LAB 6

**TRANSFER
OF LEARNING**

**Introduction**

Transfer is the affect of a previous practice skill on the learning of a new skill. Transfer of the previous practice skill can have a zero, positive or negative affect in the learning of a new skill. Researchers commonly use a simple experimental design to determine if positive transfer has occurred from either (1) experience with one skill to learning another skill or (2) performing a skill in one situation to performing it in another context. The design is:

*Experimental Group* __Practice
Skill A__ (Mirror Tracer) __Perform Skill B __

*Control group*
No practice __Perform
Skill B__

The performance score of interest to the researcher is the Skill B. If positive transfer is evident, the experimental groups’ mean score should be better than that of the control groups’ mean score. Thus prior experience is better than no prior experience for the skill. If negative transfer is evident, the experimental groups’ mean scores should be worse than that of the control groups’ mean scores.

To quantify the amount of positive transfer, researchers commonly calculate the percentage of transfer, which is the precentage of difference between the experimental and control groups' mean performance scores on skill B.

*Percentage of transfer =(Experimental group-control group)/(Experimental
group+control group) x 1000 *

**Purpose**:

The purpose of this lab is to use the transfer paradigm to find out if practice on a mirror tracer helps or hinders performances on maze performance.

**Variables**:

The independent variable in this lab is practicing on the Mirror Tracer for. The dependent variable is the time of maze performance.

**Tasks**: Maze,
mirror tracer, reaction timer, and counter.

**Procedure**: Randomly
divide your group or class in half. One half of students will be the transfer
group and second half of student with be the control group.

*Transfer group*. Allow the transfer group to practice on
the mirror tracer for 5 trials, each trial is one minute in duration tracing
the star in a **counter clockwise direction**. Immediately following the
five practice trials on mirror tracer perform *blindfolded* 5 trials on
the maze. Use your *non-dominate* hand in completing both tasks.Do not
provide feedback or knowledge or results during or after any trial or task.
Record the time to complete each trial using the maze on the data form provided.

*Control group.* The control group will not practice on the mirror tracer.
The control group will perform *blindfolded* 5 trials using their *non-dominate*
hand on the maze. Do not provide feedback or knowledge of results during the
five trials. Record the students time of contact for each one minute trial.
Record the time to complete each trial using the maze on the data form provided.

1. Record each subjects’ maze time in the transfer (experimental) or control group data sheet. Compute the mean time of each subject for the 5 experimental trials using the maze for the transfer and control conditions (AVG/SUB column). Then calculate the overall mean and for the transfer (a) and control group(b).

Transfer Group Scores With the Pursuit Rotor (*Experimental
Group)*

Subject | Trial 1 | Trial 2 | Trial 3 | Trial 4 | Trial 5 | Total Time | AVG/Sub |

1 | |||||||

2 | |||||||

3 | |||||||

4 | |||||||

5 | |||||||

6 | |||||||

7 | |||||||

Mean | xxxxxxxx | xxxxxxxx | xxxxxxxx | xxxxxxx | xxxxxxxx | (a) |

Control Group Scores With the Pursuit Rotor (*Control
Group*)

Subject | Trial 1 | Trial 2 | Trial 3 | Trial 4 | Trial 5 | Total Time | AVG/Sub |

1 | |||||||

2 | |||||||

3 | |||||||

4 | |||||||

5 | |||||||

6 | |||||||

7 | |||||||

Mean | xxxxxx | xxxxxx | xxxxxx | xxxxxx | xxxxxx | (b) |

2.Develop a *bar graph* using the overall group mean scores (*Boxes
A & B*) for the transfer and control conditions. Transfer and control
conditions is the x-axis and the dependent measure, time on the y-axis. Attach
your graph to the back of this lab.

**On a separate sheet of paper, answer the questions 3-6.**

3. Determine the percentage of transfer using the following formula: (Use the overall means in boxes A & B)

*% Of transfer = (transfer group – control group/ exper.
group + contro group) X 1000 *

- If your calculations results in a positive score it is positive transfer.
- If your calculations results in a negative score it is negative transfer.
- Show your work

4. From the above calculations. Did practicing on the mirror tracer prior to performing on the maze promote learning (+) or hinder learning (-). Why or why not? Support your answer with your calculations and overall group data.

5. From the review about transfer found in pages 207-211 of your text, why did positive or negative transfer occur in this lab?

6.From the review about transfer found in pages 207-211 of your text, why would practicing the drive shot in golf just prior to learning a tennis stroke be a hinderance or benefit in learning the tennis forehand ground stroke?