvania is an excellent place to start looking for any digitized text. This engine provides links to most on-line text collections. Frequently updated.
  • The Victorian Women Writers Project (Indiana University).
  • Women Writers Project -- The Brown University Women Writers Project has recently published the beta-test version of an online textbase. The textbase is a collection of primarily pre-Victorian (1450-1850) literature written by women. The initial release of the textbase will include over 200 texts, and 50 to 100 more will be added in the first year. The collection spans a wide array of topics and genres, providing a unique and valuable resource for the study of women's writing in English.

LIBRARIES, ARCHIVES and MUSEUMS

GENERAL NINETEENTH CENTURY BACKGROUND

  • Planet Century 19 is a meta-blog that collects contents of select nineteenth-century blogs.
  • Oxford Dictionary ofNational Biography: Includes over 50,000 biographies of individuals who contributed to British history and culture.
  • Dictionary of Victorian London: Designed and maintained by Lee Jackson, an author and librarian, the Victorian Dictionary is a useful resource on Victorian London history during the 19th century. This site contains over 40 categories that range from architecture, to clothing and fashions, to dates and events, to entertainment and recreation, to words and expressions. The site also contains a bibliography containing most of the resources used for the site, as well as links to other related sites (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • What was Jane Eyre's £30 per year salary really worth? Economic History Resources' "How Much Is That Worth Today?" enables users to determine the purchasing power of British currency for any year from 1600 to the present; MeasuringWorth.com offers another calculator that measures the worth of the British pound from 1264 to 2005. For a more detailed explanation of Victorian money and coinage, check out Paul Lewis's "What's a Guinea?"
  • The Time Traveler's Guide to Victorian Britain offers helpful background on such issues as class and customs, the vote, industry, the arts and sciences, and important terms such as Utilitarianism, imperialism, Malthusianism, and Darwinism.
  • Although not exclusively Victorian in its focus, this University of San Diego site on Utilitarianism offers links to a number of classic Utilitarian texts, as well as background information on Utilitarian ethics, its supporters and detractors.
  • Victoria Research Web: An offshoot of the VICTORIA discussion list and hosted by Indiana University, this site is designed to assist researchers, teachers, and students studying nineteenth century Britain. Users will find a number of helpful items such as a guide to Victorian holdings in selected archives, book reviews on-line, bibliographies, a guide to using the new British Library, tips on planning a research trip, sample syllabi, and a guide to major journals in the field. Additional resources include a list of related discussion groups and a search engine for the VICTORIA archives. VICTORIA equally welcomes the contributions of students of literature, social history, politics, gender studies, publishing, art, and intellectual history in "the long 19th century" (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • The Victorian Web: Literature, History and Culture in the Age of Victoria.
  • Changes During the Victorian Age: If you were born in the early nineteenth century, you were in for a big surprise: by 1900 the world you had grown up in was gone for good. This BBC-sponsored site by Bruce Robinson explores how the enthusiasm for invention and speed transformed the Victorians' world.
  • A comprehensive list of Victorian studies and author Web sites maintained by Mitsuharu Matsuoka.
  • Victorian British Literary Resources from the Voice of the Shuttle.
  • BBC Timelines: England and Scotland:  The BBC History 2000 project offers these multi-level timelines of the histories of England and Scotland from the Neolithic age to the present. As timelines go, these are unusually detailed and provide paragraph-length descriptions -- often accompanied by photos, artwork, or 3-D online models -- about such events and personages as the building of Hadrian's wall; Jane Grey, the nine-day queen; and Robert the Bruce, the famous Scottish warrior-king who secured his country's independence from England in 1328. Users can view the timelines separately or together, allowing for comparative consideration of the evolution of these two often warring, but still tightly knit, nations.
  • 1901: Living at the Time of the Census [Quicktime, MediaPlayer]: Assembled from the vast historical treasures of the UK Public Record Office (PRO) (last mentioned in the June 15, 2001 Scout Report), this virtual exhibition "uses words, pictures and documents to open a door onto life in 1901." Intended as an easily understood introduction to family and community historical research, the exhibition also works well in explaining the life and times of the people documented in the 1901 census. The essays are well written and accessible, with many illustrative images of historical documents (i.e., maps, photos, etc.). It is divided into 4 thematic sections--Cinema (silent film footage courtesy of the British Film Institute), People and Places of 1901, Living in 1901, and Events of 1901 (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Penguin Classics Website -- contains short articles, biographies, synopses, and feature essays on many Victorian authors
  • Victorian Social History: An Overview (from The Victorian Web). Contains a treasure trove of pages devoted to such social issues as public health, labor, race, class, gender, education and economics.
  • Historical Directories: Sometime you may find yourself wondering one of the world's eternal questions: How many cutlers were in Sheffield during the 1850s? Well, you might not be actively seeking the answer to that particular query, but this incredibly extensive digital library created by the University of Leicester may help you solve other related historical questions. This digital library contains a host of local and trade directories for England and Wales from 1750 to 1919, many of which were previously only accessible by making a special trip to any number of local historical societies or archives. Curious visitors can search the directories through an interactive map of England and Wales in order to find the information that is most relevant to their interests. Currently, the project provides at least one directory for each segment from the interactive map from the 1850s, 1890s, and 1910s. Visitors can also search the entire digitized archive by keyword, location, and name (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • What was the weather like?: This Web site offers chronological descriptions of notable weather events in British history, including the first and second halves of the nineteenth century.

VICTORIAN GEOGRAPHIES AND DEMOGRAPHICS

  • Tower Hamlets History Online:  The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is considered by some to be the heart of the East End, the sometimes infamous section of London that fascinated journalists, novelists, and social scientists through the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth. This site offers an excellent collection of both contemporary writings and historical essays, all taken from the Tower Hamlets' Local History Library and Archives, that provide a fascinating look at life in the East End in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Especially useful to scholars and students in British or urban history or literature, the texts can be browsed by title, author, or subject. Separate listings of eyewitness accounts and images are also available, as is a keyword search engine (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Free Historic Maps:  Created and maintained by the Landmark Information Group, this Website offers roughly 85,000 images of historical maps of regions of the UK. "The maps are dated between 1846 and 1899, and are of 1:10,560 scale." To ease navigation, Landmark has supplied a County Name Gazetteer. The counties are named as they existed around 1850. Selecting a county will present users with a gazetteer of towns" -- 40,000 of which are cross-referenced by the name of the region today. This is a useful resource not only for geographers, but for anyone doing research involving the topography and nomenclature of Victorian England, Scotland, and Wales. No additional applications are needed to view the maps, but the Website recommends a minimum resolution of 1024x768 (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • London: A Life in Maps: Sometime in the middle of the thirteen century, the monk Matthew Paris created a diagram using ink and various pigments to illustrate his route from London to Apulia. In doing so, he created a document which forms part of the cartographic history of a city that would grow exponentially over the coming centuries. This document, along with thirty nine others, form part of the online exhibit, London: A Life in Maps. Created by staff members at the
    British Library, visitors can click on an interactive map (rather appropriately) to locate these various maps which go all the way up to the 21st century. Another fun feature on the site allows users to download a Google Earth layer that includes a selection of these maps, including one of Regents Park in 1841 and a plan of the London Docks from 1797. The site is rounded out by an area where visitors can send electronic cards to friends and colleagues that incorporate images from these maps (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • The Victorian Census Project:  Directed by David Alan Gatley, the Victorian Census Project at Staffordshire University "aims to computerize a number of source documents and related materials relating to Great Britain in the mid-nineteenth century." These include nineteenth century census abstracts, vital registration statistics, Poor Law Commissioner returns, and Pigot's and Slater's Typology of England and Wales. This database has the potential to significantly broaden our understanding of British society in the nineteenth century in a number of areas, including health and disease, education and literacy, occupations and employment, and migration. At present, four sub-sets of variables relating to the 1831 and 1861 censuses, and the Scottish Registrar General's Annual Report for 1861, can be downloaded from the site. Each data set is in comma-delimited format. Additional resources at this site include an introduction to the Census Enumerator's Books and a hypertext version of Pigot's and Slater's Typology" (under development).
  • Charles Booth's 1889 Descriptive Map of London Poverty: "Building on the pioneering efforts of Mark Annand and others, David Wayne Thomas and Sabiha Ahmad have made it possible to explore late nineteenth-century London as laid out in Booth's celebrated color-coded map of the city. The supporting materials for the site are currently being assembled and the site will soon move to a permanent location but the map itself, allowing visitors to zoom in on specific sections, is a marvel. Those wishing to delve further into Booth's aims and methods have a marvelous set of resources available from the London School of Economics's Charles Booth Online Archive, which features a rich variety of archival materials in searchable form. Quite apart from its intrinsic usefulness, this site demonstrates what can be accomplished when existing archival collection descriptions, instead of being merely scanned and transferrred online, are thoughtfully adapted in ways that make the most of the online environment" (from the Victoria Research Web).
  • Crace Collection of Maps of London [Macromedia Flash Player required]. "In the eighteenth century, wise sage and journalist Samuel Johnson opined that when one was tired of London, they were in fact tired of life. Well, the same might be said for this exuberant and delightful website, and it is doubtful that visitors will be tired of its fine collection of London maps even after several visits. Organized as part of the British Library's Online Gallery collection, the Crace Collection of Maps of London was brought together in the early part of the nineteenth century by society designer Frederick Crace. All told, the collection consists of over 1200 printed and hand-drawn maps which chart the development of the city and its immediate vicinity from 1570 to 1860" (Copyright 1994-2008 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).

SCIENCE and NATURE

  • Pictures of Science: 700 Years of Scientific and Medical Illustration: "Brought together originally in 1999 for an exhibition held at the New York Public Library's Gottesman Exhibition Hall, this set of intriguing images covers the fields of astronomy, chemistry, geology, medicine, and physics taken from different engravings, lithographs, and manuscript illuminations. The images here range from the 16th to the 19th centuries, and they are culled from works such as the 1798 volume Elemens de la philosophie de Neuton and the important 1830 volume Principles of Geology written by geologist Sir Charles Lyell. All told, visitors can browse through ten crucial texts in their entirety, and they are all wonderful meditations on the skills and talents of unique scientists (and artists) throughout the ages. Finally, visitors looking for specific materials can also search through the entire collection, or even click on the 'See all Images' button" (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Botanical Illustration and Descriptions: "Here's a nice site for botanists, armchair or professional, as well as anyone who enjoys old botanical prints. Provided by the National Agricultural Library, the site features over 1000 images and over 2000 title pages taken from the first 26 volumes of Curtis Botanical Magazine, which was published in London at the turn of the nineteenth century. Users can browse the collection alphabetically and then select from a group of thumbnail images. Thumbnails link to a page with information on the plant, a larger thumbnail that links to a lovely full-size image, and links to the title page images (in .tif format). An internal search engine is also provided" (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).

QUEEN VICTORIA

VICTORIAN PERIODICALS

  • London Times Digital Archive: Full text of the Times of London from 1785 to 1985, including advertisements, letters to the editor, and all other content of the newspaper, with the ability to limit one's search by section of the newspaper and content type. The content is available in PDF and PNG image form.
  • British Newspapers, 1800-1900: "The British Library has done historians a tremendous service by creating this extensive and thoroughly engaging collection of British newspapers from 1800 to 1900. The site contains over two million pages of 19th century newspapers, though it is worth noting that many of them require the payment of a fee. Visitors can browse complete articles from the "Penny Illustrated Paper" and "The Graphic" free of charge, and they should also click on the "Topical Articles" area. This area contains thematic essays on matters such as the Sepoy Mutiny, the Napoleonic Wars, and the abolition of slavery. Each essay also includes access to relevant articles from the newspapers of the day. This area also includes detailed information on how best to use the search engine in order to locate items of interest" ((Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • NESE -- the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition -- is a new digital edition of six nineteenth-century periodicals and newspapers. A beta version is currently available. Titles are full text, and include the Monthly Repository (1806-1837), the Northern Star (1837-1852), the Leader (1850-1860), the English Woman’s Journal (1858-1864), the Tomahawk (1867-1870) and the Publishers’Circular (1880-1890). Of the six, five are whole runs; the sixth (the Publishers’ Circular) is a decade sample. All are in complete a form as possible, and offer a cross-section of Victorian journals: a theological monthly, a Chartist newspaper, a progressive mid-century weekly, an early feminist monthly, an illustrated satiric weekly, and a trade paper.
  • The Illustrated London News Picture Library offers an extensive collection of Victorian-era illustrations and photographs from 1842 to today on topics such as fashion, transporation, disasters, politics, the arts, social history, London, royalty, discovery and exploration, industry and trade, war, personalities, and science, medicine and progress.
  • Rosemary VanArsdel's Victorian Periodicals: Aids to Research, A Selected Bibliography offers an annotated bibliography of selected titles to aid students and scholars interested in Victorian newspapers and magazines.
  • The Waterloo Directory of English Newspapers and Periodicals, 1800-1900.
  • The Punch Cartoon Page
  • Punch: An Overview (from The Victorian Web)
  • The Internet Library of Early Journals: A Digital Library of 18th and 19th Century Journals
  • Victorian periodicals: A Guide to Research, by Rosemary T. VanArsdel
  • Nineteenth-Century Advertising History: During the 19th century, one of the most consistently popular American periodicals was Harper's Weekly, an illustrated paper whose circulation was well in excess of over 100,000 on a regular basis. This fine site highlights some of the many creative and inventive advertisements that were prominently displayed in the periodical during the 19th and early 20th centuries. On the site visitors can browse through advertisements for appliances, insurance, foreign travel, farm land, and various medicinal potions. The selection of ads includes one for "pain paint," which begins with a brief doggerel that includes a mention of the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson in 1868 (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Athenaeum Project: A searchable on-line database of reviews and reviewers from the journal Athenaeum.
  • The Scotsman Digital Archive: Edinburgh's The Scotsman is the first major UK newspaper besides The Times whose nineteenth-century archive has been made searchable online; however, researchers don't have to belong to an institution that subscribes to the service in order to use it (which differs from The Times archive). Anyone can do searches for a modest fee (currently £6 for 24 hours of access) payable by credit card. The archive covers every issue of the paper from 1817 to 1900.
  • The Quarterly Review Project:  This site chronicles the early years of the Quarterly Review, one of the two most influential British journals in the first half of the nineteenth century (along with the Edinburgh Review). The brightest gem of the site is probably the index of all 61 issues of the journal for 1809-24, which includes notes, contents, and very importantly as most articles were unattributed, identification of contributors. Also at the site are an essay on the founding and early years of the journal, transcripts of 40 letters from the editor William Gifford, and a bibliographical encyclopedia that covers the journal's authors, significant supporters, and authors reviewed. Another terrific resource at the site, as readership is an open question for any periodical in this era, is a subscription list from 1810, which is incorporated into the bibliographical encyclopedia (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Penny Illustrated Paper: In our own time, daily newspapers and other such materials provide news, entertainment, gossip, and other such items that seem to both delight and offend many segments of the populace. While it may be hard to believe, the media landscape was once rather devoid of such rags, and the Penny Illustrated was one of the first to hang its journalistic shingle out there, in a matter of speaking. Published between 1861 and 1913, the paper’s publication was “With all the news of the week”, and readers were certainly not disappointed, as it contained a number of sections dealing with sports, recreations, and “Foreign News”. Recently, the “Collect Britain” project at The British Library digitized the entire run of the paper, and placed it online at this website. Visitors can browse through the complete run at their leisure, or they may also wish to look over some of the paper selected as a “Curator’s Choice” (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • An overview and brief selections from Charlotte Yonge's magazine The Monthly Packet, which was published from 1851 to 1899 and intended for adolescent readers.
  • British Annuals and Giftbooks: This site offers an index of popular and expensive illustrated books, which produced in England between 1823 and 1861. Containing collections of prose and verse, these lavishly produced books were intended primarily to be given as gifts.
    • Forget Me Not: A Hypertextual Archive of Ackermann's 19th-Century Literary Annual. This site reproduces elements from the 1823-1830 volumes of the earliest British-published literary annual, Forget Me Not, published by Rudolf Ackermann between 1823 and 1847.
    • The Keepsake for 1829: reproduces several especially important works from this popular nineteenth-century literary annual: Letitia Elizabeth Landon's "Verses," the engraving of Edwin Landseer's painting Georgiana, Duchess of Bedford, to which Landon's poems refers, William Wordsworth's "The Country Girl"and the engraving that originally accompanied that poem, Thomas Moore's poem "Extempore."
    • This site contains the text and illustrations for an 1828 giftbook: The Bijou; or Annual of Literature and the Arts.
  • Internet Library of Early Journals (ILEJ): ILEJ is a joint project by the Universities of Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester and Oxford, conducted under the auspice of the eLib (Electronic Libraries) Programme. The project has digitized selected twenty-year runs of three eighteenth- and three nineteenth-century journals and placed the images online at the site. Journals include: Annual Register (1758-78), Gentleman's Magazine (1731-50), Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (1757-77), Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (1843-52), Notes and Queries (1849-69), and The Builder (1843-9). Users can browse the journals by volume and section, conduct a standard search, or try a "fuzzy search" (limited availability) (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Making of America: One of the largest and best online text collections from the University of Michigan. Although limited to American texts, some books are American editions by foreign authors. Thousands of journal articles. Text searches available.
  • The Google News Archive enables users to search select historical news archives, though these are primarily American.
  • Ohio State University Press has made a number of their out-of-print titles available to download for research purposes (in pdf format), including Paul Thomas Murphy's Toward a Working-Class Canon: Literary Criticism in British Working-Class Periodicals, 1816–1858 (1993).
  • Bodleian Library Broadside Ballads: Broadside ballads were popular songs, sold for a penny or half-penny in the streets of towns and villages around Britain between the sixteenth and early twentieth centuries. These songs were performed in taverns, homes, or fairs -- wherever a group of people gathered to discuss the day's events or to tell tales of heroes and villains. As one of the cheapest forms of print available, the broadside ballads are also an important source material for the history of printing and literacy. Lavishly illustrated with woodcuts, they provide a visual treat for the reader and offer a source for the study of popular art in Britain.The Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford has over 30,000 in its collection. Click on "The Project" to learn a bit more about this initiative; you can move on to listen to a few sound files, and also learn about the graphic images used on such pieces of music. Click on the "Browse/Search" area to perform a detailed search on the ballad titles or first lines.

VICTORIAN PUBLISHING AND PRINT CULTURE

  • The Reading Experience Database (RED): "RED was launched in 1996 at the UK Open University. Its mission is to accumulate as much data as possible about the reading experiences of readers of all nationalities in Britain and those of British subjects abroad from 1450 to 1945. RED currently contains approximately 17,000 records, the majority of which have been verified, edited and released for searching. More entries are contributed and released every day and thus return visits to the database should yield new results each time."
  • Nineteenth Century Children's Literature -- The British Library:This database, maintained by the publishing house of Chadwyck-Healey, Ltd., provides searchable records of the British Library's Children's Literature collection, which contains 2,369 titles on 5,527 fiches. Search parameters include title and complete record keyword, author, subject, publisher, year(s) of publication, microfiche number, and number of records retrieved. (Users may also browse possible search terms for each parameter.) Each entry gives a full bibliographic record for the individual text, including author, uniform title, imprint, place and date of publication, pagination, copy-specific notes, British Library shelfmark, and Fiche quantity and number. The site is part of The Nineteenth Century, a larger collection from Chadwyck-Healey and the British Library that catalogs an impressive array of nineteenth-century texts useful for historical and cultural studies (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Dime Novels and Penny Dreadfuls:  This extraordinary Website is devoted to the Dime Novel and Story Paper Collection at Stanford University Library. The site offers thousands of cataloged graphic images of illustrated covers to issues of the dime novels and story papers that were immensely popular in America from the mid-nineteenth century to its close. The images may be searched or browsed; search options include an exhaustive listing of "salient features," including -- but not limited to -- cover images relating to Napoleon Bonaparte (2), African-Americans (107), Cowboys (118), and College Students (8). Cultural studies scholars can make good use of these search options in examining graphic representations of gender, class, race, work, and manners of the time. The site also includes nine complete texts and catalog information for all of the issues imaged. Images may be viewed in thumbnail or full screen versions (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • SHARP Web: SHARP Web is a collection of resources for scholars and students of the history of print culture in any place, language, or period. Affiliated with the Society for the History of Authorship, Reading & Publishing (SHARP), SHARP Web offers guides to publishers' archives, syllabi for courses in book history, bibliographies, links to exhibits and special collections, and up-to-date notices and calls for papers. Whether you're studying American colonial newspapers or illuminated manuscripts, children's literature or the transmission of ancient texts, SHARP Web is a good place to connect with the international community of book historians (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Aspects of the Victorian Book: This website sponsored by the British Library offers an excellent overview of Victorian publishing and print culture, including detailed information on printing technology, bindings, types of illustration, children's books and popular trends such as "yellowbacks" and "penny dreadfuls."
  • Cardiff University's searchable Database of Mid-Victorian Illustration (DMVI) contains records and images of 868 literary illustrations that were published in or around 1862, providing bibliographical and iconographical details, as well as the ability for users to view images at exceptionally high quality.
  • The Victorian Economics overview from The Victorian Web offers a number of resources on "Economics, Literature, and the Arts," including links to pages on the economics of literary authorship, publishing, marketing, distribution and copyright.
  • The Poetess Archive offers bibliographies of material written about or by a group of allegedly “sentimental” British and American writers, most often women, who wrote popular poetry. The site also includes Victorian and modern literary criticism about these authors.
  • Women in the Literary Marketplace: The books and letters in this online exhibition present a cross section of writing by English women in the nineteenth century–a period when women entered the literary marketplace in unprecedented numbers.
  • A bibliography of criticism on sensation fiction from The Victorian Web.

PHOTOGRAPHY AND CINEMA

    • Points of View: Capturing the 19th Century in Photographs: "The British Library has a spectacular online and physical exhibit of photographs of the 1800s made available here. The website has a minute-long video introduction to the exhibit that starts upon arriving at the homepage. Visitors can "view exhibition online" by clicking on the entitled link near the bottom of the page. The exhibition is divided into eight themes of 19th-century life, such as "Art," "Portraits," "Science," and "Travel." The "Learning" link on the far right hand side of any page, leads to the ten workshops available to students age seven to secondary and higher education, as well as further education and ESOL. Pre-visit and post-visit activities are included in the details of each workshop, so the students can get the most out of the activities. A "Points of View Blog" about the exhibit can be found in the link on the right hand side of the video introduction. One entry compares photographs of buildings from the 1800s and now. Another entry further down in the blog has video demonstrations of two different
      photographic processes" (Copyright 1994-2011 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
    • ViewFinder: "Use ViewFinder to find historic photographs of England.The photographs on ViewFinder are all held by the National Monuments Record, the public archive of English Heritage. They date from the 1850s and are a resource for anyone interested in England's social, industrial, architectural and archaeological history."
    • The Illustrated London News Picture Library offers an extensive collection of Victorian-era illustrations and photographs from 1842 to today on topics such as fashion, transporation, disasters, politics, the arts, social history, London, royalty, discovery and exploration, industry and trade, war, personalities, and science, medicine and progress.
    • Who's Who of Victorian Cinema: This website is a biographical guide to the world of Victorian film. It features 300 biographies of those who, behind and in front of the camera, played a significant part in creating the phenomenon of moving pictures. It is based on the book Who's Who of Victorian Cinema, published by the British Film Institute in 1996. It has been revised throughout, and new entries and background features added, to make the website serve as a reference source to the world of Victorian film and the world as seen through the eyes of the Victorian filmmakers.
    • YouTube offers a number of short examples of Victorian and Edwardian cinema, including an 1894 Edison Kinetoscope film of Annie Oakley, Auguste Louis Lumière's 1895 L'Arrivée d'un train à La Ciotat (Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat), an 1897 advertisement for cigarettes, a 1910 Edison advertisement called The Stenographer's Friend; Or, What Was Accomplished by an Edison Business Phonograph. The Mutoscope & Biograph company's Uncle Josh at the Moving Picture Show (1902) is a humorous depiction of an elderly gentleman's first visit to a cinema, and The Suburbanite (1904) is a short narrative about a family moving into a new house.
    • Cecil M. Hepworth's 1903 Alice in Wonderland, the first cinematic version of Alice's adventures, is also now available to see on YouTube, with added commentary by the British Film Institute's Simon Brown.
    • "Famous Men and Fair Women": A collection of photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron.
    • An online portfolio of Lewis Carroll photographs from the Princeton University Library Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. An online exhibit of Carroll's photographs from the University of Texas at Austin's Harry Ransome Research Library, includes a page devoted to Carroll's photographs of children.
    • The online photography collection of the George Eastman House Museum offers Victorian era photographs from Great Britain, the US, and Europe, and includes indexes organized by photographer and subject, and collections of lantern slides. The site also offers the Pre-Cinema Project: Images of media and devices used before motion picture, and the Technology Collection: Images of photographic equipment and related technologies.
    • The Complete History of the Discovery of Cinematography: "Subtitled An Illustrated Chronological History Of The Development Of Motion Pictures Covering 2,500 Years Leading To Cinematography In The 1800's, this Website presents a prehistory of Cinematography beginning with the cave drawings at Lascaux and the shadow plays of Ancient China through the "earliest-ever extant illustration of the camera obscura in 1420 and finishing with the first true "films," albeit very short ones, in the late nineteenth century. The site is structured as an annotated timeline with graphic illustrations but, strangely, no video. Researched, compiled, and written by Paul T. Burns, a Canadian film historian, the Website offers an interesting summary of humankind's fascination with light and its capacity to project visions of the imagination"

URBAN LIVES

  • A Tour of London 150 Years Ago
  • City of Shadows: A Gothic Tour of Victorian London - includes texts of classic Victorian ghost stories by Mary Braddon, Elizabeth Gaskell and others.
  • The Nineteenth-Century City: includes discussions of such topics as education, work, law and order, fashion, architecture and transportation, with lots of illustrations.
  • Crystal Palace:  The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia has recently released Models of the Crystal Palace, an extension of the "Monuments and Dust: The Culture of Victorian London" research project (last mentioned in the December 4, 1998 Scout Report). This amazing site contains luminous photos of the shape and design of the Crystal Palace and provides source materials on its history and construction. The graphics include both high and low detail VRML models, along with interior and exterior animations that give clear and illuminating depictions of the palace. In addition, the site contains a "Lighting Simulation" field that renders images and animations of the building's lighting, as it existed in 1851. This is definitely a site to explore for architects and those users awe-struck by 3-D graphic images (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • A site on the History of Victorian Rail Systems, including a discussion of Dickens and the Railway.
  • WHAT'S A GUINEA? Money and Coinage in Victorian Britain
  • Victorian Economics: An Overview (from The Victorian Web): Victorian Economics: An Overview links synopses of Victorian economic thought with related ideas and cultural contexts. The perspectives of Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, and David Ricardo are presented in addition to opposing view-points from Thomas Carlyle, Charles Dickens,and John Ruskin. Additional resources on the Victorian publishing industry, intellectual property, and conceptions of social class complete the site (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • An overview of the effects of urbanization on medicine and medical practice in Victorian Britain: From Macbeth-like preparations of arsenic, iron or phosphorous to white coats and x-rays, the Victorians witnessed a medical revolution. Bruce Robinson gives a diagnosis in this BBC sponsored site.
  • Play the Game of Muck and Brass: It's the 1850s. Much of Britain's landscape is dominated by industrial towns and rapidly expanding cities. Market towns have become provincial backwaters. Millions of people live in poverty whilst a lucky few amass enormous wealth. This social gulf is the reality of Victorian Britain. Towns are built for industry and trade; not for people. Homes are thrown up in a hurry without a thought for their dwellers. Britain has become an economic powerhouse but a country of extremes. In this game you have to help iron out some of these extremes and improve the image of "Cottonopolis". To succeed you will have to think and act like a Victorian. The results of your decisions will be measured in a macabre combination of coffins and coins. Your unenviable task is to keep the city's coffers full whilst trying to save as many of your citizens as possible from an early grave. The choices are tough and the dilemmas real. How ready is your conscience for the realities of Victorian Britain? Play 'Muck and Brass' to find out.

CRIME AND PUNISHMENT

  • The Metropolitan Police: Background on Britain's first police force (from The Victorian Web)
  • Background on the 1860 Road Hill House murder case, which inspired writers such as Mary Braddon, Charles Dickens, and Wilkie Collins to pen murder mysteries, from Britain's History of the Metropolitan Police Website.
  • An online collection of hanging ballads and broadsides from Glasgow University
  • A Casebook on Jack the Ripper, Victorian London's most sensational serial killer. This site also has lots of background information on Victorian London, especially Whitechapel, including lots of primary documents such as letters, newspaper articles, photographs.
  • Crime and the Victorians: Garroting and the murders of Jack the Ripper provoked nation-wide panics during the 19th century. Were the Victorians right to think that crime was in decline? An analysis by Professor Clive Emsley, sponsored by the BBC.
  • A History and Gallery of Victorian Police Mugshots.
  • Dying Speeches & Bloody Murders: Crime Broadsides. From the Website: "Just as programs are sold at sporting events today, broadsides -- styled at the time as "Last Dying Speeches" or "Bloody Murders" -- were sold to the audiences that gathered to witness public executions in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Britain. These ephemeral publications were intended for the middle or lower classes, and most sold for a penny or less. Published in British towns and cities by printers who specialized in this type of street literature, a typical example features an illustration (usually of the criminal, the crime scene, or the execution); an account of the crime and (sometimes) the trial; and the purported confession of the criminal, often cautioning the reader in doggerel verse to avoid the fate awaiting the perpetrator. The Harvard Law School Library's collection of more than 500 broadsides is one of the largest recorded and the first to be digitized in its entirety. The examples digitized here span the years 1707 to 1891 and include accounts of executions for such crimes as arson, assault, counterfeiting, horse stealing, murder, rape, robbery, and treason. Many of the broadsides vividly describe the results of sentences handed down at London's central criminal court, the Old Bailey, the proceedings of which are now available online" (see below).
  • Old Bailey Proceedings Online: Formally known as the Central Criminal Court of London, the Old Bailey is arguably the world's most well-known criminal court. Serving the Commonwealth since the 17th century, the Old Bailey has seen hundreds of thousands of trials for every offense imaginable, along with serving as the setting for many important trials of the famous and infamous. Designed as a collaboration between the University of Sheffield and the University of Hertfordshire, this ambitious project aims to create a fully searchable digitized collection of the Old Bailey's entire proceedings from 1674 to 1913. Visitors can browse through 197,795 criminal trials. From the main page, visitors can search the proceedings (and elect to read a transcription of each trial or view the original document), read about the nature of the proceedings, and read some engaging background essays on crime and punishment through the court's history (Copyright 1994-2013 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Victorian Crime Fiction, An Introduction: This scholarly overview and bibliography by Christopher Pittard of the University of Exeter provides an overview of the Victorian fascination with mystery, detective, crime and sensation fiction. This page is part of a larger site called Crimeculture.com, an academic internet site on crime fiction, film and graphic art, which includes (among many helpful resources) an annotated bibliography.
  • Studies in Scarlet: Marriage & Sexuality in the U.S. & U.K., 1815-1914. "The history of sensational trials goes back much further than the days of Court TV, and even past the sordid business of Leopold and Loeb, which was known as the “Trial of the Century”. The good folks at the Harvard University Library are well aware of this fact, and they recently created this fascinating online archive of 420 trial narratives for use by historians and members of the web-browsing public who might be intrigued by such goings-on. Titled “Studies in Scarlet”, this collection includes American, British, and Irish cases from 1814 to 1914 that involve domestic violence, seduction, breach of promise to marry, and murder. While many of the lives chronicled here are not well-known to the public, there are a few recognizable trials, such as the trial of Harry Thaw for the murder of Stanford White, the famed architect, and a transcript of the adultery trial of Caroline, Queen Consort of George IV" (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).

MEDICINE and PSYCHOLOGY

  • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children:  From 10 beds in its modest beginnings in 1852, to 200 beds by the end of the 19th century, to 335 beds today, The Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (GOSH) was Britain's first hospital for sick children and is currently celebrating its 150th birthday. The site brings together medical profiles, notes, and photographs that expose the evolution of patient care.  Links from the home page take users on a journey of caring through the ages, what nursing was like, what surgery was like, a 150-year photographic gallery, and 150 years of achievement (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Sigmund Freud: Conflict & Culture: "Sigmund Freud: Conflict and Culture was organized by the Library of Congress in cooperation with the Sigmund Freud-Museum, Vienna and the Freud Museum, London. The exhibit features vintage photographs, prints, and original manuscripts. In addition, selected film and television clips, along with materials from newspapers, magazines, and comic books, are interwoven throughout the exhibition to highlight the influence of psychoanalysis on popular culture. The physical exhibition is composed of three major sections. Section one, Formative Years, highlights the milieu of Freud's early professional development in late nineteenth-century Vienna. Section two, The Individual: Therapy and Theory, examines key psychoanalytic concepts and how Freud used them in some of his most famous cases. Lastly, section three, From the Individual to Society, focuses on the diffusion of psychoanalytic ideas and Freud's speculations about the origins of society, the social functions of religion and art, and how crises reveal fundamental aspects of human nature. On the whole, the exhibition offers a moderate examination of Freud's life and his key ideas, as well as their effect upon the twentieth century" (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Relief of Pain and Suffering: "The symposium and exhibit titled Pain and Suffering in History - Narrative Science, Medicine and Culture marks the dedication of the John C. Liebeskind History of Pain Collection at the Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library, UCLA. The Relief of Pain and Suffering site, prepared in conjunction with the aforementioned symposium and exhibit, gives us plenty for which to be thankful in terms of advancements in the area of pain management. Tracing the modern roots of this field back to the nineteenth century and earlier, users can view historical pictures of botanicals, tools, and early writings all related to the alleviation of pain and suffering. Descriptions of syndromes like phantom limbs and causalgia abound as users travel towards the 21st century. Modern methods discussed include interdisciplinary team approaches to pain management and the Hospice movement's philosophies on pain treatment. Users can navigate the site in a variety of ways: through a series of topical links off of the main page, by moving through the site using arrow buttons, or through an index of illustrations and keywords. A final page of links to professional organizations related to the field nicely rounds out the site" (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Chapter Two from Barbara Gates' Victorian Suicide: Mad Crimes and Sad Histories (Princeton UP, 1988), reprinted with permission from the author by The Victorian Web.

RELIGION and PHILOSOPHY

  • Bibliography of Victorian Preaching: Compiled by Professor Robert H. Ellison of East Texas Baptist University for his new book, The Victorian Pulpit, this bibliography is an excellent introduction to the topic of Victorian preaching. The bibliography is divided into four sections: general studies, and Charles Haddon Spurgeon, John Henry Newman, and George MacDonald. Each of the last three sections is further divided into primary sources, nineteenth century materials, and twentieth century studies.
  • A page of topics related to religious practice and debate in the ninteenth century from the Victorian Web: subjects include a timeline of religion and philosophy, an overview of the Church of England (the Anglican Church), Unitarianism in Victorian England, atheism, and Judaism in Victorian England. Most include links to additional online resources and e-texts.
  • Links to some Pre-Victorian religious texts available online.
  • An overview of Spiritualism is available from The Victorian Web. Discussions of related topics and people include Theosophy and Madame Blavatsky; an overview of the life and philopsophy of mystic, philosopher, theologian, and scientist Emanuel Swedenborg; feminist, theosophist, and self-proclaimed prophet Dr. Anna Kingsford; and an overview of late-Victorian Occultism.
  • Topics related to Victorian philosophy from The Victorian Web include overviews of religious and moral, aesthetic, political philosophical trends and debates in the nineteenth century.

DEATH AND MOURNING CUSTOMS

SPIRITUALISM and "PSEUDO-SCIENCE"

    • A searchable online edition of George Combe's illustrated Element of Phrenology (1834).
    • A transcription of Charlotte Bronte's 1851 phrenological assessment (preserved by George Smith, her first reader at Smith and Elder), as well as an overview of references to phrenology in the Brontes' works.
    • The History of Phrenology on the Web: "Popular in early nineteenth-century Europe (especially in Britain), and later in America, phrenology was the controversial belief that one could determine the character and intellectual traits of a person by examining the shape and contours of the skull ("reading the bumps on your head"). Created and maintained by John van Wyhe of Cambridge University, this site claims to be "the largest and most comprehensive website for the history of phrenology." Contents include the full text of several phrenological works, phrenology images, a brief introduction and timeline, some contemporary criticism, and a critical bibliography. Links to other online texts and related sites are also provided. Despite some poor choices of background and text color that make portions of the site difficult to read, this site is a good resource for historians and general users interested in what its practitioners called, 'the only true science of mind'" (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
    • Wandering Between Two Worlds: Victorian England's Search for Meaning: A student report from the University of Massachusetts on Victorian England's fascination with pseudo-sciences such as phrenology, mesmerism, and spiritualism.
    • Wandering Between Two Worlds: Victorian England's Search for Meaning: A student report from the University of Massachusetts on Victorian England's fascination with pseudo-sciences such as phrenology, mesmerism, and spiritualism.
    • A brief outline of the origins and aims of the Society for Psychical Research in 1882. Charles Dodgson and Arthur Conan Doyle were members of this society.
    • Gaslight.com, a Web site devoted to mystery and supernatural fiction, offers a collection of online texts that includes a number of Victorian articles about spiritualism.
    • An overview of Spiritualism is available from The Victorian Web. Discussions of related topics and people include Theosophy and Madame Blavatsky; an overview of the life and philopsophy of mystic, philosopher, theologian, and scientist Emanuel Swedenborg; feminist, theosophist, and self-proclaimed prophet Dr. Anna Kingsford; and an overview of late-Victorian Occultism.
    • Background on "Arthur Conan Doyle, Spiritualism, and Fairies," includes images and background on the "Cottingley Fairy Photographs."
    • SpiritHistory: Emphemera (Alternate Title: Spirit History: Emphemera): "This Website explores spiritualist newspapers and other ephemera with collections of a few original texts, articles, photographs, drawings, advertisements, and notices from the time. One site offering that researchers should find particularly helpful is the lists of spiritualist lecturers, mediums, healers, and other progressives collected from directories, pamphlets, registers, almanacs, advertisements, convention attendance lists, and organizational membership lists. SpiritHistory is not intended so much as a general introduction to the subject of nineteenth-century American spiritualism as a signpost to aid further research" (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).

WORKING LIVES

  • Workhouse.org explores the history of Victorian workhouses for the poor, including detailed social and political background, images and descriptions of specific workhouses, and personal and literary accounts of workhouse life.
  • Southwell Union Workhouse, 1834-1871 [pdf]: "Visitors to the digital archive of the Southwell Union Workhouse with an interest in British history and the broader concerns of social welfare will be positively enthralled. Visitors without an interest in this subject may very well leave with the desire to learn quite a bit more. Recently, The National Archives in Britain digitized records from 1834 to 1871 that document the history of this well-known institution. Along with learning about the history of these places more generally, visitors will find correspondence between the administrators of the workhouse and the central
    authorities, along with details of individual paupers and workhouse staff. Visitors might wish to start at the "Introduction" area, and then move along to the search engine. Finally, the "Further Information" area contains additional links that provide additional context on the subject of poorhouses" (Copyright 1994-2008 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • "'Living the Poor Life': Poverty and the Workhouse in the Nineteenth Century" (Podcast from the British National Archives):
    Paul Carter's talk explores the poor life in 19th-century England and Wales. Using records from The National Archives, he presents allegations of cruelty to paupers, accounts of political and Chartist activities and much more.
  • Child Labor (from The Victorian Web)
  • Letters from a Victorian Governess
  • Elizabeth Rigby's review of Jane Eyre and Report on the Governesses' Benevolent Institution.
  • An article called "Suitable Dress" on Victorian servants' clothing from Harper's Bazar (November 2, 1867).
  • The Penny Magazine online - weekly magazine aimed at the working class
  • Victorian Economics: An Overview (from The Victorian Web): Victorian Economics: An Overview links synopses of Victorian economic thought with related ideas and cultural contexts. The perspectives of Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, and David Ricardo are presented in addition to opposing view-points from Thomas Carlyle, Charles Dickens,and John Ruskin. Additional resources on the Victorian publishing industry, intellectual property, and conceptions of social class complete the site (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • The Victorian Poor Law: An Overview (from The Victorian Web)
  • Victorian Occupations: Life and Labor in the Victorian Period as Seen by Artists, Writers, and Modern Historians (from The Victorian Web).
  • Victorian Social History: An Overview (from The Victorian Web). Contains a treasure trove of pages devoted to such social issues as public health, labor, race, class, gender, education and economics.
  • This collection of factory images and artifacts from Virtual Victorians represents the life and labor of Victorian factory workers. Also check out a typical "day in the life" of two factory workers.
  • A student report from another university on factory working conditions and child labor.
  • "Factory Life—Its Novels and Facts" (PDF) an essay published in the November 1855 issue of the Unitarian journal The Christian Examiner and Religious Miscellany (vol. LIX no. 3). The essay includes reviews of Gaskell's North and South and Dickens' Hard Times.

INDUSTRY AND TECHNOLOGY

  • Industrialization and Invention: The prosperity of the Victorian age was built on a period of rapid economic growth that had its roots in the Industrial Revolution. Dr. Christine MacLeod traces its development and shows that the process owes as much to evolution as revolution.
  • The Workshop of the World: The Industrial revolution promoted the world's first industrial and consumer-oriented society in Britain. in this site Pat Hudson looks at the forces that made Britain the workshop of the world and explains why this industrial dominance lasted such a short time.
  • Victorian Technology: Victorian society was transformed by engineering ingenuity and entrepreneurial prowess, with the most striking advances made in the field of communication. This site by Paul Atterbury examines the legacy of these extraordinary advances in technology.
  • This collection of factory images and artifacts from Virtual Victorians represents the life and labor of Victorian factory workers. Also check out a typical "day in the life" of two factory workers.
  • A student report from another university on factory working conditions and child labor.

WOMEN AND THE DOMESTIC SPHERE

  • A site about Godey's Lady's Book, one of the earliest and most popular nineteenth-century magazines devoted to women's interests and lives, includes background and history as well as a number of searchable issues.
  • Playing House: Homemaking for Children: The world of domesticity in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was one that placed a premium on oversight of many aspects of the home. While many instructional devices (such as books and manuals) were created to instruct women in the fine arts of cookery, laundry, and other areas, there were equivalent materials created for young girls. As part of their ongoing work, the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections project has created this digital collection that brings together several of these manuals from this period. All told, the collection contains five such works, including Elizabeth Hale Gilman's Things Girls Like To Do from 1917 and her oft- cited work from 1916, Housekeeping. Each work can be viewed in its entirety, and visitors can also perform searches across the entire collection (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • How to Make It as a Woman: An exhaustive bibliography of biographical books published in English between 1830 and 1940 that present three or more women's lives, including works of poetry, drama, lectures, historiography, catalogues or encyclopedias, advice or advocacy, even historical fiction.
  • Ideals of Womanhood in Victorian Britain, by Dr. Lynn Abrahms. A woman’s place was in the home. Domesticity and motherhood were portrayed as a sufficient emotional fulfillment. These constructs kept women far away from the public sphere, but charitable missions began to extend the female role of service and Victorian feminism emerged as a potent political force.
  • Women and Urban Life in Victorian Britain, by Professor Lynda Nead. The idea of femininity was encapsulated in the idea of the "woman's mission" but, as Lynda Nead shows, the moral health of the empire could no longer afford to rely on the passive behavior of its women. They were ready to take to the streets and live an independent life.
  • Play the BBC Women's Rights Game: What use would women have of a university education? Why should women want to keep their earnings for themselves? Who would want to be treated by a woman doctor? Play the game by knocking on the doors of Victorian opportunity - but don't expect too much too soon.
  • Gender Matters: background on gender from The Victorian Web. Includes overviews of representations of women in the visual arts, women's economic status and occupations , detailed discussions of Victorian gender theory, and background on Victorian Theories of Sex and Sexuality
  • Victorian Women—Social History: includes background on women's rights, work, education, fashion, and recreation (from The Victorian Web)
  • An e-text of the Victorian era's most influential and enduring domestic advice book, Isabella Beecher's The Book of Household Mangement (1861). The book's full title is: The Book of Household Management Comprising information for the Mistress, Housekeeper, Cook, Kitchen-Maid, Butler, Footman, Coachman, Valet, Upper and Under House-Maids, Lady’s-Maid, Maid-of-all-Work, Laundry-Maid, Nurse and Nurse-Maid, Monthly Wet and Sick Nurses, etc. etc. – also Sanitary, Medical, & Legal Memoranda: with a History of the Origin, Properties, and Uses of all Things Connected with Home Life and Comfort.
  • Studies in Scarlet: Marriage & Sexuality in the U.S. & U.K., 1815-1914. "The history of sensational trials goes back much further than the days of Court TV, and even past the sordid business of Leopold and Loeb, which was known as the “Trial of the Century”. The good folks at the Harvard University Library are well aware of this fact, and they recently created this fascinating online archive of 420 trial narratives for use by historians and members of the web-browsing public who might be intrigued by such goings-on. Titled “Studies in Scarlet”, this collection includes American, British, and Irish cases from 1814 to 1914 that involve domestic violence, seduction, breach of promise to marry, and murder. While many of the lives chronicled here are not well-known to the public, there are a few recognizable trials, such as the trial of Harry Thaw for the murder of Stanford White, the famed architect, and a transcript of the adultery trial of Caroline, Queen Consort of George IV" (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Food Timeline: "The Food Timeline was developed by a 'reference librarian with a passion for food history,' and her dedication is evident in the link near the top of the page entitled "About Culinary Research". Clicking on this link is extremely helpful for those researching food, and just plain interesting for those who are simply curious. In a nutshell, the author tells the visitor that research on food history is quite difficult and complex, and gives a bounty of hints on how to approach a particular food puzzler. She also notes that very few foods have been invented, rather they have just evolved. The timeline is smack dab in the middle of the homepage, and has links galore. It has links to individual ingredients, as well as to complete dishes and historically important cookbooks. Near the bottom of the homepage, below the timeline, is a menu of choices that includes:
    'Teacher Resources,' 'Historic Menu Collections,' 'Digitized Cookbooks,' and 'Historic Food Prices' "
    (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).

CLOTHING AND FASHION

CHILDHOOD AND CHILDREN'S LITERATURE

  • The New Child, 1730-1830
  • The Sepia Child - photographs of children by Lewis Carroll
  • A collection of Victorian and Edwardian photographs of children
  • Child Labor in the Nineteenth Century
  • Child Labor (from The Victorian Web)
  • A timeline of child protection legislation from The Guardian.
  • The Penny Magazine online - weekly magazine aimed at the working class
  • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children:  From 10 beds in its modest beginnings in 1852, to 200 beds by the end of the 19th century, to 335 beds today, The Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (GOSH) was Britain's first hospital for sick children and is currently celebrating its 150th birthday. The site brings together medical profiles, notes, and photographs that expose the evolution of patient care.  Links from the home page take users on a journey of caring through the ages, what nursing was like, what surgery was like, a 150-year photographic gallery, and 150 years of achievement (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Nineteenth Century Children's Literature -- The British Library: This database, maintained by the publishing house of Chadwyck-Healey, Ltd., provides searchable records of the British Library's Children's Literature collection, which contains 2,369 titles on 5,527 fiches. Search parameters include title and complete record keyword, author, subject, publisher, year(s) of publication, microfiche number, and number of records retrieved. (Users may also browse possible search terms for each parameter.) Each entry gives a full bibliographic record for the individual text, including author, uniform title, imprint, place and date of publication, pagination, copy-specific notes, British Library shelfmark, and Fiche quantity and number. The site is part of The Nineteenth Century, a larger collection from Chadwyck-Healey and the British Library that catalogs an impressive array of nineteenth-century texts useful for historical and cultural studies (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • This collection of childhood images and artifacts from Virtual Victorians represents the life and labor of Victorian children.
  • The Hockliffe Project: "Created by Dr. Matthew Grenby, Hockliffe Research Fellow at De Montfort University, this site presents digitized versions of about 100 late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century British books for children. Plans are underway to mount the entire Hockliffe catalog of over 1,000 early children's books on the Web as the entry point to the digitized versions. Once a title is selected, page images are presented in a frame with page numbers for navigation in an adjacent frame. A good selection of the many types of writing for children is already present at the site: fairy tales, fables, magazines, and moral and educational stories, such as several versions of Cinderella, Aesop's fables, and Jack and the Beanstalk. All the digitized texts are accompanied by explanatory essays, which may be the best way to start into the books, since the essays include links to pages within the texts themselves and related reference materials" (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Cotsen Children's Library: Virtual Children's Books Exhibits: "Princeton University's virtual exhibit of past exhibits of children's book illustrations offers visuals and brief explanations geared towards children and adults. The easy-to-use website is divided into four virtual exhibits, that contain a portion of what the physical exhibits at the Cotsen Children's Library at Princeton University displayed. The four exhibits can be accessed by clicking on their links on the homepage. The "Water Babies" exhibit contains illustrations of swimming, and was meant as a respite for kids who couldn't escape the city's heat. Each illustration in the virtual exhibit is accompanied by a short synopsis of the book or publication it came from, and often a web link or reading suggestion for more information on the author, illustrator, or subject matter of the book. The "Magic Lantern" virtual exhibit contains illustrations of magic lanterns, a type of projector widely available for home use, that were the precursors to film and television, and which enthralled children and adults alike. The "Creepy-Crawlies" exhibit highlighted the many illustrations of insects in children's books and natural history. The insects in children's books were most often portrayed as evil or villainous. But, if visitors can put those feelings aside, they will find many beautifully rendered drawings. The physical "Beatrix Potter" exhibit coincided with the publication of the Beatrix Potter Collection of Lloyd Cotsen in 2004, and the virtual exhibit contains illustrations by Potter, and others, with whom the visitor can use for comparison, to see Potter's unique style" (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).

EDUCATION

  • Education in Victorian England: Detailed background on all aspects of Victorian education from the Victorian Web
  • British Education: 1700-1950: Includes background on prominant educators and educational theorists, education legislation, and schools
  • An Online Collection of 19th-Century Schoolbooks: "This demonstration project by the University of Pittsburgh Digital Research Library proves that digital versions of rare books can be as enjoyable as the original print. Currently, digitized versions of 30 nineteenth-century textbooks selected from the Nietz Old Textbook Collection are available, covering reading, writing, and 'rithmatic, and beyond. The site allows users to page through the books as they would with hard copies. There is a table of contents for each book, including a bookmarkable URL and bibliographic citation, from which one can proceed to chapters and even skip to the pictures. Powerful Boolean and simple searching are provided, with ample help screens. In addition, a searchable citation bibliography contains entried for the complete Nietz Collection, some 16,000 volumes" (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).

INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS

Jane Austen
 

Charlotte Bronte 

Mary Elizabeth Braddon

Lewis Carroll

  • Read and "turn the pages" of Carroll's original manuscript of Alice's Adventures Under Ground, the latest 3D addition to the British Library's Turning The Pages collection of books available via the Web. Using Flash technology, the manuscript can be virtually "handled." Viewers can also choose to listen to an audio version of the book, and to zoom in and exam the text in greater detail.
  • Lewis Carroll: An Overview: A detailed collection of Web pages from the Victorian Web offers information on Carroll's biography, literary reputation, themes, and historical, economic, scientific and aesthetic contexts.
  • Lewis Carroll Homepage: Sponsored by the Lewis Carroll Society of North America, this site offers a guide to Web and print Lewis Carroll resources and documents.
  • Contrariwise: Lewis Carroll & the Carroll Myth: A site devoted to recent, revisionary biographical research into the complex life of Lewis Carroll/Charles Dodgson, and some of the mysteries and puzzles surrounding his life, literary work, and reputation.
  • An online portfolio of Lewis Carroll photographs from the Princeton University Library Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. An online exhibit of Carroll's photographs from the University of Texas at Austin's Harry Ransome Research Library, includes a page devoted to Carroll's photographs of children.
  • Lewis Carroll Scrapbook: While there have been many notable mathematicians that have made Oxford University (England) home for their academic careers, one of them is better known for his fiction writing than for his problem solving. The Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, also known as Lewis Carroll, was the author one of the best known children's story, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865). Also to his credit is Through the Looking-Glass (1871). At this site maintained by the Library of Congress visitors will find the contents of a scrapbook kept by Carroll during the middle years of his life from 1855 to 1871. Of the 200 pages, 63 contain clippings and writing and all of these are available to view at the site. Users can browse or search for specific items by title or subject (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Michael Hancher's 1985 book, The Tenniel Illustrations to the "Alice" Books is no longer in print, but The Ohio State University Press has recently made it available to download (in pdf format), along with many other out of print texts.
  • In "Alice on Film and Video," educator and author Monica Edinger offers descriptions of (and links to) Alice-related video clips available on Youtube, which include a 1934 Betty Boop cartoon, "Betty in Blunderland," a 1954 Alice-themed Jello commercial, and a 1960s drugstore commercial, "Alice in Rexall-Land."
  • Cecil M. Hepworth's 1903 Alice in Wonderland, the first cinematic version of Alice's adventures, is also now available to see on YouTube, with added commentary by the British Film Institute's Simon Brown.

Joseph Conrad 

Charles Darwin

  • The Complete Work of Charles Darwin: A tremendously helpful and compelling website edited by Cambridge University professor Dr. John van Wyhe. Even persons with only a cursory interest in the work of Charles Darwin will find that this site warrants several visits. As noted by the site’s introduction, visitors can find all of Darwin’s publications here in their entirety, for a current total of over 50,000 searchable text pages and 40,000 images. Casual visitors can look over a complete list of the materials by clicking on the “Contents” section, and scholars may want to leap on over to the very thorough bibliography, which is based on R.B. Freeman’s 1977 work, “The Works of Charles Darwin: An Annotated Bibliographical Handlist.” The site is rounded out by a biographical sketch of the prolific scientist and historian, also included are a number of obituaries of this most unique individual (Copyright 1994-2006 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Darwin Correspondence Online Database: In addition to summaries of nearly 14,500 letters written by or to Charles Darwin during his lifetime, the full texts of almost all known letters from the years 1837 to 1859 are available online in the Darwin Correspondence Database. These letters cover the years between Darwin's return from the Beagle voyage and the publication of Origin of Species and were published in volumes 2 to 7 of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin (Cambridge UP).
  • Darwin, Charles, Autobiography.
  • Jenkin, Fleeming. 'Review of Darwin's The origin of species' The North British Review, June 1867, 46, pp. 277-318.
  • Owen, Richard. Review of Darwin's Origin of Species, Edinburgh Review, 3, 1860, pp. 487-532.
Charles Dickens

      Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

  • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: His Life, All His Works and More: " Sometimes a spiritualist, and always a writer and a true Englishman, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's tales of detection and fantasy have delighted readers for well over a century. Lovers of his work will enjoy this site, and they can feel free to browse through a number of the Sherlock Holmes tales here
    along with the complete full novels. Those who are less acquainted with Doyle's life and times may wish to start by reading the "About Sir Conan Doyle" area. Here they will find an extended biographical essay on Doyle and a list of his works. Then visitors will want to browse through his stories at their leisure. Visitors who are unfamiliar with the tales of Holmes may wish to start by reading "The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle" and "A Scandal in Bohemia"
    (Copyright 1994-2008 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Discovering Arthur Conan Doyle: A Community Reading Project. Sponsored by Stanford University. Discovering Arthur Conan Doyle offers downloadable (pdf) facsimiles of two early Holmes stories, “A Scandal in Bohemia” and “The Speckled Band”; the nine-part novel, The Hound of the Baskervilles; and the famous “last” encounter between Holmes and Moriarty, “The Final Problem,” just as they were originally printed and illustrated in The Strand Magazine. The site also offers a wealth of richly illustrated background information on these stories and their creator, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
  • Sherlockian.net:  This venerable yet active metasite offers comprehensive links to everything in 221B Baker Street and beyond. Categories include the original Sherlock Holmes stories, Arthur Conan Doyle, major Sherlockian sites, actors and films, books and libraries, parodies, and Victorian Britain.
  • The Chronicles of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: While Sir Arthur Conan Doyle might not have invented the detective story, certainly his numerous works devoted to the sophisticated observations and deductions of Sherlock Holmes and his companion John Watson are some of the most beloved contributions to the genre. Launched several years ago, the Web site is frequently updated, and offers a nice selection of materials that relate the story of Doyle's own life and the many adventures of Holmes and Watson. From the main page, visitors can read about Who's Who in the elaborate world of Sherlock Holmes, browse a list of the stories featuring Holmes and Watson, and read about the death of Sherlock Holmes. Interestingly enough, Doyle's decision to end the storied life of Holmes led 20,000 people to the magazine in which his final story appeared to cancel their subscriptions. The site is rounded out by an essay that describes Doyle's intense belief in spiritualism and some brief discussion of his other works of fiction, most notably The Lost World (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Arthur Conon Doyle and Spiritualism: discusses Doyle's interest in the supernatural and psychic research.
  • A Guide to Classic Mystery and Detection: A fan site with "reading lists and essays on great mysteries," includes discussions of Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories, and sensation fiction such as Braddon's Lady Audley's Secret.
  • Gaslight.com, a Web site devoted to mystery and supernatural fiction, offers a wonderful selection of Victorian and early twentieth-century Sherlock Holmes parodies and pastiches. Their collection of online texts also offers a number of Victorian articles about spiritualism.
  • Victorian Crime Fiction, An Introduction: This scholarly overview and bibliography by Christopher Pittard of the University of Exeter provides an overview of the Victorian fascination with mystery, detective, crime and sensation fiction. This page is part of a larger site called Crimeculture.com, an academic internet site on crime fiction, film and graphic art, which includes (among many helpful resources) an annotated bibliography.
Elizabeth Gaskell

The Pre-Raphaelites

  • The Pre-Raphaelite Critic: "Thomas J. Tobin, a graduate student at Duquesne University, has assembled this comprehensive scholarly archive of critical articles from the nineteenth century regarding the Pre-Raphaelite circle of painters and poets. The archive contains citations of magazine and newspaper reviews of pre-Raphaelite works from 1849-1900. The archive is indexed in four HTML tables: Alphabetical by Author Last Name, Chronological by Article Publication Date, By Subject-Heading in William Fredeman's Pre-Raphaelitism, and Alphabetical by Periodical Title. The archive contains a few full text selections of reviews, and Tobin plans to add more as he scans them. Additional site features include a collection of plates of pre-Raphaelite works and audio recordings of poems from the 1965 Decca/Argo Records release of The Pre-Raphaelites" (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • The Pre-Raphaelite Lens: British Photograph and Painting, 1848-1875:
    "The National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. has an intriguing online exhibit about the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which was formed by threepainters, J.E. Millais, W.H. Hunt, and D.G. Rossetti in the 1840s, as a response to the establishment of photography as a popular medium. The Brotherhood and their followers aimed to "return to the purity, sincerity, and clarity of detail found in medieval and early Renaissance art that preceded Raphael (1483–1520)." The images in the exhibit are of both photographs and paintings, and many of the paintings are such fine interpretations of natural scenes that they look much like photographs. The John Ruskin painting of a clump of birch and ferns on page three is stunning in its own right. The photograph by John Payne Jennings on page six includes not only an image of the natural setting, but also a painter who is painting the same scene. The caption states that such occurrences were common at the time, which also makes such items even more interesting" (Copyright 1994-2011 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
Christina Rossetti

Christina Rossetti Archive
Christina Georgina Rossetti
Christina Rossetti Overview (from The Victorian Web)
The Pre-Raphaelite Critic: "Thomas J. Tobin, a graduate student at Duquesne University, has assembled this comprehensive scholarly archive of critical articles from the nineteenth century regarding the Pre-Raphaelite circle of painters and poets. The archive contains citations of magazine and newspaper reviews of pre-Raphaelite works from 1849-1900. The archive is indexed in four HTML tables: Alphabetical by Author Last Name, Chronological by Article Publication Date, By Subject-Heading in William Fredeman's Pre-Raphaelitism, and Alphabetical by Periodical Title. The archive contains a few full text selections of reviews, and Tobin plans to add more as he scans them. Additional site features include a collection of plates of pre-Raphaelite works and audio recordings of poems from the 1965 Decca/Argo Records release of The Pre-Raphaelites" (Copyright 1994-2009 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).

Robert Louis Stevenson
  • The Robert Louis Stevenson Web Site:
    Perhaps best known for his novels "Treasure Island" and "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," Robert Louis Stevenson receives a fine tribute on this site, which serves both as a compendium of links, and as a nice resource for primary documents and writings by, and about, this notable 19th century writer. Created and maintained by Richard Drury, a graduate of the University of Manchester and a professor at the Universita di Bergamo, the site contains a number of thematic sections that address Stevenson's life, available online electronic editions of his works, and extended bibliographies. Visitors unfamiliar with the life of this rather fascinating man may want to start by reading one of the online essays about his life, or by diving right into one of the electronic editions of his works. Of particular interest to Stevenson scholars and aficionados will be the "Critical Reception" area of the site that explores the ways in which his work has been received over the past century or so (Copyright 1994-2007 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • Perspectives on Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, a supplement to Martin Danahay's Broadview edition of Stevenson's novel
Bram Stoker
    Alfred, Lord Tennyson
William Makepeace Thackeray

Oscar Wilde

  • The Oscar Wilde Collection: "Added after its initial publication, the preface to The Picture of Dorian
    Gray
    allowed Oscar Wilde to directly address some of the initial criticism of his rather controversial novel. Perhaps one of the most well-known epigrams offered in that statement is 'There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all.' Visitors to this site can read this preface (and the complete novel), along with many other works by Wilde. These works include The Happy Prince and Other Stories, A House of Pomegranates, and plays like An Ideal Husband and The Importance of Being Earnest. Of course, visitors should not overlook his masterful poem, 'The Ballad of Reading Gaol' " (Copyright 1994-2008 Internet Scout Project - http://scout.wisc.edu).
  • The Trials of Oscar Wilde: a detailed Web site devoted to analysis of and texts related to Oscar Wilde's 1895 legal battles.
  • Reading Wilde, Querying Spaces: an exhibition from NYU commemorating the 100-year anniversary of the trials of Oscar Wilde, examining ten themes of interest in Wilde's life and work. From the site's introductions.
  • A bibliography of biographical, critical and bibliographic works on Wilde, compiled by Dr. Clifton Snider, UC Long Beach.
  • The Oscar Wilde Society publishes a journal on Oscar Wilde studies, The Wildean.
  • An online journal, The Oscholars, is also devoted to research on Wilde.
  • Oscar Wilde in San Francisco-1882:An account of Wilde's visit to San Francisco in 1882 that includes a nasty cartoon from the San Francisco Wasp. Be sure to read the San Francisco Chronicle's review of Wilde's lecture on "Art Decoration," and local humorist Ambrose Bierce's denunciation of Wilde (Museum of the City of San Francisco).

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