Chapter Study Guides

Each quiz will be developed from the questions pertaining to the specific chapter or chapters.

Chapter 3:            A look at the Past

  1. The first forms of organized games around the world emerged from what?
  2. What people had the greatest impact on how sports were defined and organized?
  3. What were the contests and games like in ancient Greece?
  4. What were the contests and games like in ancient Rome?
  5. What were the contests and games like in medieval Europe?
  6. What effect did the reformation have on games and contests?
  7. How did the industrial revolution affect games and contests?
  8. What are the characteristics of a high-profile organized competitive sport?
  9. How did sport grow during 1880 to 1920 in North America?
  10. Since 1920, how has organized competitive sport changed?
  11. Since 1920, how has the competitive sport struggled?

Chapter 4:            Sports & Socialization

  1. Define the term socialization.
  2. What is the functionalist view of socialization?
  3. What is the conflict theory approach to socialization?
  4. What is the interactionist view of socialization?
  5. Identify the process of becoming an elite athlete according to Chris Stevenson.
  6. According to Anita White, why does one chose or not chose to participate in sport?
  7. What are the important conclusions on why one stays or ends their involvement in sport?
  8. Define the term, character logic?
  9. According to the text, do sports build character?
  10. What is the power and performance model as opposed to pleasure and participation model?
  11. What moral lesson were learned in little league according to Gary Alan?
  12. What did Theberge’s study show us about playing sports?
  13. Define the term, social worlds?
  14. What connections did the studies of social worlds provide us about the socialization processes in sport?
  15. Define the term, hegemony.
  16. What cultural ideologies and messages does sport deliver to people?
  17. Why doesn’t socialization research tell us all about sport?

Chapter 5:            Sport & Children

  1. What are the five changes in family and childhood that account for much of the increase in popularity of organized youth sport?
  2. What are the four major social changes in youth sports?
  3. What youth experiences occur in informal, player-controlled sport?
  4. What youth experiences occur in formal, adult-controlled sport?
  5. What were Patrica and Peter Adler’s eight-year youth sport study findings?
  6. What are the advantages of having youth’s play organized sports?
  7. When are children ready to play organized sports?
  8. How are the dynamics of the family affected by the youth sports?
    What social factors in youth sports interact to influence children’s lifes?
  9.  What are the recommended changes in youth sports that are cited in this chapter?
  10. What are Peter Donnelly’s recommendations for changing high performance youth sport programs?
  11. How can coaching education program change existing youth sports programs?

Chapter 6:            Deviance in Sport

  1. Define the term, deviance.
  2. What are the problems faced when studying deviance in sport?
  3. What is the functionalist view of deviance in sport?
  4. What is the conflict theory view of deviance in sport?
  5. What is the interactionist view of deviance in sport?
  6. Define the term, deviant underconformity in sport.
  7. Define the term, deviant overconformity in sport.
  8. Define the term, sport ethic.
  9. What are the four norms that make up sport ethic.
  10. Why do athletes engage in deviant overconformity?
  11. The social processes that exist in many sports are?
  12. What is the connection between deviant overconformity and deviant underconformity?
  13. How can one control deviant overconformity in sport?
  14. Is sport participation a cure for deviant behavior?
  15. What are the major research finding about deviance in sports?
  16. What are the major research findings about deviance off the field or away from sport?
  17. What is a performance-enhancing substance?
  18. Why should drugs be banned in sport?
  19. What factors contribute to the tendency of athletes to use performance-enhancing drugs?
  20. Does drug testing deter athletes from using performance-enhancing drugs?
  21. What are some recommendations for controlling substance use in sport?

Chapter 7:            Violence in Sports

  1. Define the term, violence.
  2. Define the term, aggression.
  3. Define the term, intimidation.
  4. Why does Dunning feel that violence remains a crucial social issue for modern sports?
  5. What are Smith’s four categories of violence associated with playing sports?
  6. Violence as deviant overconformity is related to what in high performance sport?
  7. What affect has commercialization of sport have on violence in sport?
  8. What is the connection between issues of masculinity in culture to violence in sport?
  9. How do athletes use violence as a strategy in noncontact sports?
  10. How do athletes use violence as a strategy in contact sports?
  11. Research on pain and injury among athletes have shown what about violence in sport?
  12. How can one control on-the-field violence?
  13. Do violent strategies learned in sport carry over to the rest of life?
  14. Does power and performance sports reaffirm the ideology that men and women are different?
  15. Does watching power and performance sports violence increase fan violence?
  16. What are the three factors related to crowd violence identified by research?
  17. What factors of crowd dynamics relate to spectator violence?
  18. How does one control crowd violence?

Chapter 8:            Gender & Sport

  1. What are the five factors the account for recent increases in sport participation among girls and women?
  2. What reasons have been cited to be cautious when predicting future participation increases among girls and women?
  3. Does cheerleading reintroduce the concept of femininity?
  4. How do participation opportunities among girls and women differ from among boys and men in sport?
  5. A school is in compliance with Title IX if they meet what tests?
  6. Most universities with large football programs almost always fall short of meeting Title IX due to?
  7. Why do most universities and high schools fail tomeet Title IX guidelines?
  8. What inequalities exist between female and male sports programs?
  9. Why is there an underrepresentation of women in coaching or athletic administration?
  10. What has been the trend of employment of women in becoming coaches and athletic administrators since 1972?
  11. How can one achieve gender equity and fairness in sport?
  12. Define the term, cultural ideology?
  13. What is a simple binary classification system?
  14. Why is girls and females playing sport a threat to traditional gender logic in our society?
  15. What role does female body builders play in traditional gender logic and definition of femininity?
  16. What challenges are faced by gay men and lesbians in sports?
  17. What are the strategies suggested to change current ideology about how we define masculinity and femininity?

Chapter 9:            Race & Ethnicity

  1. Define the term, ethnicity.
  2. Define the term, ethnicity group.
  3. Define the term, minority group.
  4. Define the term, race.
  5. Define the term, race logic.
  6. Define the term, racial ideology.
  7. When did racial classification system begin and for what reason was racial classification used?
  8. What are traditional racial categories based upon?
  9. Why was the research investigating the “jumping genes” in black bodies a dangerous way to do science?
  10. What are the three social and cultural conditions that when added together provide a hypothesis on why blacks become outstanding athletes?
  11. How does sports provide examples of the use of  race logic assumptions between races?
  12. What happens when people combine a black male with playing sport?
  13. What seems to happen when whites participate in sports where blacks predominate?
  14. Identify some complex interconnections between race logic and gender logic in the social world of sport?
  15. What has historically been the pattern of sports participation with African Americans in the United States?
  16. What has historically been the pattern of sports participation with Native Americans in the United States
  17. What has historically been the pattern of sports participation with Latinos and Hispanics in the United States?
  18. What has historically been the pattern of sports participation with Asia Americans in the United States?
  19. What the three major challenges related to racial and ethnical relations in sports today?
  20. What are the ways society can eliminate racial and ethnic exclusion in sport participation?
  21. What are the ways society can deal with and manage racial and ethnic diversity in sports?
  22. What are the ways society can integrate race and ethnic people into positions of power in sport organizations?
  23. Why should school not use Native American names or symbols in connection with sport teams?
Chapter 10:            Social Class
  1. Define the term, social class.
  2. Define the term, social stratification.
  3. Define the term, social relations.
  4. Define the term, class logic.
  5. Who and what social class have the power in sports?
  6. In what ways has sport been a vehicle for transferring public monies into the hands of the wealthy?
  7. What is the true view between job creations and state-financed sport stadiums?
  8. How does the participation patterns differ between high-income,high-educated, and high-status occupational groups to low-income groups?
  9. How is women in a high versus low income family participation in sports affected?
  10. How do the ideas about sport and masculinity among upper-class, middle-class, and lower-class boys differ?
  11. Why do boxers come from the lowest and most economically desperate income groups?
  12. What seems to be the trend of  high school sports in low-income areas as compared to middle- and upper-income areas?
  13. What does Jonathan Kozol mean by the term, “savage inequalities” in sports availability?
  14. How has the prices for attending  high school. College, and/or professional sporting events affected class relations?
  15. What are the three factors that help answer the question, “Do sports provide opportunities for upward social class mobility in society?
  16. What are the chances of young athletes becoming professional athletes?
  17. What is status of women’s opportunity to play or be employed by a professional sports organization?
  18. What is status of the black athlete’s opportunity to becoming a top professional athlete?
  19. What were the two employment barriers for black athletes in the United States?
  20. Playing sports is most likely to be positively related to occupational success and upward mobility when?
  21. What are the two major challenges for retiring athletes?
  22. How is class and race relations connected with athlete scholarships?

Chapter 11:            Sports & the Economy

  1. Commercial sports grow and prosper best under what social and economic conditions?
  2. How do so many people beome sport spectators?
  3. What has sport become global in scope?
  4. What is corporate sports branding?
  5. What happens to sports when they become commercialized and dependent on revenues?
  6. What happens to sports when there is a need to entertain the mass audience?
  7. Professional wrestling has become popular due to?
  8. Who owns professional sports in America?
  9. Why do large corporations sponsor particular sporting events?
  10. Why do people invest in sports and sporting events?
  11. How do team owners and sport leagues operates as monopolies?
  12. What the major arguments that owners cite for using public funds to build sport stadiums?
  13. What are the arguments against providing public funds to build sport stadiums?
  14. What happened when Cleveland funded a $1 billion dollar ball park?
  15. What usually happens when a stadium is built?
  16. What are the top sources of income for sport teams?
  17. What are the two reasons why amateur sports have difficulty operating in the United States?
  18. Define the term, reserve system.
  19. Define the term, free agents.
  20. What has happened to the legal status of athletes in team sports  from the mid-1970 to the present?
  21. The dramatic increase in salaries at the top level of pro sports is due to what two factors?
  22. What seems to be the major factors in whether or not a athlete in either team or individual sports will earn a high salary?
  23. What is the legal status of amateur athletes in the United States?
  24. What happens to the income generated by amateur athletes?
Chapter 12:            Sports and the Media
  1. What three services does the media provide to the public?
  2. What are the five basic goals of the media?
  3. Who usually sponsors most of the sports programming in the media?
  4. How has the internet radically change our media connections in sports programming?
  5. What are the two reasons why television rights for sporting events have increased?
  6. How dependent has sports become on the media?
  7. What two notions have been cited that television is the root of all evil in sports?
  8. When radio stations provide coverage of sport, what is their target audience?
  9. What media is most dependent on sports?
  10. Why is sports page so important to the newspapers?
  11. Why is having sport important for television?
  12. Why have we seen an increase in sports coverage of women sporting events?
  13. Why are events such as bowling, in-ling skating, track and field continue to receive limited programming on television?
  14. What will be the trend in regular sports programming for major television companies?
  15. Media representation of  the sporting events in newspaper stresses what?
  16. Media representation of  the sporting event on the television stresses wha?
  17. What are the gender equity and ideological issues in the media coverage of sports?
  18. Has the media caused people to become more active in sport?
  19. Has the media caused affected game attendance of sporting events?
  20. Has the media impacted betting on sports?
  21. What were the findings of Wenner and Gantz about United States adults and media sports?
  22. Why do newpaper and magazine sports writers do the most thorough investigative reporting?
  23. Why do the most popular media personalities sit in television broad casting booths and talk with a sense of urgency about a sporting event?
Chapter 13:            Sports & Politics
  1. What are the reason why the government becomes involved in sports?
  2. What was the hope of the founders of the Olympic games about sport?
  3. Define the term, serious diplomacy.
  4. Define the term, public diplomacy.
  5. Has sport had an effect on issues of vital national interest?
  6. Why do the modern Olympic games fall short of meeting the ideals of Olympism?
  7. What are the suggestion identified to eliminate nationalism and commercialism in the Olympics?
  8. How has transnational organizations joined with nation-states in the making sports more political?
  9. As sports become more commercialized and as national boundaries become less relevant in sport, what two issues will receive additional attention?
Chapter 14:            Sports in High School and College
  1. What are the popular arguments against interscholastic sports?
  2. What are the popular arguments for interscholastic sports?
  3. What have we learned from research about interscholastic sport?
  4. What four things are high school student most concerned about?
  5. What are the advantages of being a varsity athlete in high school?
  6. What did the research by Bissinger and Foley indicate about interscholastic sports programs?
  7. What were the finding of Braddock and his colleagues about young black males who participated in sport?
  8. What are major differences between big-time sport programs and the sport programs?
  9. Major entertainment-oriented intercollegiate programs are characterized as?
  10. Student-athlete in sports that support academic involvement usually?
  11. What can one conclude about grades and graduation rates between big-time college sports compared to other students?
  12. Have recent chances in big-time intercollegiate sports been effective?
  13. Has “Prop 16” prevented universities from exploiting student-athletes?
  14. Do schools benefit from varsity sport programs?
  15. What are the financial consequences of interscholastic sport programs?
  16. What is the financial relationship between varsity sports and school budgets at colleges and universities?
  17. What are the indirect benefits of having a intercollegiate sports program at a college or university?
  18. What are the most serious problems of sports programs at the high school level?
  19. What are the most serious problems of sports programs at college or university level?
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