Chapter Study Guides
Each quiz will be developed from the questions pertaining to the specific chapter
Chapter 3: A look at the Past
- The first forms of organized games around the world emerged from what?
- What people had the greatest impact on how sports were defined and organized?
- What were the contests and games like in ancient Greece?
- What were the contests and games like in ancient Rome?
- What were the contests and games like in medieval Europe?
- What effect did the reformation have on games and contests?
- How did the industrial revolution affect games and contests?
- What are the characteristics of a high-profile organized competitive sport?
- How did sport grow during 1880 to 1920 in North America?
- Since 1920, how has organized competitive sport changed?
- Since 1920, how has the competitive sport struggled?
Chapter 4: Sports & Socialization
- Define the term socialization.
- What is the functionalist view of socialization?
- What is the conflict theory approach to socialization?
- What is the interactionist view of socialization?
- Identify the process of becoming an elite athlete according to Chris Stevenson.
- According to Anita White, why does one chose or not chose to participate
- What are the important conclusions on why one stays or ends their involvement
- Define the term, character logic?
- According to the text, do sports build character?
- What is the power and performance model as opposed to pleasure and participation
- What moral lesson were learned in little league according to Gary Alan?
- What did Theberge’s study show us about playing sports?
- Define the term, social worlds?
- What connections did the studies of social worlds provide us about the socialization
processes in sport?
- Define the term, hegemony.
- What cultural ideologies and messages does sport deliver to people?
- Why doesn’t socialization research tell us all about sport?
Chapter 5: Sport & Children
- What are the five changes in family and childhood that account for much
of the increase in popularity of organized youth sport?
- What are the four major social changes in youth sports?
- What youth experiences occur in informal, player-controlled sport?
- What youth experiences occur in formal, adult-controlled sport?
- What were Patrica and Peter Adler’s eight-year youth sport study findings?
- What are the advantages of having youth’s play organized sports?
- When are children ready to play organized sports?
- How are the dynamics of the family affected by the youth sports?
What social factors in youth sports interact to influence children’s lifes?
- What are the recommended changes in youth sports that are cited in this
- What are Peter Donnelly’s recommendations for changing high performance
youth sport programs?
- How can coaching education program change existing youth sports programs?
Chapter 6: Deviance in Sport
- Define the term, deviance.
- What are the problems faced when studying deviance in sport?
- What is the functionalist view of deviance in sport?
- What is the conflict theory view of deviance in sport?
- What is the interactionist view of deviance in sport?
- Define the term, deviant underconformity in sport.
- Define the term, deviant overconformity in sport.
- Define the term, sport ethic.
- What are the four norms that make up sport ethic.
- Why do athletes engage in deviant overconformity?
- The social processes that exist in many sports are?
- What is the connection between deviant overconformity and deviant underconformity?
- How can one control deviant overconformity in sport?
- Is sport participation a cure for deviant behavior?
- What are the major research finding about deviance in sports?
- What are the major research findings about deviance off the field or away
- What is a performance-enhancing substance?
- Why should drugs be banned in sport?
- What factors contribute to the tendency of athletes to use performance-enhancing
- Does drug testing deter athletes from using performance-enhancing drugs?
- What are some recommendations for controlling substance use in sport?
Chapter 7: Violence in Sports
- Define the term, violence.
- Define the term, aggression.
- Define the term, intimidation.
- Why does Dunning feel that violence remains a crucial social issue for modern
- What are Smith’s four categories of violence associated with playing sports?
- Violence as deviant overconformity is related to what in high performance
- What affect has commercialization of sport have on violence in sport?
- What is the connection between issues of masculinity in culture to violence
- How do athletes use violence as a strategy in noncontact sports?
- How do athletes use violence as a strategy in contact sports?
- Research on pain and injury among athletes have shown what about violence
- How can one control on-the-field violence?
- Do violent strategies learned in sport carry over to the rest of life?
- Does power and performance sports reaffirm the ideology that men and women
- Does watching power and performance sports violence increase fan violence?
- What are the three factors related to crowd violence identified by research?
- What factors of crowd dynamics relate to spectator violence?
- How does one control crowd violence?
Chapter 8: Gender & Sport
- What are the five factors the account for recent increases in sport participation
among girls and women?
- What reasons have been cited to be cautious when predicting future participation
increases among girls and women?
- Does cheerleading reintroduce the concept of femininity?
- How do participation opportunities among girls and women differ from among
boys and men in sport?
- A school is in compliance with Title IX if they meet what tests?
- Most universities with large football programs almost always fall short
of meeting Title IX due to?
- Why do most universities and high schools fail tomeet Title IX guidelines?
- What inequalities exist between female and male sports programs?
- Why is there an underrepresentation of women in coaching or athletic administration?
- What has been the trend of employment of women in becoming coaches and athletic
administrators since 1972?
- How can one achieve gender equity and fairness in sport?
- Define the term, cultural ideology?
- What is a simple binary classification system?
- Why is girls and females playing sport a threat to traditional gender logic
in our society?
- What role does female body builders play in traditional gender logic and
definition of femininity?
- What challenges are faced by gay men and lesbians in sports?
- What are the strategies suggested to change current ideology about how we
define masculinity and femininity?
- Define the term, ethnicity.
- Define the term, ethnicity group.
- Define the term, minority group.
- Define the term, race.
- Define the term, race logic.
- Define the term, racial ideology.
- When did racial classification system begin and for what reason was racial
- What are traditional racial categories based upon?
- Why was the research investigating the “jumping genes” in black bodies a
dangerous way to do science?
- What are the three social and cultural conditions that when added together
provide a hypothesis on why blacks become outstanding athletes?
- How does sports provide examples of the use of race logic assumptions between
- What happens when people combine a black male with playing sport?
- What seems to happen when whites participate in sports where blacks predominate?
- Identify some complex interconnections between race logic and gender logic
in the social world of sport?
- What has historically been the pattern of sports participation with African
Americans in the United States?
- What has historically been the pattern of sports participation with Native
Americans in the United States
- What has historically been the pattern of sports participation with Latinos
and Hispanics in the United States?
- What has historically been the pattern of sports participation with Asia
Americans in the United States?
- What the three major challenges related to racial and ethnical relations
in sports today?
- What are the ways society can eliminate racial and ethnic exclusion in sport
- What are the ways society can deal with and manage racial and ethnic diversity
- What are the ways society can integrate race and ethnic people into positions
of power in sport organizations?
- Why should school not use Native American names or symbols in connection
with sport teams?
Chapter 10: Social Class
- Define the term, social class.
- Define the term, social stratification.
- Define the term, social relations.
- Define the term, class logic.
- Who and what social class have the power in sports?
- In what ways has sport been a vehicle for transferring public monies into
the hands of the wealthy?
- What is the true view between job creations and state-financed sport stadiums?
- How does the participation patterns differ between high-income,high-educated,
and high-status occupational groups to low-income groups?
- How is women in a high versus low income family participation in sports
- How do the ideas about sport and masculinity among upper-class, middle-class,
and lower-class boys differ?
- Why do boxers come from the lowest and most economically desperate income
- What seems to be the trend of high school sports in low-income areas as
compared to middle- and upper-income areas?
- What does Jonathan Kozol mean by the term, “savage inequalities” in sports
- How has the prices for attending high school. College, and/or professional
sporting events affected class relations?
- What are the three factors that help answer the question, “Do sports provide
opportunities for upward social class mobility in society?
- What are the chances of young athletes becoming professional athletes?
- What is status of women’s opportunity to play or be employed by a professional
- What is status of the black athlete’s opportunity to becoming a top professional
- What were the two employment barriers for black athletes in the United States?
- Playing sports is most likely to be positively related to occupational success
and upward mobility when?
- What are the two major challenges for retiring athletes?
- How is class and race relations connected with athlete scholarships?
Chapter 11: Sports & the Economy
- Commercial sports grow and prosper best under what social and economic conditions?
- How do so many people beome sport spectators?
- What has sport become global in scope?
- What is corporate sports branding?
- What happens to sports when they become commercialized and dependent on
- What happens to sports when there is a need to entertain the mass audience?
- Professional wrestling has become popular due to?
- Who owns professional sports in America?
- Why do large corporations sponsor particular sporting events?
- Why do people invest in sports and sporting events?
- How do team owners and sport leagues operates as monopolies?
- What the major arguments that owners cite for using public funds to build
- What are the arguments against providing public funds to build sport stadiums?
- What happened when Cleveland funded a $1 billion dollar ball park?
- What usually happens when a stadium is built?
- What are the top sources of income for sport teams?
- What are the two reasons why amateur sports have difficulty operating in
the United States?
- Define the term, reserve system.
- Define the term, free agents.
- What has happened to the legal status of athletes in team sports from the
mid-1970 to the present?
- The dramatic increase in salaries at the top level of pro sports is due
to what two factors?
- What seems to be the major factors in whether or not a athlete in either
team or individual sports will earn a high salary?
- What is the legal status of amateur athletes in the United States?
- What happens to the income generated by amateur athletes?
Chapter 12: Sports and the Media
- What three services does the media provide to the public?
- What are the five basic goals of the media?
- Who usually sponsors most of the sports programming in the media?
- How has the internet radically change our media connections in sports programming?
- What are the two reasons why television rights for sporting events have
- How dependent has sports become on the media?
- What two notions have been cited that television is the root of all evil
- When radio stations provide coverage of sport, what is their target audience?
- What media is most dependent on sports?
- Why is sports page so important to the newspapers?
- Why is having sport important for television?
- Why have we seen an increase in sports coverage of women sporting events?
- Why are events such as bowling, in-ling skating, track and field continue
to receive limited programming on television?
- What will be the trend in regular sports programming for major television
- Media representation of the sporting events in newspaper stresses what?
- Media representation of the sporting event on the television stresses wha?
- What are the gender equity and ideological issues in the media coverage
- Has the media caused people to become more active in sport?
- Has the media caused affected game attendance of sporting events?
- Has the media impacted betting on sports?
- What were the findings of Wenner and Gantz about United States adults and
- Why do newpaper and magazine sports writers do the most thorough investigative
- Why do the most popular media personalities sit in television broad casting
booths and talk with a sense of urgency about a sporting event?
Chapter 13: Sports & Politics
- What are the reason why the government becomes involved in sports?
- What was the hope of the founders of the Olympic games about sport?
- Define the term, serious diplomacy.
- Define the term, public diplomacy.
- Has sport had an effect on issues of vital national interest?
- Why do the modern Olympic games fall short of meeting the ideals of Olympism?
- What are the suggestion identified to eliminate nationalism and commercialism
in the Olympics?
- How has transnational organizations joined with nation-states in the making
sports more political?
- As sports become more commercialized and as national boundaries become less
relevant in sport, what two issues will receive additional attention?
Chapter 14: Sports in High School and College
- What are the popular arguments against interscholastic sports?
- What are the popular arguments for interscholastic sports?
- What have we learned from research about interscholastic sport?
- What four things are high school student most concerned about?
- What are the advantages of being a varsity athlete in high school?
- What did the research by Bissinger and Foley indicate about interscholastic
- What were the finding of Braddock and his colleagues about young black males
who participated in sport?
- What are major differences between big-time sport programs and the sport
- Major entertainment-oriented intercollegiate programs are characterized
- Student-athlete in sports that support academic involvement usually?
- What can one conclude about grades and graduation rates between big-time
college sports compared to other students?
- Have recent chances in big-time intercollegiate sports been effective?
- Has “Prop 16” prevented universities from exploiting student-athletes?
- Do schools benefit from varsity sport programs?
- What are the financial consequences of interscholastic sport programs?
- What is the financial relationship between varsity sports and school budgets
at colleges and universities?
- What are the indirect benefits of having a intercollegiate sports program
at a college or university?
- What are the most serious problems of sports programs at the high school
- What are the most serious problems of sports programs at college or university