Descriptions of the Aiki-taiso from Kobayashi-Sensei:


1. Nikyo Undo
From a natural stance, raise your left arm horizontally as you look at the back of your hand and place your right palm over the first knuckle of your left hand. The "One" count has you bend your left wrist with your right hand and push your left elbow forward. Your fingers must be pointed away from you in order to feel the stretch through the entire arm to the shoulder. This exercise is very useful in relieving tension from your shoulder.
Release your hand and repeat several times for each hand.

2. Sankyo Undo
From a natural stance, look at the back of your left hand with fingers pointing downward, then grasp the blade of your hand with your right hand. The "One" count has you twist your left hand with your right hand as you move your left elbow diagonally forward. keep the elbow bent so that you feel the twist in your upper arm.
Release your hand and repeat several times for each hand.

3. Kotegaeshi Undo
From a natural stance, look at your left palm as you place your right palm behind it. Hook your last two fingers of your right hand around the base of the left thumb and place your right thumb at the base of the left little finger. The "One" count has both hands dropping together, causing the left wrist to bend and twist naturally. You should feel the stretch through the entire arm.
Release your hand and repeat several times for each hand.

4. Tekubi Shindo Undo
Keep your hands at your sides and stand naturally. Relax and start shaking your wrists first, then arms and entire body. You must keep your One-point throughout the exercise. This exercise is to calm yourself down so that your Ki is back to a natural flow.

5. Funakogi Undo
Take a natural step forward with your left foot, Keeping your hands at your sides. The "One" count starts your hips moving forward as you bend your wrists and elbows. As your hips complete the forward movement, your arms should be comfortably extended and fingers pointing downward. Do not lock your elbows or knees for you will lose your balance.
The "Two" count reverses the hip movement as you let your fingertips drop downward. Imagine a belt which is going around two pulleys, the large one close to you and the smaller one away from you.
Repeat this exercise several times, then change feet and repeat again.
This exercise will help you to understand your range of effectiveness.

6. Shomenuchi Ikkyo Undo
Take a natural step forward with your left foot. At the "One" count, move your hips forward and let your arms swing forward and upward from your fingertips. Do not overextend your arms. Let yourfingertips draw their natural arcs as you send them forward from your hips.
On the "Two" count, drop your fingertips downward. Do not swing your arms toward you intentionally or move your hips back before you drop your fingertips because they will hinder the effectiveness of the arm swing.
The upswing of the arms with Ki extended will protect you from an overhead strike from the front while the downswing can lead an attacker to become off balace and fall.
Repeat this exercise several times, then change feet and repeat with your right foot forward.

7. Zengo Undo
Stand with your left foot forward and your hands at your sides. On the "One" count, slide forward as you swing your arms forward and up from your fingertips. On the "Two" count, let your arms drop to your sides leading from your fingertips. Pivot 180 degrees to your right without shifting your weight back. Repeat the same movements with your right foot forward.
Repeat this exercise several times without losing your balace.
This exercise will help you develop control over yourself while changing directions. You will learn to switch your mind from one problem to another without losing control of the situation.

8. Happo Undo
Do "Zengo Undo" in eight directions in eight counts:

"ONE"_____Slide forward with your left foot in front, then turn 180 degrees to you right.
"TWO"_____Slide forward with your right foot in front, then turn 90 degrees to your left.
"THREE"_____Slide forward with your left foot in front, then turn 180 degrees to your right.
"FOUR"_____Slide forward with your right foot in front, then turn 45 degrees to your left.
"FIVE"_____Step forward with your left foot, then turn 180 degrees to your right.
"SIX"_____Slide forward with your right foot in front, then turn 90 degrees to your left.
"SEVEN"_____Slide forward with your left foot in front, then turn 180 degrees to your right.
"EIGHT"_____Slide forward with your right foot in front, then turn to your left to face front.

9. Tekubi Kosa Undo
Stand naturally with your hands at your sides. On the "One" count, relax and swing your arms, starting with your fingertips, until your wrists cross over each other. Immediately release them so that they return to the starting position.
Repeat this five times with the left wrist in front, then five times with the right wrist in front.
This exercise leads the attacker who is holding your wrist or wrists within your range of effectiveness as you lead them out of their range of effectiveness.

10. Joho Kosa Undo
Stand naturally with your hands at your sides. The "One" count is relax and swing your arms forward from the fingertips until the hands overlap in front of your face. Drop them immediately so they return to your sides.
Repeat this five times with the left wrist in front, then five times with the right wrist in front.
This exercise helps you to lead the attacker who is holding both your wrists from the front upward and inward to jam the grip to the point where it is weak and less effective.

11. Enkei Undo
Stand naturally with your arms at your sides. On the "One" count, dip your hips as you let your left arm swing toward your One-point, then immediately straighten up. The "Two" count dips again as you relax and drop your left hand down. The movement resembles drawing a circle in front of your One-point. Your right hand should be placed at your One-point during the movement.
Alternate and repeat this exercise several times.
This is an excellent movement to lure an attacker well within your range of effectiveness as you lead them out of their range of effectiveness.

12. Enkei Choyaku Undo
Stand naturally with your arms at your sides. The "One" count has you look(and turn your hips) left, cross your right foot behind your left, then take a large step to your left with your left foot and dip at the count "Two". Execute the Enkei-undo while you are doing this exercise.
Alternate left and right and repeat this exercise several times.
This movement helps you to keep your balance as you move with a pull at your wrist from the side so that you can move well within your range of effectiveness.

13. Sayu Enkei Undo
Standing naturally with your arms at your sides, the "One" count has you turn 90 degrees to your right and complete the Enkei-undo with the count "Two" with your left hand. Immediately return to face the front and repeat it on your left side.
Repeat this exercise several times, alternating right and left.
This exercise is to open the door for the oncoming attacker to allow you to lead them while well within your range of effectiveness.

14. Udefuri Undo
Stand naturally with your left hand in front of your One-point and your right hand at the small of your back. The "One" count is relaxing and swinging your arms to switch positions. The "Two" count returns them to their starting places. The exercise is done with the arms only. The shoulders should not rotate with the arms but should stay in place.
Repeat this exercise several times.
This exercise helps you to lead an attacker who is holding you from the back to the side so that they will be out of their range of effectiveness as you maintain yours.

15. Udefuri Choyaku Undo
The end of Udefuri-undo counting includes a step forward with the left foot on "Four".
The "One" count of this exercise has you shift your weight forward and sliding your left foot, then step with your right foot and pivot to face the opposite direction while stepping your left foot. Draw your right foot back and lower your center of gravity by bending your knees. You must be well balanced and ready to spring out forward again to return to your starting point (the "Two" count) so that your left foot is forward.
This is the most often applied exercise in Aikido which helps you blend, lead and control with minimal effort.

16. Ushirodori Zenpo-nage Undo
Stand naturally with your hands at your sides. On the "One" count relax your arms and raise your fingertips (palm side down) withouth moving the upper arms while sliding forward with your left foot. Straighten out your elbows comfortably as the left foot sets forward. At the moment the left foot touches the mat, pivot on your left foot as your right arm swings to the rear and keeping your left arm forward. Your arms and back should be in the same plane. Tilt your body slightly forward, bending your knees.
Alternate left and right, repeating this exercise several times.
This exercise is a method to blend and free yourself, then eject the attacker who is holding you from behind.

17. Ushiro Tekubitori Zenshin Undo
Stand naturally with your hands at your sides. The "One" count is relax your arms and move your fingertips forward. When the arms start to naturally swing upward, turn your wrists over until the palm side is down. Slide forward with your left foot, then step forward with your right foot as you squat down as if you are drawing an attacker over your head (This is the "Two" count). Slide the left foot up under you at the end of the movement.
Repeat this exercise several times, alternating left foot and right foot.
This exercise teaches you to blend with an attacker who is holding your wrists from behind and throw them forward over your head.

18. Ushiro Tekubitori Kotai Undo
Stand naturally with your hands at your sides. On the "One" count bend your wrists gently and move your fingertips forward letting your arms raise naturally. Slide your left foot to the left and slightly back. The "Two" count is shifting your weight to the left and stepping to the left and back with the right foot, dropping to your right knee while letting your arms follow downward.
Repeat this exercise several times by alternating left and right.
This exercise is used to lead the attacker, who is holding your wrists from behind, off balance to the front while you step out of the way.

19. Katatetori Tenkan Undo
Stand naturally with your hands at your sides. The "One" count is stepping forward with your left foot while gently offering the left hand. Immediately after offering the left hand, turn 180 degrees to the right on the ball of the left foot. Step back with your right foot then draw your left foot in to straighten your posture. The hand changes from palm down to palm up during the direction change. The "Two" count returns to the starting position through stepping forward with the right foot and offering the right hand, then immediately turning 180 degrees to the left and stepping back with your left foot ending in a straighten posture by drawing the right foot in.
Repeat this exercise several times.
This exercise is to learn how to blend with the attacker in a horizontal plane and lead them into a place where you have complete control. It is effective in leading the attacker around you so that you are able to see all around you and be ready for another attacker.