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College of Science and Engineering

Department of Chemical Engineering

ChE 3211-4211

Fall Semester, 1999

UMD Department of Chemical Engineering

ChE 3211 AND ChE 4211


The laboratory phase of this course provides you an opportunity to observe chemical and physical properties of matter and apply principles of chemical engineering discussed in the classroom. The objectives of this course are:

  1. To gain experience in using laboratory safety procedures.

  2. To plan experimental strategy to meet the stated problem objectives using, where applicable, basic experimental design concepts.

  3. To familiarize one with experimental laboratory investigations for scale-up of large-scale processes.

  4. To gain experience in taking accurate measurements, analyzing experimental data and error, and comparing results to theory.

  5. To refine your technical communications skills in preparing and presenting oral and written reports.

  6. To learn how to contribute professionally as a member of a laboratory team.

Developing technical communication skills in this course is heavily emphasized in addition to the lab experience. A formal written report, either a final or short report, is required for each lab and each student writes independent reports. Experiment assignments are listed by name. The lab schedule includes the assignments and due dates for the written reports. The lab schedule will be posted in the lab before the first Laboratory period.


  1. Students are forbidden to enter the stockroom at any time without the Faculty Instructor or Lab Services Coordinator.

  2. The cleanliness of the lab is your responsibility. Everyone working at a lab bench should cooperate to see that their bench is clean at the end of each period.

  3. The laboratory will be open only during the regularly scheduled periods. Should there be circumstances which prevent you from completing an experiment during the regularly scheduled periods, see the Faculty Instructor and Lab Services Coordinator.

  4. Proper safety precautions must be observed at all times. Read the Department Safety Rules found in Attachment 1. These rules will be enforced by the Faculty Instructor and the Lab Services Coordinator. It is also your responsibility to report any unsafe equipment or accidents to your Faculty Instructor.

  5. All students enrolled in this course will have to purchase a Chemical Engineering laboratory breakage card. If a card is not purchased and turned in to the Lab Services Coordinator by the beginning of the second week of classes you will not be able to begin the experiments. See Attachment 2 for additional information

  6. Balances will not be assigned. It is your responsibility to make sure the shared balances are clean after using them.

  7. Experiments will require the use of specialized glassware and instruments. The equipment will be checked out from the stockroom and returned at the completion of the experiment. A laboratory checkout slip is included with each experimental write up listing most of the equipment needed for the experiment. This slip should be used to check out the equipment for the experiment. After you receive the equipment it should be checked for damage. If anything is damaged, call it to the attention of the Lab Services Coordinator since you will be charged for any damage when the equipment is checked back in. The student who breaks a piece of equipment should report it to the Lab Services Coordinator when it is broken so it can be billed to his or her breakage card and a replacement issued. If equipment is found damaged when it is checked back in and no one will admit breaking it, the damaged item will be billed to the student whose name is on the laboratory check out slip.

  8. Equipment shall be cleaned before it is returned.

  9. Chemicals needed for the experiment will be available in the laboratory. If you cannot locate them ask the Lab Services Coordinator.

  10. Any questions concerning these instructions should be raised during the first or second lab period.


The class will be divided into groups of three or less. It is up to each group to work out the duties and responsibilities of each individual member. However you are encouraged to rotate the duties between members from one experiment to the next. Since each member is required to write a full report on each experiment, it is imperative that everyone is familiar with all the practical details even though each individual does not necessarily perform each and every operation.



The key to success in the laboratory is to continually ask: What am I looking for? Why am I measuring this parameter? Does this measurement really help answer my first question? What information does this measurement give me? etc. Where appropriate, your experimental plan should answer the following questions and address these points:

  1. Establish clear objectives (e.g., verification of a performance model, a theoretical analysis, or a study of physical phenomena).

  2. Establish the primary measured variables (e.g., T, P, C, V).

  3. What are the experimental control requirements (e.g., constant T, V, P, m)?

  4. What ranges of the primary variables are needed to observe the phenomena under study?

  5. Determine the accuracy required in the primary variables and the number of measurements needed for proper estimation of uncertainty and data analysis.

  6. Set up data reduction calculations before conducting the experiment.

  7. Analyze the possible errors in the anticipated results before conducting the experiment.

  8. Select instrumentation for the various measurements to match the anticipated accuracy requirements.

  9. What safety precautions are necessary?

1   Adapted from:  Holman, J.P., Experimental Methods in Engineering, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 35-37, 1994.


Careful preparation before starting the experiment will improve the quality and quantity of your data. In addition, it will enable you make more efficient use of your time in the laboratory. It is essential that you read the description of the experiment before coming to the laboratory. You are required to formulate a "Work Plan" while reading the description.

The Work Plan is essentially a checklist of tasks to be performed to complete a project. In the work setting, work plans are used routinely. They enable rough estimates of time, labor, materials to be made.

Your work plan for each new experiment will be reviewed very briefly by the Faculty Instructor at the beginning of the first day of a new experiment. You should reach a consensus with the other individuals in your group by comparing work plans. Then proceed with the experiment.

As you proceed with the experiment, you will notice tasks, which you wished had been included in the Work Plan at the outset. Add these to your work plan. Attach your work plan as an Appendix to your Report.

The Work Plan should be very brief, and should not be more than a page long. A generic work plan is included at the end for your guidance. Remember a work plan is never likely to be perfect; experimental work is full of the unexpected! However, the writing of a work plans is always beneficial for minimizing the detrimental consequences of the unexpected.


Data should be written onto a data sheet. Engineering paper is suitable. Attach your data sheets as an Appendix to your report. Photocopies of the original data sheet will be accepted.

The data sheets will be graded - see course information. The following features will be examined:


All members of the group should be present in the laboratory while the experiment is running.

All members of the group should be aware of what is happening in the experiment at any given time. The Faculty Instructor will be on hand to question you in this regard.


Experimental set-ups can not normally be left assembled until the experiment is finished. At the end of each lab period, all equipment should be removed from the work area and returned to the stockroom. Desk tops should be cleaned at the end of the period as mentioned in the laboratory rules and procedures. Work should be scheduled accordingly to leave time for cleaning. All items used in the set-up of a given experiment checked out of the stockroom must be returned to the stockroom by the end of the last date for that experiment.


Many engineers and scientists find the writing of reports difficult. Graduates in their first industrial job will quickly realize the importance of writing. This course provides the opportunity. The assigned text is "A Guide to Writing as an Engineer," by D. Beer and D. McMurrey, Wiley & Sons, 1997. You are expected to follow the rules of grammar and style described therein. The following sources are also recommended:

You will be required to produce two types of reports: a full report and a memo report in memo form.

Guidelines for the full report

Sample Report
A Sample Report for a very simple experiment is attached. Its purpose is to illustrate how a report should be organized and to indicate the kind of material it should contain. This example is not meant to provide a rigid outline; the content of the report will depend upon the context and your judgement. General comments now follow.

Full length reports must be bound with a GBC type of binding and a card stock cover. The report's title and author's name must be printed on the cover.

Reports should be prepared on letter-size paper (8½ by 11 in) with the following layout:
Left and right margins - 1.25 in (left margin is from the inside edge of the binding);
Top & Bottom margins - at least 1.00 in (including page numbers); and
Line spacing - double spacing.
You are free to use a proportional font, Times is preferred. You should avoid the use of a type style that is San serif, such as Helvetica, for scientific writing. The point size should be 12 point. Titles and headings may be larger, San serif type.

Do not write information directly out of laboratory handouts or references. Paraphrase or summarize it, and cite the source. It is not essential to start each section on a new page.

The title should be in capital letters and centered between the margins. The page should include your name, your partners' names, and the date on which the report was submitted.

This should contain about 100 words or less. The important result should be quoted with its associated error. If the experiment generates many data, the range of values should be given instead. There should be no references. Additional notes are appended in Attachment 3.

Table of Contents
This should include the Sections, Appendices and their page numbers.

This should state the purpose of the experiment and give a very brief outline of the necessary theory, which is often done by citing pertinent equations. (In the Sample Report, the theory is simple.) A very short description of the experimental method with mention of any special apparatus should be included. The relevance, general importance or an application of the experiment should be described in one or two sentences. The Introduction should be between 100 and 300 words.

A condensed derivation of the equations to be used may be given here. An equation may be part of a complete sentence. Number all equations that occupy separate lines consecutively throughout the entire report and refer to them by number. Symbols may be defined in a notation section; this is usually done if there are many symbols. Otherwise, all symbols should be defined at the point where they first appear. A condensed tabulation of essential data is often useful. It is unnecessary and undesirable to present all computations in the report; however, a typical sample calculation should be given to show how the calculations were done.

Appendices may be used to present detailed derivations, and long calculations. For a long calculation it is desirable to tabulate all important intermediate results - this should be done in an Appendix.

A theory is not tested in the Sample Report. In cases where theories are tested, the expected results should be discussed.

Experimental (Experimental Methods)
This section is usually extremely brief and merely cites the appropriate references which describe the details of the experimental procedure. Reference will usually be made to the laboratory handout. A description of experimental procedures should be given only for those features not described in or differing from that described in the reference. A simple sketch of the apparatus is appropriate only when it differs from that described in the reference.

Criteria for equilibrium or steady state should be given when appropriate. A statement of the number of runs made and the conditions under which they were carried out (concentration, temperature, pressure, etc.) should always be included at the end of this section. This helps the reader to understand the presentation of the results.

Here you should draw the attention of the reader to the location of the raw data, intermediate results and error calculations; these items will probably be in the Appendices. The presentation of results in graphs is preferred to tables. The final results should be presented here or at the beginning of the next section.

Discussion (Conclusions/Recommendations)
This is the most flexible section of the entire report. The final results of the experiment should be clearly presented if they have not been done so in the Results Section. A comparison between these results and theoretical values or experimental values from the literature is usually appropriate. Error limits are important for such discussions. Comments should be made on any discrepancies. In the Sample Report, comment is made on "internal discrepancies", possible systematic errors, and the relative importance of various sources of random error. A brief suggestion is made for an improvement in the experimental method.

Make sure that each one is cited at least once in the body of the report. References cited by the authors' name and date are the most straight forward here.

List all symbols with definitions, and typical units. If the number of symbols is small, define them at the point where they first appear in the body of the text, and omit this section.

Make sure that each one is cited at least once in the body of the report. Appendices may used for any material that would "clutter up" the body of the report.

Axes of graphs should be clearly labelled with the variable and its units (see NOTE 1 below). The variable is best described in words along with its symbol. Data and theoretical curves should be clearly distinguished by using a legend. Each graph and illustration should be numbered sequentially with an Arabic numeral accompanied with a title. If using a spreadsheet, make sure you plot the type of graph you want (usually an "XY" graph). Your reports must include a minimum of one figure of a schematic of the apparatus.

Column headings for numerical data should contain units (see NOTE 1 below). Horizontal lines are often sufficient to format a table -- look at how tables are formatted in a textbook. Boxes are neat, but can often take much longer to print. Each table should be numbered sequentially with a Roman numeral accompanied with a title. Conditions relating to each experiment should be given in a table -- footnotes can be useful to do this.

"The data are given in Table I and plotted in Figure 2." When referring to tables and figures in the body of the report, the words "table" and "figure" should start with a capital letter.

NOTE 1: Column Headings in Tables and Labels in Graphs

The value of a physical quantity is expressed as the product of a pure number and a unit, for example:

p = 1.013 x 105 Pa,

which rearranges to
p/Pa = 1.013 x 105,

p/(Pa 105) = 1.013.

To avoid repetition of the unit symbol, it is common practice to tabulate data in the form of pure numbers. It follows that column headings should be dimensionless, e.g., p/Pa and not p(Pa). A column heading such as p(Pa) implies pressure multiplied by Pa, when one really means pressure divided by Pa. As an example of this notation, the data in Table II refer to the vapor pressure of acetone at various temperatures:

Table II. Vapor pressure data for acetone (used in Antoine plot)

             T/oC   T/K   p/(105 Pa)  103K/T  log10(p/Pa)
              40    313     0.561      3.195     4.749
              50    323     0.817      3.096     4.912
              60    333     1.155      3.003     5.063
              70    343     1.600      2.915     5.204
The same considerations apply to the labeling of graphs. It is clear when this convention is being used - the solidus (/) is always present.

Guidelines for Report in Memo Form - Memo Report

The memo should be written to explain: 1) why you did this work, 2) how you did it, 3) what you found, and 4) what you think it means. The length of the memo should be no more than two pages. As a guide, one paragraph should be sufficient to cover each of the four explanations. A sample Memo Report is attached.

An appendix or appendices that contain calculations, error analysis, tables and graphs should be attached; follow the guidelines for the full report here.


Next in importance to technical competence in the work place is your ability to provide effective oral communication of your ideas. In fact, your oral presentation skills may be the deciding factor in determining your future success, distinguishing you from other engineers with the same technical skills and training.2

The pre-lab quizzes were intended to provide you with an informal setting to practice communicating technical ideas. In order to give you some additional experience with formal oral technical communication, your final laboratory report will be delivered as a 10 minute oral presentation. Follow these guidelines to develop your talk:

2   The ACS Style Guide, J.S. Dodd, ed., American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., pp. 185, 1986.

  1. Carefully read Chapter 8, entitled, "Engineering Your Presentations" in the required text, A Guide to Writing as an Engineer, by Beer and McMurrey. See your instructor for help or questions on the material in this chapter.

  2. Prepare a detailed outline of your presentation, including the title, introduction, theory and methods, results and discussion. Keep in mind that you will only have time for the most important points from your work; in many cases, this is your results and a discussion of their interpretation. Consider the following organizational styles.

    Categorical: Divide information into categories, then describe each category.

    Scientific: Describe the experiment, then state the results and conclusions.

    Chronological: Use only when there is a clear sequence of events and the sequence is important.

    Elimination: Propose a list of options and then eliminate all but your personal preference as a way to get your audience to "buy in".

    Spatial: Useful for describing machinery or processes. Using a visual aid, proceed as follows. Top to bottom, left-to-right, etc.

    Compare-Contrast: Useful to sell a new product or idea.

    Anecdotal: Tell a series of stories that come together to make a point.

    Problem-solution: State the problem (including recognition of the problem and definition of the problem). Present the solution. Show how your solution solves the problem.

  3. As a suggestion, introduce your report to the audience with an example from an industrial application of your laboratory work. You may want to warite your opening lines "word for word" to get you started and ensure that you do not forget any important ideas that you desire to get across to your audience right up front. Getting off to a good start can also serve to calm you down for the rest of the presentation.

  4. Create overhead transparencies of the important points in your presentation. A "rule of thumb" is that you should talk for approximately three to five minutes per overhead. You will be limited to 10 minutes for your pesentation with an additional three to five minutes for answering questions. You will be stopped if you attempt to go longer than the allowed time. Hence you should prepare no more than three slides for your talk.

  5. Prepare for potential questions. You may want to create a few extra slides and save them to answer anticipated questions at the end of your presentation.

  6. Some speakers use note cards as prompts during the presentation. It is recommended however, that you copy your slides and add personal notes to the copies to help guide you in your presentation. Use the projection of the slides to remind you of what you are planning to say next during your presentation. You should avoid reading all of your pesentation "word for word." Instead, speak conversationally for a more natural presentation style.

  7. Review the presentation checklist in Figure 8-9 on page 201 in A Guide to Writing as an Engineer. You will be graded on the items from this checklist, as well as the technical content of your report.

  8. Practice, practice, practice! Nothing helps calm your nervousness (or "butterflies") better than coming to your presentation well prepared. Generally, presentations go longer than practice times by as much as 20%, so keep your practice time to eight minutes. There will be a required practice presentation session on the first lab day of the tenth week (see schedule) where your talk will be videotaped for your private review before the final presentation. Bring a new and labeled full size VHS video cassette. You may share tapes.

  9. At the conclusion of your pesentation, please hand in to the instructor copies of your video tape review (see attachment). outline, visual aids, data sheet, error analyis, and sample calculations for grading.

  10. Congratulations - You survived!


Keys to Success
* Advanced Preparation
* Practice

* Choose a topic
* Determine the main points
* Outline the order of the important points of your presentation

Limiting Process
* Fit the available time
* Fit the objectives (you and the audience)

Components of a Talk
* Introduction
* Body
* Conclusion
* Divide long talks into sub-sets
- Mini-Introduction
- Mini-Body
- Mini-Conclusion

Audience Types
* Management - decision makers and problem solvers
* Technical - similar educational background - elementary to advanced
* Non-Technical - simple visual analogies - slowly increase complexity

Use Visual Aids
* To emphasize or clarify a point
* To increase audience retention
* To stimulate audience attention
* Impact of seeing vs. hearing

Criteria for Visual Aids
* Visible
- Use horizontal format for slides or transparencies
- Eliminate overcrowding
- 6 lines/chart, 6 words/line
- Display numbers, chemical structures, apparatus, calculations
* Clear
- Key points presented in headline format - use titles and bullets
- Use sentence fragments
* Simple
- Use charts in place of tables
* Controllable

Options for Visual Aids
* Blackboard/Dry erase board
* Large paper chart pads
* Video projection (film, TV, computer)
* Physical models
* Transparencies (advantage: can be used with lights on, can change order of delivery)
* Slides

Presentation Techniques
* Be comfortable - do not be concerned about image
* Be aware of positions and actions - limit distracting mannerisms
* Maintain eye contact - use notes to prompt only, avoid reading script
* Voice and diction
- Use simple words and sentences
- speak slowly and clearly
- Enunciate every word
- Speak from the diaphragm
- Eliminate nonsense syllables
- Pause at the end of sentences, or when a thought is complete
- Accent key words
* Avoid looking bored and subdued - mile while you talk - enthusiasm is contagious!
* Correct mistakes calmly
* React positively to hanging questions - restate the question or ask for clarification
* Record or video tape practice presentations - practice in day-to-day conversations

Name: _____________________ Lab No.: ______ Date: _________
    ChE 4211 Chemical Engineering Laboratory II Fall 1999  

  1. View the video tape recording of your practice presentation. The library has video review stations in their multimedia center.

  2. Number only the aspects (Figure 8-9 3 of the text) given below from your practice presentation that you can identify where you need improvement.
___ Creates favorable atmosphere ___ Are clear and easy to read
___ Creates appropriate pace ___ Look Professional
___ Hooks listener's attention ___ Avoid information overload
___ Relates subject to listeners ___ Clearly support related ideas
___ Presents clear central idea ___ Are enough

___ Reveals careful audience analysis Sound
___ Supports central idea ___ Clear volume and pronunciation
___ Maintains audience interest ___ Effective diction
___ Provides technical accuracy ___ Varied speech patterns
___ Organizes details effectively ___ Absence of uh-huh, y'know, basically ...
___ Allocates time carefully ___ Adequate enthusiasm
___ Provides clear transitions ___ Standard grammar and usage

___ Good question response
___ Ties presentation together Appearance
___ Restates central idea ___ Professional posture and appearance
___ Proposes action or response ___ Appropriate gestures and mannerisms
___ Invites discussion or questions ___ Effective use of pointer

___ Consistent eye contact with audience
ATTENTION TO TIME LIMITS ___ Competent handling of notes and visuals
___ Too short
___ Just right
___ Too long

  1. Provide a brief sentence describing each aspect in the list from step 2 above that you would like to improve. Use the other side of this sheet if necessary.
  2. Return this sheet along with your work plan, data sheet, error analysis and sample calculations to your instructor after your final presentation.

3   Beer, D.; McMurrey, D., A Guide to Writing as an Engineer, Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 201, 1997.


  1. Identify parts of the apparatus mentioned in the description of the experiment.

  2. Check the operation of vital components (pumps, valves, thermocouples,..)

  3. Locate any other ancillary equipment required (balances etc).

  4. Assemble glassware for the preparation of any reagents required.

  5. Collect chemicals for the preparation of any reagents required.

  6. Perform necessary calibrations.

  7. Data to be collected during the experiment will be recorded in a Table with the following headings:

                     Temperature      Temperature      Pressure     Pressure 
        Time        Thermocouple 1   Thermocouple 2   on Gauge 1   on Gauge 2
    (24hr clock)         oC                oC            psi           psi

  8. Ancillary data required:
    Atmospheric Pressure = mm Hg
    Room temperature = degrees C

  9. Perform experiments.

  10. Does the data appear reasonable? Are there checks that can be made while doing the experiment? Include a statement here to deal with these aspects.

  11. Perform the necessary calculations and write the report.

Modifications (added while doing the experiment)

1a. Check out the data acquisition system.

5a. Prepare the reagents.

9a. Check calibrations after completing the experiment.




These safety rules apply to students, staff, and faculty and to student and research laboratories.

  1. Eye protection is required at all times in student laboratories and during the handling of chemicals in research laboratories. Contact lenses must not be worn in the laboratories.

  2. Unprofessional behavior (i.e, horseplay, practical jokes, distracting another person, and acts of carelessness) is prohibited.

  3. Unauthorized experiments are prohibited.

  4. Eating, drinking and smoking is prohibited in any laboratory or chemical storage area.

  5. Mouth suction shall not be used to fill pipets. A pipet bulb or an aspirator shall be used to provide vacuum.

  6. Students shall not work in the laboratory unless the laboratory instructor or faculty member is present. Faculty members shall not work alone in the laboratory unless a second person is in close proximity to the laboratory, or has been asked to check the laboratory at least every one half hour.

  7. Bare feet or open toed shoes are not allowed in the laboratory. Shorts are allowed only if a knee length lab coat or apron is used.

  8. Loose or torn clothing (i.e., dangling neckties, loose flowing head or shoulder coverings, and over large or ragged laboratory coats) is not permitted in the laboratory. Hair longer than shoulder length should be restrained (tied up) when handling chemicals, using an open flame or operating rotating equipment.

  9. Waste disposal procedures as described in the experimental instructions shall be followed.

  10. Protective apparel (i.e., face shields, gloves, and other special clothing) as specified in the experimental instructions shall be used.

  11. Students shall use appropriate safety equipment, (i.e., hoods, respirators, masks, etc.) as directed by the laboratory instructions when exposure to gases, vapors, aerosols, and dusts is likely.

  12. Think, act, and encourage safety until it becomes a habit.


A laboratory instructor will pursue the following course of action if a student refuses to obey the above safety rules or are not following safe laboratory procedures.

  1. The student will be reminded of the safety rule and/or procedure and asked to comply with it. The instructor will record the time of each reminder.

  2. If the student continues to ignore the safety rule or procedure the student will lose 5 points on his/her grade for that experiment after the third reminder during the same laboratory period.






The student shall purchase a Chemical Engineering laboratory breakage card from the Cashier's office prior to the first laboratory period. The cost for this card is $30.00. The card should be purchased and turned in to the Lab Services Coordinator before the beginning of the second week of class or you will not be able to begin the experiments. Items checked out from the Chemical Engineering stockroom and returned in a damaged condition or not returned by the end of the quarter will be charged to the laboratory breakage card. Some items, such as goggles, glass tubing, etc. can not be returned and will be charged to the student. Safety equipment (goggles, lab coats, etc.) purchased for another laboratory course can be used in the ChE laboratory courses if they are in useable condition.

The student will normally be charged the amount of the Laboratory breakage card fee ($30.00) for each piece of glassware and equipment he/she breaks that has a replacement value greater than the laboratory breakage card fee. The Department does reserve the right to charge a student the full value of the item.

At the end of the laboratory course, the amount the student owes the Department will be subtracted from the laboratory breakage card fee. The student will be returned the laboratory breakage card and he/she can turn the card into the Cashier's office and receive a reimbursement for the amount remaining on the card. The student can elect, at the end of Spring semester, to keep the laboratory breakage card in the stockroom files and use it the next Fall Semester. A student with charges greater than the amount of the laboratory breakage card fee will be required to purchase additional laboratory breakage card(s) to cover the charges.




Notes for writing an abstract

The Abstract

The abstract can be written only when the report is otherwise complete. It is placed immediately after the title page.

In a published paper the abstract (with the title) should be suitable for use as an abstract by information services. If you write an abstract that is too long, someone else will shorten it and they may leave out things that you consider important. Remember, also, that if someone refers to your paper in a book or review they reduce your conclusions to one sentence or to a phrase. Can you provide a suitable sentence in your abstract?

Great care is needed in the preparation of the abstract because, after the title, this is all that most readers will see. It must be complete, interesting and informative without reference to the rest of the report, except that information given in the title should not be repeated.

Your abstract should be as short as possible (usually less than 200 words) but everything new and everything you particularly want people to know must be mentioned. The problem should be stated; and the main findings and conclusions should be included in the same order as in the report. No table numbers, figure numbers, references or citations should be included. There should be no information, ideas or claims other than those in the report.

The treatment of the subject may be indicated by such words as preliminary, detailed, theoretical and experimental. When experiments are reported the methods used should be mentioned. For new methods, the basic principles, range of operation, and degree of accuracy should be given. Statements of conclusions and inferences should be accompanied by an indication of their range of validity.

The abstract should be in the third person, in complete sentences, and in words that will be understood by everyone for whom the report is intended. Ask someone who has not read your report to read and comment on your abstract.

Adapted from "Scientists Must Write" by R. Barrass, 1978, Chapman and Hall Ltd.

KBL; September 1, 1994


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