Department of Chemical Engineering
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
PROCEDURES, POLICIES, AND RULES
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH
Fall Semester, 1999
INFORMATION FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
ChE 3211 AND ChE 4211
The laboratory phase of this course provides you an opportunity
to observe chemical and physical properties of matter and apply principles
of chemical engineering discussed in the classroom. The objectives of this
- To gain experience in using laboratory safety procedures.
- To plan experimental strategy to meet the stated problem
objectives using, where applicable, basic experimental design
- To familiarize one with experimental laboratory investigations
for scale-up of large-scale processes.
- To gain experience in taking accurate measurements, analyzing
experimental data and error, and comparing results to theory.
- To refine your technical communications skills in preparing
and presenting oral and written reports.
- To learn how to contribute professionally as a member of a
Developing technical communication skills in this course is heavily
emphasized in addition to the lab experience. A formal written report,
either a final or short report, is required for each lab and each student
writes independent reports. Experiment assignments are listed
by name. The lab schedule includes the assignments and due dates for the
written reports. The lab schedule will be posted in the lab before the first
LABORATORY RULES AND PROCEDURES
- Students are forbidden to enter the stockroom at any time
without the Faculty Instructor or Lab Services Coordinator.
- The cleanliness of the lab is your responsibility. Everyone
working at a lab bench should cooperate to see that their bench is
clean at the end of each period.
- The laboratory will be open only during the regularly scheduled
periods. Should there be circumstances which prevent you from
completing an experiment during the regularly scheduled periods, see
the Faculty Instructor and Lab Services Coordinator.
- Proper safety precautions must be observed at
all times. Read the Department Safety Rules found in
Attachment 1. These rules will be enforced by the Faculty Instructor and
the Lab Services Coordinator. It is also your responsibility to report any
unsafe equipment or accidents to your Faculty Instructor.
- All students enrolled in this course will have to
purchase a Chemical Engineering laboratory breakage card. If a card is not
purchased and turned in to the Lab Services Coordinator by the beginning of the
second week of classes you will not be able to begin the experiments.
See Attachment 2 for additional
- Balances will not be assigned. It is your responsibility to
make sure the shared balances are clean after using them.
- Experiments will require the use of specialized glassware and
instruments. The equipment will be checked out from the stockroom and
returned at the completion of the experiment. A laboratory checkout
slip is included with each experimental write up listing most of the
equipment needed for the experiment. This slip should be used to
check out the equipment for the experiment. After you receive the
equipment it should be checked for damage. If anything is damaged,
call it to the attention of the Lab Services Coordinator since you
will be charged for any damage when the equipment is checked back in.
The student who breaks a piece of equipment should report it to the
Lab Services Coordinator when it is broken so it can be billed to
his or her breakage card and a replacement issued. If equipment is
found damaged when it is checked back in and no one will admit
breaking it, the damaged item will be billed to the student whose
name is on the laboratory check out slip.
- Equipment shall be cleaned before it is returned.
- Chemicals needed for the experiment will be available in the
laboratory. If you cannot locate them ask the Lab Services
- Any questions concerning these instructions should be raised
during the first or second lab period.
GENERAL FORMAT FOR THE LABORATORY COURSE
The class will be divided into groups of three or less. It is up to each
group to work out the duties and responsibilities of each individual member.
However you are encouraged to rotate the duties between members from one
experiment to the next. Since each member is required to write a full report
on each experiment, it is imperative that everyone is familiar with all the
practical details even though each individual does not necessarily perform
each and every operation.
FORMAT FOR EACH EXPERIMENT
1. EXPERIMENTAL PLANNING1
The key to success in the laboratory is to continually
ask: What am I looking for? Why am I measuring this parameter? Does
this measurement really help answer my first question? What information
does this measurement give me? etc. Where appropriate, your experimental
plan should answer the following questions and address these points:
- Establish clear objectives (e.g., verification of a performance
model, a theoretical analysis, or a study of physical phenomena).
- Establish the primary measured variables (e.g., T, P, C, V).
- What are the experimental control requirements (e.g., constant
T, V, P, m)?
- What ranges of the primary variables are needed to observe the
phenomena under study?
- Determine the accuracy required in the primary variables and the
number of measurements needed for proper estimation of uncertainty and
- Set up data reduction calculations before conducting the
- Analyze the possible errors in the anticipated results before
conducting the experiment.
- Select instrumentation for the various measurements to match the
anticipated accuracy requirements.
- What safety precautions are necessary?
1 Adapted from: Holman, J.P.,
Experimental Methods in Engineering, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York,
pp. 35-37, 1994.
2. PRELAB - THE WORK PLAN
Careful preparation before starting the experiment will improve the quality
and quantity of your data. In addition, it will enable you make more efficient
use of your time in the laboratory. It is essential that you read the
description of the experiment before coming to the laboratory. You are
required to formulate a "Work Plan" while reading the description.
The Work Plan is essentially a checklist of tasks to be performed to
complete a project. In the work setting, work plans are used routinely.
They enable rough estimates of time, labor, materials to be made.
Your work plan for each new experiment will be reviewed very
briefly by the Faculty Instructor at the beginning of the first day of
a new experiment. You should reach a consensus with the other individuals in
your group by comparing work plans. Then proceed with the experiment.
As you proceed with the experiment, you will notice tasks, which you wished
had been included in the Work Plan at the outset. Add these to your work
plan. Attach your work plan as an Appendix to your Report.
The Work Plan should be very brief, and should not be more than a page
long. A generic work plan is included at the end for your guidance.
Remember a work plan is never likely to be perfect; experimental work is full
of the unexpected! However, the writing of a work plans is always beneficial
for minimizing the detrimental consequences of the unexpected.
3. RECORDING DATA
Data should be written onto a data sheet. Engineering paper is suitable.
Attach your data sheets as an Appendix to your report. Photocopies of the
original data sheet will be accepted.
The data sheets will be graded - see course information. The following
features will be examined:
4. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
- legibility (most important);
- completeness -- The data sheet should be designed so that someone of
average intelligence can read the description of the experiment and your
data sheet, and then proceed to perform the calculations to get the final
- identification -- The data sheets should contain unique descriptors for
your group and the experiment. They should be dated and numbered so
that it is clear how many sheets there are, for example "Page 1 of 3".
All members of the group should be present in the laboratory while the
experiment is running.
All members of the group should be aware of what is happening in the
experiment at any given time. The Faculty Instructor will be on hand to
question you in this regard.
5. EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT
Experimental set-ups can not normally be left assembled until the
experiment is finished. At the end of each lab period, all equipment should
be removed from the work area and returned to the stockroom. Desk tops
should be cleaned at the end of the period as mentioned in the laboratory rules
and procedures. Work should be scheduled accordingly to leave time for
cleaning. All items used in the set-up of a given experiment checked out of
the stockroom must be returned to the stockroom by the end of the last date
for that experiment.
Many engineers and scientists find the writing of reports difficult.
Graduates in their first industrial job will quickly realize the importance
of writing. This course provides the opportunity. The assigned text is
"A Guide to Writing as an Engineer," by D. Beer and D. McMurrey, Wiley & Sons,
1997. You are expected to follow the rules of grammar and style described
therein. The following sources are also recommended:
- Notes from COMP 3130, if you have taken it,
- "How to write and publish engineering papers and reports" by H. B.
Michaelson, 3rd Ed., Oryx Press, 1990; UMD Lib. T11.M418 1990
- "The Elements of Style" by William Strunk, Jr., 3rd Ed., MacMillan, 1979;
UMD Library PE1408.S772 1979 (Reference). This is a useful concise book
for checking points of grammar etc. It is now available in paperback in the
You will be required to produce two types of reports:
a full report and a memo report in memo form.
Guidelines for the full report
- Sample Report
- A Sample Report for a very simple experiment is
attached. Its purpose is to illustrate how a report
should be organized and to indicate the kind of material it should
contain. This example is not meant to provide a rigid outline; the
content of the report will depend upon the context and your judgement.
General comments now follow.
- Full length reports must be bound with a GBC type of binding and a
card stock cover. The report's title and author's name must be printed
on the cover.
- Reports should be prepared on letter-size paper (8½ by 11 in)
with the following layout:
- Left and right margins - 1.25 in (left margin is from the
inside edge of the binding);
- Top & Bottom margins - at least 1.00 in (including page
- Line spacing - double spacing.
- You are free to use a proportional font, Times is preferred. You
should avoid the use of a type style that is San serif, such as
Helvetica, for scientific writing. The point size should be 12 point.
Titles and headings may be larger, San serif type.
- Do not write information directly out of laboratory handouts or
references. Paraphrase or summarize it, and cite the source. It is
not essential to start each section on a new page.
- The title should be in capital letters and centered between the
margins. The page should include your name, your partners' names,
and the date on which the report was submitted.
- This should contain about 100 words or less. The important result
should be quoted with its associated error. If the experiment
generates many data, the range of values should be given instead.
There should be no references. Additional notes are appended in
- Table of Contents
- This should include the Sections, Appendices and their page
- This should state the purpose of the experiment and give a very
brief outline of the necessary theory, which is often done by citing
pertinent equations. (In the Sample Report, the theory is
simple.) A very short description of the experimental method with
mention of any special apparatus should be included. The relevance,
general importance or an application of the experiment should be
described in one or two sentences. The Introduction should be
between 100 and 300 words.
- A condensed derivation of the equations to be used may be given
here. An equation may be part of a complete sentence. Number all
equations that occupy separate lines consecutively throughout the
entire report and refer to them by number. Symbols may be defined
in a notation section; this is usually done if there are many
symbols. Otherwise, all symbols should be defined at the point where
they first appear. A condensed tabulation of essential data is often
useful. It is unnecessary and undesirable to present all computations
in the report; however, a typical sample calculation should be given
to show how the calculations were done.
- Appendices may be used to present detailed derivations, and
long calculations. For a long calculation it is desirable to tabulate
all important intermediate results - this should be done in an
- A theory is not tested in the Sample Report. In cases
where theories are tested, the expected results should be
- Experimental (Experimental Methods)
- This section is usually extremely brief and merely cites the
appropriate references which describe the details of the experimental
procedure. Reference will usually be made to the laboratory handout.
A description of experimental procedures should be given only for
those features not described in or differing from that described in
the reference. A simple sketch of the apparatus is appropriate only
when it differs from that described in the reference.
- Criteria for equilibrium or steady state should be given when
appropriate. A statement of the number of runs made and the conditions
under which they were carried out (concentration, temperature, pressure,
etc.) should always be included at the end of this section. This helps
the reader to understand the presentation of the results.
- Here you should draw the attention of the reader to the location of
the raw data, intermediate results and error calculations; these
items will probably be in the Appendices. The presentation of
results in graphs is preferred to tables. The final results should be
presented here or at the beginning of the next section.
- Discussion (Conclusions/Recommendations)
- This is the most flexible section of the entire report. The
final results of the experiment should be clearly presented if they
have not been done so in the Results Section. A comparison between
these results and theoretical values or experimental values from the
literature is usually appropriate. Error limits are important for
such discussions. Comments should be made on any discrepancies. In
the Sample Report, comment is made on "internal discrepancies",
possible systematic errors, and the relative importance of various
sources of random error. A brief suggestion is made for an improvement
in the experimental method.
- Make sure that each one is cited at least once in the body of the
report. References cited by the authors' name and date are the most
straight forward here.
- List all symbols with definitions, and typical units. If the
number of symbols is small, define them at the point where they first
appear in the body of the text, and omit this section.
- Make sure that each one is cited at least once in the body of the
report. Appendices may used for any material that would "clutter up"
the body of the report.
- Axes of graphs should be clearly labelled with the variable and
its units (see NOTE 1 below). The variable is best described in
words along with its symbol. Data and theoretical curves should be
clearly distinguished by using a legend. Each graph and illustration
should be numbered sequentially with an Arabic numeral accompanied
with a title. If using a spreadsheet, make sure you plot the type of
graph you want (usually an "XY" graph). Your reports must include a
minimum of one figure of a schematic of the apparatus.
- Column headings for numerical data should contain units (see
NOTE 1 below). Horizontal lines are often sufficient to format a
table -- look at how tables are formatted in a textbook. Boxes are
neat, but can often take much longer to print. Each table should be
numbered sequentially with a Roman numeral accompanied with a title.
Conditions relating to each experiment should be given in a table --
footnotes can be useful to do this.
- "The data are given in Table I and plotted in Figure 2." When
referring to tables and figures in the body of the report, the words
"table" and "figure" should start with a capital letter.
- NOTE 1: Column Headings in Tables and Labels in Graphs
- The value of a physical quantity is expressed as the product of a
pure number and a unit, for example:
p = 1.013 x 105 Pa,
which rearranges to
p/Pa = 1.013 x 105,
p/(Pa 105) = 1.013.
- To avoid repetition of the unit symbol, it is common practice to
tabulate data in the form of pure numbers. It follows that column
headings should be dimensionless, e.g., p/Pa and not p(Pa).
A column heading such as p(Pa) implies pressure multiplied by
Pa, when one really means pressure divided by Pa. As an example of
this notation, the data in Table II refer to the vapor pressure of
acetone at various temperatures:
Table II. Vapor pressure data for acetone (used in Antoine plot)
T/oC T/K p/(105 Pa) 103K/T log10(p/Pa)
40 313 0.561 3.195 4.749
50 323 0.817 3.096 4.912
60 333 1.155 3.003 5.063
70 343 1.600 2.915 5.204
- The same considerations apply to the labeling of graphs. It is
clear when this convention is being used - the solidus (/) is always
Guidelines for Report in Memo Form - Memo Report
The memo should be
written to explain: 1) why you did this work, 2) how you did it, 3) what you
found, and 4) what you think it means. The length of the memo should be no
more than two pages. As a guide, one paragraph should be sufficient to cover
each of the four explanations. A sample Memo Report is
An appendix or appendices that contain calculations, error analysis, tables
and graphs should be attached; follow the guidelines for the full report here.
GUIDELINES FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS
Next in importance to technical competence in the work place is your ability to
provide effective oral communication of your ideas. In fact, your oral presentation
skills may be the deciding factor in determining your future success, distinguishing
you from other engineers with the same technical skills and training.2
The pre-lab quizzes were intended to provide you with an informal
setting to practice communicating technical ideas. In order to give you some
additional experience with formal oral technical communication, your final
laboratory report will be delivered as a 10 minute oral presentation.
Follow these guidelines to develop your talk:
2 The ACS Style Guide, J.S. Dodd, ed.,
American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., pp. 185, 1986.
- Carefully read Chapter 8, entitled, "Engineering Your Presentations" in the required text,
A Guide to Writing as an Engineer, by Beer and McMurrey. See your instructor
for help or questions on the material in this chapter.
- Prepare a detailed outline of your presentation, including the title,
introduction, theory and methods, results and discussion. Keep in mind
that you will only have time for the most important points from your work; in
many cases, this is your results and a discussion of their interpretation.
Consider the following organizational styles.
Categorical: Divide information into categories, then describe each
Scientific: Describe the experiment, then state the results and
Chronological: Use only when there is a clear sequence of events
and the sequence is important.
Elimination: Propose a list of options and then eliminate all but your
personal preference as a way to get your audience to "buy in".
Spatial: Useful for describing machinery or processes. Using a visual
aid, proceed as follows. Top to bottom, left-to-right, etc.
Compare-Contrast: Useful to sell a new product or idea.
Anecdotal: Tell a series of stories that come together to make a point.
Problem-solution: State the problem (including recognition of the
problem and definition of the problem). Present the solution. Show how your
solution solves the problem.
- As a suggestion, introduce your report to the audience with an example from
an industrial application of your laboratory work. You may want to warite your
opening lines "word for word" to get you started and ensure that you do not forget
any important ideas that you desire to get across to your audience right up
front. Getting off to a good start can also serve to calm you down for the rest
of the presentation.
- Create overhead transparencies of the important points in your presentation. A
"rule of thumb" is that you should talk for approximately three to five minutes
per overhead. You will be limited to 10 minutes for your pesentation with an
additional three to five minutes for answering questions. You will be stopped if
you attempt to go longer than the allowed time. Hence you should prepare no more
than three slides for your talk.
- Prepare for potential questions. You may want to create a few extra slides
and save them to answer anticipated questions at the end of your presentation.
- Some speakers use note cards as prompts during the presentation. It is
recommended however, that you copy your slides and add personal notes to the
copies to help guide you in your presentation. Use the projection of the
slides to remind you of what you are planning to say next during your
presentation. You should avoid reading all of your pesentation "word for word."
Instead, speak conversationally for a more natural presentation style.
- Review the presentation checklist in Figure 8-9 on page 201 in A Guide
to Writing as an Engineer. You will be graded on the items from this
checklist, as well as the technical content of your report.
- Practice, practice, practice! Nothing helps calm your nervousness (or
"butterflies") better than coming to your presentation well prepared. Generally,
presentations go longer than practice times by as much as 20%, so keep your
practice time to eight minutes. There will be a required practice presentation
session on the first lab day of the tenth week (see schedule) where your talk
will be videotaped for your private review before the final presentation. Bring
a new and labeled full size VHS video cassette. You may share tapes.
- At the conclusion of your pesentation, please hand in to the instructor
copies of your video tape review (see attachment). outline, visual aids, data
sheet, error analyis, and sample calculations for grading.
- Congratulations - You survived!
EFFECTIVE ORAL PRESENTATIONS (VIDEO OUTLINE)
- Keys to Success
Choose a topic
Determine the main points
Outline the order of the important points of your presentation
- Limiting Process
Fit the available time
Fit the objectives (you and the audience)
- Components of a Talk
Divide long talks into sub-sets
- - Mini-Introduction
- - Mini-Body
- - Mini-Conclusion
- Audience Types
Management - decision makers and problem solvers
Technical - similar educational background - elementary to advanced
Non-Technical - simple visual analogies - slowly increase complexity
- Use Visual Aids
To emphasize or clarify a point
To increase audience retention
To stimulate audience attention
Impact of seeing vs. hearing
- Criteria for Visual Aids
- - Use horizontal format for slides or transparencies
- - Eliminate overcrowding
- - 6 lines/chart, 6 words/line
- - Display numbers, chemical structures, apparatus,
- - Key points presented in headline format - use titles
- - Use sentence fragments
- - Use charts in place of tables
- Options for Visual Aids
Blackboard/Dry erase board
Large paper chart pads
Video projection (film, TV, computer)
Transparencies (advantage: can be used with lights on, can
change order of delivery)
- Presentation Techniques
Be comfortable - do not be concerned about image
Be aware of positions and actions - limit distracting mannerisms
Maintain eye contact - use notes to prompt only, avoid reading script
Voice and diction
- - Use simple words and sentences
- - speak slowly and clearly
- - Enunciate every word
- - Speak from the diaphragm
- - Eliminate nonsense syllables
- - Pause at the end of sentences, or when a thought is
- - Accent key words
Avoid looking bored and subdued - mile while you talk - enthusiasm is
Correct mistakes calmly
React positively to hanging questions - restate the question or ask for
Record or video tape practice presentations - practice in day-to-day
||Lab No.: ______
| ChE 4211
||Chemical Engineering Laboratory II
||Fall 1999 |
ORAL PRESENTATION SELF-REVIEW
- View the video tape recording of your practice presentation. The library
has video review stations in their multimedia center.
- Number only the aspects (Figure 8-9 3 of the text) given
below from your practice presentation that you can identify where you need
|___ Creates favorable atmosphere
||___ Are clear and easy to read|
|___ Creates appropriate pace
||___ Look Professional|
|___ Hooks listener's attention
||___ Avoid information overload|
|___ Relates subject to listeners
||___ Clearly support related ideas|
|___ Presents clear central idea
||___ Are enough|
|___ Reveals careful audience analysis
|___ Supports central idea
||___ Clear volume and pronunciation|
|___ Maintains audience interest
||___ Effective diction|
|___ Provides technical accuracy
||___ Varied speech patterns|
|___ Organizes details effectively
||___ Absence of uh-huh, y'know, basically ...|
|___ Allocates time carefully
||___ Adequate enthusiasm|
|___ Provides clear transitions
||___ Standard grammar and usage|
||___ Good question response|
|___ Ties presentation together
|___ Restates central idea
||___ Professional posture and appearance|
|___ Proposes action or response
||___ Appropriate gestures and mannerisms|
|___ Invites discussion or questions
||___ Effective use of pointer|
||___ Consistent eye contact with audience|
|ATTENTION TO TIME LIMITS
||___ Competent handling of notes and visuals|
|___ Too short
|___ Just right
|___ Too long
- Provide a brief sentence describing each aspect in the list from step 2
above that you would like to improve. Use the other side of this sheet if
- Return this sheet along with your work plan, data sheet, error analysis and
sample calculations to your instructor after your final presentation.
3 Beer, D.; McMurrey, D.,
A Guide to Writing as an Engineer, Wiley & Sons, New York,
p. 201, 1997.
A GENERIC WORK PLAN
- Identify parts of the apparatus mentioned in the description of the
- Check the operation of vital components (pumps, valves, thermocouples,..)
- Locate any other ancillary equipment required (balances etc).
- Assemble glassware for the preparation of any reagents required.
- Collect chemicals for the preparation of any reagents required.
- Perform necessary calibrations.
- Data to be collected during the experiment will be recorded in a Table
with the following headings:
Temperature Temperature Pressure Pressure
Time Thermocouple 1 Thermocouple 2 on Gauge 1 on Gauge 2
(24hr clock) oC oC psi psi
- Ancillary data required:
Atmospheric Pressure = mm Hg
Room temperature = degrees C
- Perform experiments.
- Does the data appear reasonable? Are there checks that can be made while
doing the experiment? Include a statement here to deal with these aspects.
- Perform the necessary calculations and write the report.
Modifications (added while doing the experiment)
1a. Check out the data acquisition system.
5a. Prepare the reagents.
9a. Check calibrations after completing the experiment.
These safety rules apply to students, staff, and faculty and to student
and research laboratories.
- Eye protection is required at all times in student laboratories and during
the handling of chemicals in research laboratories. Contact lenses must not
be worn in the laboratories.
- Unprofessional behavior (i.e, horseplay, practical jokes, distracting
another person, and acts of carelessness) is prohibited.
- Unauthorized experiments are prohibited.
- Eating, drinking and smoking is prohibited in any laboratory or chemical
- Mouth suction shall not be used to fill pipets. A pipet bulb or an
aspirator shall be used to provide vacuum.
- Students shall not work in the laboratory unless the laboratory
instructor or faculty member is present. Faculty members shall not work
alone in the laboratory unless a second person is in close proximity to the
laboratory, or has been asked to check the laboratory at least every one half
- Bare feet or open toed shoes are not allowed in the laboratory. Shorts
are allowed only if a knee length lab coat or apron is used.
- Loose or torn clothing (i.e., dangling neckties, loose flowing head or
shoulder coverings, and over large or ragged laboratory coats) is not permitted
in the laboratory. Hair longer than shoulder length should be restrained
(tied up) when handling chemicals, using an open flame or operating rotating
- Waste disposal procedures as described in the experimental instructions
shall be followed.
- Protective apparel (i.e., face shields, gloves, and other special clothing)
as specified in the experimental instructions shall be used.
- Students shall use appropriate safety equipment, (i.e., hoods, respirators,
masks, etc.) as directed by the laboratory instructions when exposure to
gases, vapors, aerosols, and dusts is likely.
- Think, act, and encourage safety until it becomes a habit.
SAFETY RULE ENFORCEMENT
A laboratory instructor will pursue the following course of action if a
student refuses to obey the above safety rules or are not following safe
- The student will be reminded of the safety rule and/or procedure and asked
to comply with it. The instructor will record the time of each reminder.
- If the student continues to ignore the safety rule or procedure the student
will lose 5 points on his/her grade for that experiment after the third
reminder during the same laboratory period.
ON STUDENT LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS
The student shall purchase a Chemical Engineering laboratory breakage card
from the Cashier's office prior to the first laboratory period. The cost for
this card is $30.00. The card should be purchased and turned in to the Lab
Services Coordinator before the beginning of the second week of class or you
will not be able to begin the experiments. Items checked out from the Chemical Engineering
stockroom and returned in a damaged condition or not returned by the end of
the quarter will be charged to the laboratory breakage card. Some items,
such as goggles, glass tubing, etc. can not be returned and will be charged
to the student. Safety equipment (goggles, lab coats, etc.) purchased for
another laboratory course can be used in the ChE laboratory courses if they
are in useable condition.
The student will normally be charged the amount of the Laboratory breakage
card fee ($30.00) for each piece of glassware and equipment he/she breaks that
has a replacement value greater than the laboratory breakage card fee. The
Department does reserve the right to charge a student the full value of the
At the end of the laboratory course, the amount the student owes the
Department will be subtracted from the laboratory breakage card fee. The
student will be returned the laboratory breakage card and he/she can turn
the card into the Cashier's office and receive a reimbursement for the amount
remaining on the card. The student can elect, at the end of Spring semester,
to keep the laboratory breakage card in the stockroom files and use it the
next Fall Semester. A student with charges greater than the amount of the
laboratory breakage card fee will be required to purchase additional
laboratory breakage card(s) to cover the charges.
Notes for writing an abstract
The abstract can be written only when the report is otherwise complete. It is
placed immediately after the title page.
In a published paper the abstract (with the title) should be suitable for
use as an abstract by information services. If you write an abstract that is
too long, someone else will shorten it and they may leave out things that you
consider important. Remember, also, that if someone refers to your paper in a
book or review they reduce your conclusions to one sentence or to a phrase.
Can you provide a suitable sentence in your abstract?
Great care is needed in the preparation of the abstract because, after the
title, this is all that most readers will see. It must be complete, interesting
and informative without reference to the rest of the report, except that
information given in the title should not be repeated.
Your abstract should be as short as possible (usually less than 200 words) but
everything new and everything you particularly want people to know must be
mentioned. The problem should be stated; and the main findings and conclusions
should be included in the same order as in the report. No table numbers,
figure numbers, references or citations should be included. There should be
no information, ideas or claims other than those in the report.
The treatment of the subject may be indicated by such words as
preliminary, detailed, theoretical and experimental. When experiments are
reported the methods used should be mentioned. For new methods, the basic
principles, range of operation, and degree of accuracy should be given.
Statements of conclusions and inferences should be accompanied by an indication
of their range of validity.
The abstract should be in the third person, in complete sentences, and in
words that will be understood by everyone for whom the report is intended.
Ask someone who has not read your report to read and comment on your abstract.
Adapted from "Scientists Must Write" by R. Barrass, 1978, Chapman and Hall
KBL; September 1, 1994
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