return to LB archiv


Fall/Spring01/025001 seminarthe classLeif Brush info Sonification challenge: The C5 Landscape Projects



Workshops & ResourcesES 5001

Refs & URLs

Readings acoustic ecological & musical URL refs

soundworks, selfbroadcastingsoundscapes, & carbon-sucking forests

WILDERNESS AS REENTRANT FORM: thoughts on the future of electronic art and nature












Course goals, information

This class heightens your awareness of the acoustic soundscape as an important aspect of the natural and built environments. We will expolore how sound is perceived, its societal implications, and its role in varied cultural contexts. Discussions and hands-on demonstrations and workshops, culminating in an individual soundscape project, paper, and possible class CD.

Key words: metaphor, acoustic ecology, ecopsychology, sound, acoustics, ambience, sound sculpture, soundwalk, microphones & sensors, noise, sonic architecture (geography, etc),

Grading: A-F.

Absences: regular attendance is expected.
Contact me (phone 7268220/
email) if you must be absent.

UMD Library resources

Equipment loan

Items available for use: audio recorders, VCRs, CD players, cabling; equipment for digital editing; digital still & video cameras, and Mac computer on a cart are available from Equipment Loan, Lib 175 (6222). You will need to show your ID after I submit the class list of users.

The pressure really builds close to finals time.













acoustic ecology

is "the study of the effects of the acoustic environment or soundscape(s) on the physical responses or behavioral characteristics of creatures living within it. Its particular aim is to draw attention to imbalances which may have unhealthy or inimical effects..." R. Murray Schafer. (He also suggests that we try to hear the acoustic environment as a musical composition and further, that we own responsibility for its composition)

"... So what did Schafer have to say and what is its relevance at the start of the new century?

Schafer's starting point was to note the incredible dominance of the visual modality in society - "eye culture", as it has been termed elsewhere - and to reveal that childrens' ability to listen was, in his experience, deteriorating..." Kendall Wightson

"What is Ecopsychology,deep ecology?

Ecology is not a spectator sport. Our relationship with nature is not a matter of choice: we are inescapably in and of it. But many academic disciplines have conspicuously failed to examine that relationship as assiduously as they might. Prominent among them is psychology, which in the century since its modern formulation has been almost exclusively concerned with what goes on in our heads, and between people. 'Nature', in the sense of that which is not human, has hardly had a look-in..." email to Ecopsychology Web


The Acoustic Environments in Change project, led by Dr Helmi Järviluoma from the University of Turku, Finland is re-visiting villages in 2000.

(In 1975, five European villages were visited by a group of Canadian soundscape researchers and members of the R. Murray Schafer World Soundscape Project. The villages were in France, Sweden, Scotland, Germany, and Italy.)













Environmental Studies majors: This seminar provides the opportunity for you to present insights from your ongoing assignments and research. The seminars are held on Tuesday and Thursday at 2:00 pm, in Room ABAH 345, Art Department (unless otherwise stated on the web page, handout and in class)


















Tues, Sept. 5

general discussion: handout/webpage/readings/draw fortune cookies/group projects: optional CD & movie/ hand clap timing cues &/or WWV time-code/make Root folderin Zip/drop/add/know what AV & Library has & where they are?/specialneeds/ meeting with you ((crumbs of audio falling from a slow moving vehicle. file under: music that makes your ears squint))

Thurs, Sept. 7 cont. general discussion: handout readings & reference lists/ student introductions/ recorded presentations: in person or via web page (major/personal interests & direction) Leif Brush: work/research

 MEET in ABAH 345

 Tues, Sept 12Workshop: mics, sensors & recorders MEET in ABAH 345

noise tapes/feedback/help

video: Ganges riverboat

Andra McCartney's soundwalk

 Thurs, Sept 14

MEET in Bagley Nature Center for video/soundwalk






1st CLASS LED DISCUSSION (The individual total time is devided by the number of participants)

Individually work from an outline takeing into account the concept of acoustic ecology and try to engage discussion.

Include references to at least three of the handouts I've given you through September 26th, and summarize areas in these which generally interest you and eventually may be incorporated into your final project. Be specific and use references which are based on key words mentioned in the xeroxes. You may also use and refer to resources from the UMD Library or Internet search engines such as Google, Yahoo, etc.

Presentation content:
a. Address your own perceptual approach to listening. and indicate where your sound awareness is presently.
b.In the context of Acoustic Ecology, what do you listen to most and judge the degree to which you are listening closely to things around you in walking the soundsape?
c. Use your notes and observations from our recent Bagley Nature walk and the recordings we listened to in class to aid you in further addressing any particular direction and interest.

 Tues. Sept 19Workshop: mics, sensors & audio recorders MEET in ABAH 345

Review and hand in Assignment 1

playbacks: video/soundwalk, soundbed ; group crits

 Thurs, Sept 21

rcont. 1st assignment playback Intro assignment 2 give handouts

Workshop: begin transfering audiotapes & digital editing. MEET in ABAH 345

 Tues, Sept 26continue loading Assignment # 1 into the computer and do a save as (name your file) to your Zip drive. During finals week this removeable hard drive is what you'll be handing in following your project presentation.

Up to that time let me have, via Email or in class, the URLs and any UMD Library references you are looking at in your research so that I can post these
on the ES5001 class page.

As you become familiar with the recording equipment, please continue on with the assignments and work at your own pace, transfering each to your Zip disk

digital editing cont.

 Thurs, Sept 28


 Tues, October 31st student led discussions; general discussion: readings

Lina Castilla, Lucas Deyoung, Debra Flipovich, Bryan Karl, Stephanie Tuinstra

digital editing cont.

 Thurs, Oct 51st student led discussions; general discussion: readings

Amy Benson, Nathan Blasing, Jacob Koenen, Angela Moeller, Kimberly Voss, David Nickel, Jacob Voit & Willow, Michelle Kamben

digital editing cont.

Tues. Oct 10 1st student led discussions; general discussion: readings

Chris Braaten, David Braun, Shelia Wokson, Anne Woods, Melissa Moening

digital editing cont.


 Thurs, Oct 121st student led discussions; general discussion: readings

Mary Eggebraaten, Jennifer Erickson, Nicholas Hansen, Shaun Johnson, Nathan Reinbold, Angela Schmidt, Roderick McLean

digital editing cont.

 Tues Oct 17work in class on assignments or continue your recordings

I will be meeting with each of you

 Thurs, Oct 19work in class on assignments or continue your recordingsdigital editing cont.

 Tues, Oct 24work in class on assignments or continue your recxordingsdigital editing cont.

I will be meeting with each of you

 Thurs, Oct 26work in class on assignments digital editing cont. or continue your recordings

I will be meeting with each of you

Work again from an outline or notes to further clarify and refine your approach to acoustic ecology based upon the previous class discussions and your experience in your recordings.
Cite the library resources you've used, URLs you've visited, and summarize key points of your interest you're pursuing which may be incorporated
into your final essay and project. Continue to focus on key words to assist in your research.
Consider in your upcoming presentation content:
a. How has your perceptual approach to listening changed since the beginning of the course? How has this influenced the structure and content of your 5 minute audible construct?
b. In the context of acoustic ecology, what has emerged as the important aspects you are listening to as you do your walk in the soundscape? Does this experience have any structure models that you can use in constructing your audible construct?
c. Share the current thoughts or insights you've had as a result of your research, and/or recording, and/or information from fellow students.
Essay Outline suggestions

 Tues, Oct 31 part 2 student led (all class) updates

Lina Castilla, Lucas Deyoung, Jennifer Erickson, Nicholas Hansen, Bryan Karl, David Nickel


 Thurs, Nov 2part 2 student led (all class) updates

Chris Braaten, Jacob Koenen, Angela Moeller, Stephanie Tuinstra, Jacob Voit, Michelle Kamben, Nathan Blasing

Workshop: CD?

 Tues. Nov 7part 2 student led (all class) updates

David Braun, Shaun Johnson, Kimberly Voss, Shelia Wokson, Anne Woods

digital editing cont

 Thurs, Nov 9part 2 student led (all class) updates

Amy Benson, Mary Eggebraaten, Debra Flipovich, Roderick Mclean, Melissa Moening, Nathan Reinbold, Angela Schmidt digital editing cont

  Tues, Nov 14CD?

Listen to tapes CDs. (bring any recordings not heard in class and those in progress)

digital editing cont

Thurs, Nov 16Class work session - continue digital editing cont

  Tues, Nov 21Class work session - continue on assignments,research and project discussions.

Workshop: digital editing contCD?

 Thurs, Nov 23 No Class
 Tues, Nov 28Class work session - continue digital editing cont draw fortune cookies for final presentation   Thurs, Nov 30Class work session - continue digital editing cont  
 December  Tues, Dec, 5Class work session - continuedigital editing cont  Thurs, Dec 7Class work session - continue digital editing cont  Tues, Dec 12Project presentations

  Project presentations

Thurs, Dec 14

 Tues, Dec 19  Project presentations FINAL CLASS  Tues, Dec 21  Project presentations FINAL CLASS  













required materials

1 zip disk (furnished, to be shared w/partner)
1 Recordable CD (furnished--to be shared w/partner)
1 notebook (for research and discussion points, library & Internet refs., etc.)
1 C30 or 60 audio cassette--furnished & shared w/partner

assignment workshops hardware & software

Hardware and SoundEdit 16 software on a Mac cart will be available as needed in class for digital inputing and editing assignment work.

Quick review of Assignments 

You are to do six final audio recordings (one as your final project), as described in the assignments below. You also will do one 5 page essay related to your final project.


1 collect sounds to use and edit during the term:
Select a site in Duluth and visit twice under differing conditions (weather, crowd density, etc.) At/or approximately the same time (use the hand clap, WWV time-code or whatever to establish cues), make at least four 1 minute recordings during each visit from N.S.E.W. positions. This is raw material for a final, at least 5 minute audible construct you'll create from these. Due Sept 13th for class feedback DUE: Tues. Sept 19

1a (an alternative: sound self portrait)

save all recordings on one cassette

 2 focus & select a collection of indoor & outdoor sounds Find, focus and record enough 1 minute indoor/outdoor sounds of environmental interest to you which to are different, but related enough that you may digitally edit them into a cohesive audible construct of at least 5 minutes in length. Examples of possibilities:
A. architectural acoustics*- UMD lecture room, hall closet, a bridge underpass, UMD Tweed courtyard - where sound reflects back to you
B. ambience**- those sounds which share your immediate space wherever you are:
C. atmoshpheric-outdoors/natural/- UMD Bagley Nature Center, the BWCA- a voice travels beyond yourself without any reflective echo-sound;
D. voice/outdoors/&human made/urban--a voice competes in a froth of other sounds
*Acoustics-- is the science of sound. It relates to recorded music, to speech and hearing, to the behavior of sound in concert halls and buildings, and to noise in our environment. Sound waves are used for such purposes as medical diagnosis, testing critical materials, and locating fish in the ocean or oil-bearing rock formations underground.
**Ambience--The background sound of an environment in relation to which all foreground sounds are heard, such as the 'SILENCE' of an empty room, conversation in a restaurant, or the stillness of a forest. Ambience is actually comprised of many small sounds, near and far, which generally are heard as a composite, not individually. Also called ambient noise.

DUE: Tues. Oct 19

 3 Outdoor environmental soundwalk recordings (Bagley Nature Center // BWCA // your neighborhood // Again, use the hand clap or WWV method to make recordings at the same time on two different days.
TAPE COLLECTION #1, FIRST DAY: Record enough outdoor sounds of environmental interest to you which to are different, but related enough that you may digitally edit this and the sounds of TAPE COLLECTION #2, below, into a cohesive audible construct of at least 5 minutes in length.
For Day #1, initially listen for and record simultaneously occurring sounds through a conscious effort on your part as you begin your walking experience. Stop, play back, listen and evaluate your test recordings. Continue to make an acceptable recording as you walk through the Bagley Nature Center and then into UMD's on-campus soundscape. Make notes about the following: What were the essential sounds heard as you moved in time? What were the differences between your first and final recordings as you moved through changing sound contexts (through differing ambiences)? Does your self awareness approach only the emotional response?
TAPE COLLECTION #2, SECOND DAY: Select a different route from within Bagley Nature Center, across St. Marie Street onto the UMD campus so as to further concentrate on the specific aspects you learned from your 1st recording. Save both, to be joined as one through editing.

 a listening point of view from Yu Wakao

soundwalkings DUE: Thurs. Oct 31

 4create a 5 minute soundwork based on noise/sound which you feel deeply about, either positively or negatively. You may use
a art or science approach, or an approach related to a second major or minor. You may
also blend these appraoches in the same soundwork

Voyages "My village of origin contained two significant buildings, significant not for their formal qualities, they were both simple cottages, but because one had been the home of Halley, the astronomer and the other the home of William Blake the poet. "

Look at other student URL links. Email me your URL research sites for posting to class page DUE: Tues. Nov 2

 5sound as metaphor, a five minute soundwork Create a five minute soundwork with the following in mind:
Bliaskar Chandavarkar says "...if you cannot express things through music, you can use silence as an element which is likely to reveal more than what music or dialogue could have revealed..."
Think of a personal metaphor, which can be adapted to a 5 minute soundwork. What is the identity of your metaphor? Use a sound as an obvious metaphor (e.g., the sound of a computer keypad to write text), a listener can recognize the sound for what it is (a computer keypad) and then also interpret the sound as representing typewritten text. What is the number of and length of sounds? What are the aesthetics ?
"(the metaphor silence does not exist in an absolute sense. Bresson once said, "on the obvious level, silence in music relates to space indirectly. In the cinema, on the other hand, it relates to space in movement."... Within the Indian ambience of cinema, the piano suggests affluence, The flute, on the other hand, is a direct descendant of Lord Krishna, whose famous flute is both the sign and the signifier of his visual or aural presence. Ironically however, neither the piano nor the flute is common in India's everyday cultural ethos. The piano has become a non entity because of dwindling spaces in urban apartments. "
silence as a metaphor point of view from Shoma A. Chatterji

SOUNDSCAPE: Pollution as a point of view

Sonic Geography DUE: Tues. Nov. 14

 6 five page essay on some aspect of acoustic ecology

DUE: on date of your presentation

 7 your focused final project

DUE: on the date which you've selected


















workshops & resources

will be held/demonstrated during class time in places that will be announced via the Internet syllabus, in class and/or Email. Recording equipment requests should be made via advance reservations in Room Lib 175.















project &

Your major project is expected to be multimedial, integrating the elements voice, ambience/acoustics, visuals, and digitally edited audio recordings. The themes should reflect acoustic ecological concepts, your research and your references. Formats are of your own choosing for these in class presentations and could include using minimal equipment, e.g. slides and tape recorder, or more extensive equipment, such as Web page sound-amplified projections.


Include your five page essay as a Simple Text or Word word-processed file in your Root folder or the Zip disc you (and in some cases, your partner) hand in during finals week. You also may elect to turn in the notebook or journal you've been keeping over the term.














Class research Refs


Ear Cleaning, R. Murray Schafer, BMI Canada Limited, Ontario, 1967, 1969

The New Soundscape, R. Murray Schafer, BMI Canada Limited, Ontario, 1969

the book of noise, R. Murray Schafer, Price Milburn & Co Ltd, Wellington, 1973 return to previous

Sound Escape - an international conference on acoustic ecology

& URLs

The following supports the research and theses statements of

Lina Maria Castilla:" "

these are not verified

Jacob T Voit


research, psychoacoustics

Autopsies of whales that beached in
the Bahamas Darlene Ketten, an expert on whale acoustics, ... raises a red flag..
this is absolutely no surprise. The U.S. Navy has a history of
using and abusing marine mammals they have slaughtered thousands of
dolphins trying to train them to plant bombs on the undersides of ships
all in the name of national defense and (supposed) public good. I know
this because I have family in the U.S. Navy."
Roderick McLean


Greenleaf Publishing invites contributions for a new book on 'Ecology of the New Economy: Sustainable Transformation of Global Technology,Communication,and Electronics Industries',to be edited by Jacob Park and Nigel Roome.


Bryan Karl
Sounds of the Seasons by Ivars Peterson

What is Sound? (URL?)

Sound in Context: Acoustic Communication & Soundscape Research at SFU by Barry Truax


Close Listening: sound, art, science and the imagination

"Shawn Decker's installation surrounds listeners with a subtle, continuous music created by the
delicate clicking sounds of sixteen paint stirrers in motion".

   The Analogous Landscape

Where are the sound components?



















 Architectural & environmental soundings

Inventory of cultural, historic, and natural sites throughout the world that are "considered to be of outstanding universal value."

Nigel Helyer Sonic Objects: Sonic Architecture Dual Nature
Bill & Mary Buchen Sonic Architecture 1, 2,3, 4,5

How will our next "future" architectural interiors, exteriors and their environments sound?

Horst Kiechle 'NORTHWESTWIND - MILD Turbulence'

Christo & Jeanne-Claude "...It is their hope that art students and environmentalists will find this web site useful and enjoyable."

Terry Evans "Terraced Plowing with Grass Waterway," April 1991



















Handouts & Recommended Reference Books (may be ordered from

1. Noise, Acoustic Ecology, Study of Sound
2. From
The Tuning of The World, by R. Murray Schafer, Alfred A. Knoph, New York, 1977 3."A Tourist in the Soundscape", 4."Outdoor versus Indoor Sounds," 5."Exploring the New Soundscape, Rhythm and Tempo in the Soundscape"

6. new sounding intruments

7. sound in Indian film

8."Early Humans go through the speech Barrier," Aleksey A. Leontyev

9. "Sounds of sound sculpture"

10. Psychoanalysis of Sound," Peter Ostwald

11. "Tuning in to the Past," 13."On insect 'wings of song',"R. Murray Schafer


13. September 21 ES5001 essay guidelines

xx.. "... /From dawn to dusk...," Georg Jappe; "Body music #: the language of the genes," Liesl Ujvary; "Germ-code," Rainer Gottemeier;" Friction # 6," Robert Spour; "Rondo for double bass and short-wave receiver," Johannes Stockler; "Flotsam and jetsam," Christine Ulm; Marilyn Collins; "Lighthouse," Richardas Norvila; "Can you read me," Peter Battisti; "Applause," Rupert Huber ((With CD examples to be played in class before 2nd class presentation))

xx. Do Trees have Rights (due in)

Attali, Jacques
Noise: The Political Economy
of Music (University of
Minnesota Press, 1985)

Noise & Politics

Noise & Politics

Our science has always desired to monitor, measure, abstract, and castrate meaning,
forgetting that life is full of noise and that death alone is silent... Noise bought, sold
or prohibited... Nothing essential happens in the absence of noise.

Among sounds, music as an autonomous production is a recent invention.
Ambiguous and fragile, ostensibly secondary and of minor importance, it has
invaded our world and daily life. Today it is unavoidable, as if, in a world now
devoid of meaning, a background noise were increasingly necessary to give people a
sense of security.

Music heralds, for it is prophetic. It obliges us to invent categories and new dynamics
to regenerate social theory, which has become entrapped. Music makes mutations
audible. It has always been in its essence a herald of times to come...if it is true that
the political organisation of the 20th Century is rooted in the political thought of the
19th, the latter is almost entirely present in embryonic form in the music of the 18th

More than colours and forms, it is sounds and their arrangements that fashion
societies. With noise is born disorder and its opposite: the world. With music is born
power and its opposite: subversion. In noise we can read the codes of life, the
relations among people. Clamour, Melody, Dissonance, Harmony. It is at the heart of
aesthetics, and it is a refuge for a residual irrationality; it is a means of power and a
form of enterainment.

Any theory of power today must include a theory of the localisation of noise and its
endowment with form. Equivalent to the articulation of a space, it indicates the
limits of a territory and the way to make oneself heard within it, how to survive by
drawing one's sustenance from it. And since noise is the source of power, power has
always listened to it with fascination.

Eavesdropping, censorship, recording and surveillance are weapons of power. The
technology of listening in on, ordering, transmitting and recording noise is at the
heart of the apparatus. To listen, to memorise - this is the ability to interpret and
control history, to manipulate the culture of a people, to control its violence and

The theorists of totalitarianism have all explained, indistinctly, that it is necessary to
ban subversive noise because it betokens demands for cultural autonomy, support
for differences or marginality: a concern for maintaining tonalism, the primacy of
melody, a distrust of new languages, codes or instruments, a refusal of the
abnormal - these characteristics are common to all totalitarian regimes. They are
direct translations of the political importance of cultural repression and noise make music tranquil, reassuring and calm.

Everywhere we look, the monopolisation of the broadcast of messages, control of
noise, and the institutionalisation of the silence of others assures the durability of

Musical distribution techniques are today contributing to the establishment of a
system of eavesdropping and social surveillance - channels for the circulation of
orders. The monologue of standardised, stereotyped music accompanies and hems in
a daily life in which no one has the right to speak any more.

The distinction between musician and non-musician undoubtedly represents one of
the very first divisions of labour, one of the very first social differentiations in
history, even predating the hierarchy of class.

What is called music today is all too often only a disguise for the monologue of
power. Music now seems hardly more than a somewhat clumsy excuse for the
self-glorification of musicians and the growth of a new industrial sector, the
channelisation of desire into commodities to such an extreme as to become a

But a subversive strain of music has always managed to survive, subterranean and
pursued, the inverse image of noise control: popular music, an instrument of the
ecstatic cult, an outburst of uncensored violence. Here music is a locus of subversion,
a transcendence of the body. At odds with the official religions and centres of power,
these gatherings of marginals have at turns been tolerated, offered integration into
official culture and brutally repressed. Music, the quintessential mass activity, like
the crowd, is simultaneously a threat and a necessary source of legitimacy: trying to
channel it is a risk that every system of power must run.

We are condemned to silence - unless we create our own relation with the world and
try to tie other people into the meaning we thus create. That is what composing is.
Doing solely for the sake of doing. Inventing new codes, inventing the message at the
same time as the language. Playing for one's own pleasure which alone can create
the conditions for new communication. A concept such as this relates to the
emergence of the free act, self-transcedence, pleasure in being instead of having.

Composition thus appears as a negation of the division of roles and labour as
constructed by the old codes. To listen to music in the network of composition is to
rewrite it. The listener is the operator.

Composition beyond the realm of music calls into question the distinction between
worker and consumer, between doing and destroying; its beginning can be seen
today, incoherent and fragile, subversive and threatened, in techno's anxious
questioning of repitition, in its foreshadowing of the death of the specialist.

Head Magazine 6

Ambient Issue


Bernstein, Leonard 
The Joy of Music
(London, Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1954)
Bernstein's passion and enthusiasm for music
jumps out of the page in this remarkable

Cage, John 
Silence (Connecticut,
Wesleyan University Press, 1961)

Chanan, Michael 
Musica Practica (London,
Verso Press, 1994) A discussion of the social
practice of western music from Gregorian
chant to postmodernism.

Chion, Michel
David Lynch
(Trans. Julian, Robert, London, BFI Publishing,
1995) Analysis of Lynch's work. Contains
surprisingly little on sound.

La musique électroacoustique
(Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1982)
Thoughtful study of electro-acoustic music.

Jacques Tati (Paris, Cahiers du
Cinéma, 1987) Criticism and interpretation of
Tati's films.

Cooke, Deryck 
The Language of Music
(London, Oxford University Press, 1959/r1989)
Deconstructs music's affective power through
a study of intervals, harmony and rhythm

Kelly, Owen
Digital Creativity (London,
Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 1996) The
book looks at how digital creativity has
evolved. It examines the tools available, gives
examples of a range of artistic works and
questions the implications of such digital

Lander, Dan & (eds.) Lexier, Micah 

Sound by Artists (Art
Metropole, Toronto, Walter Phillips Gallery,
Banff. 1990)

Meyer, Leonard B.
Emotion and Meaning in
(Chicago University Press, 1956) Still as
provocative as when it was first published.

Murch, Walter
In the Blink of An Eye (Los
Angeles, Silman-James Press, 1995) A
thought-provoking essay on film editing. The
reader is taken on a journey through the
aesthetics and practical issues of cutting film.

Negroponte, Nicholas
Being Digital (London, Hodder
and Stoughton, 1995) One of the world's
foremost experts on multimedia explores the
impact of digital technology in our lives.

Rodley, Chris
Lynch on Lynch
(London, Faber and Faber, 1997) A survey of
Lynch's career combined with his own
insights into film-making and art.

Storr, Anthony
Music and the Mind (London,
Harper Collins, 1992) A remarkable journey
through music psychology. This is a must

Tarkovsky, Andrey 
Sculpting in Time: Reflections
on the Cinema
(London, Faber, 1989) Contains a brief section
on sound but Tarkovsky's ideas on directing
and film in general are fascinating regardless
of your discipline.

Toop, David
Ocean of Sound (London,
Serpent's Tail, 1995) Discusses ambient sound,
contains interview with Brian Eno.

Wishart, Trevor 
On Sonic Art (York,
Imagineering Press, 1985) Seminal work on
aesthetics of electro-acoustic music.

Wollen, Peter
Signs and Meaning in the
(London, British Film Institute, 1970/ repr.
1992) Singin' in the Rain
(London, British Film Institute, 1992)



















chronological URLs

Luigi Russolo The Art of noise, futurist manifesto (March 11, 1913)
Luigi writes..."Dear Balilla Pratella, great Futurist composer,

In Rome, in the Costanzi Theatre, packed to capacity, while I was listening to the orchestral performance of your overwhelming Futurist music, with my
Futurist friends, Marinetti, Boccioni, Carrà, Balla, Soffici, Papini and Cavacchioli, a new art came into my mind which only you can create, the Art of Noises, the
logical consequence of your marvelous innovations.

Ancient life was all silence. In the nineteenth century, with the invention of the machine, Noise was born. Today, Noise triumphs and reigns supreme over the
sensibility of men. For many centuries life went by in silence, or at most in muted tones. The strongest noises which interrupted this silence were not intense
or prolonged or varied. If we overlook such exceptional movements as earthquakes, hurricanes, storms, avalanches and waterfalls, nature is silent...
web host


Wolfgang Zinggl, Things Like Soundoundless Sound Sculptures

In ancient Hilvarios the philosophers began to reflect as follows: if the raging storm outside in the wood breaks a tree and no-one is there to hear the creaking of the tree as it falls, is it not then possible that perhaps no sound has actually arisen? The sounds are nothing other than air-pressure currents which only
turn into sounds in the head of the hearer. If the apparatus of the senses is missing then the sound is missing and all that exists is simply the changed air pressure. Such were the thoughts of the ancient Greeks.
Two thousand years later, the philosopher Hermann Bloch was out walking in Mannheim on the Rhine. Suddenly he became aware of the full import of that ancient thought. Do things then not have any qualities at all? Do they have no colour, taste, smell? Could the world be "soundless" and all perception only

Welcome to the Chicago Airport System Community Noise Resource Center. The City of Chicago has developed this resource center to inform individuals
and the communities around O'Hare and Midway Airports of the City's ongoing efforts including: The Fly Quiet Program, Residential Sound Insulation
Program, School Sound Insulation Program, and Airport Noise Monitoring System. The Community Noise Resource Center at O'Hare is located on the
Mezzanine level of Terminal 1 and at the Airport Maintenance Complex at Midway.


By Shoma A. Chatterji, Film Critic, India

Sound as an expression of emotion. This refers to laughter, which is generally speaking, quite universal in cinema. But weeping, crying, yelling out ingrief and pain, are culture?specific and generally differ from one culture to another. Unlike Occidental cultures, where any public expression of grief and
pain is considered indecent, because grief and pain are taken to be extremelyprivate and intimate, in Oriental cultures, to withhold such public expression ofgrief through loud crying or weeping is considered to be unhealthy and almostabnormal. Though with the rapid pace of urbanisation and Westernisation, this open show of grief is on the decline, Indian cinema has held on to conventionand tradition. So, crying and weeping in Indian cinema takes different forms and shapes depending mainly on the director's handling of the scene to intensify the pain just so that it communicates itself to the spectator and lends conducively to audience identification.


A sound is of essence interactive, it needs only a milieu, a medium. The ear must be a player. The ear is only passive to the extent that it is not lent or

Virtual reality technologies have need of ears, and that 'dark space' which Samuel Beckett found in the radio, a space that resonates profoundly within
the self, a space where listening is still possible.

So, listening demands time and sound needs its milieu, which is also political, critical space. To respond. To resound. This is the only space we can inhabit,
and it is also to inhabit time

"Musik goes on all the time around us and is made audible by a musician"-Henry Cowell

The environment as a musical resourceby BILL FONTANA

The concept of ecology is used to describe the harmonious relationships existing between living species in natural habitats that enables them to mutually survive together. In these natural habitats, ecology can also be understood as being successful design relationships between the various aspects of environment.

Thomas Gerwin's recordings +


This course considers some specific developments in music since the Second World War. It concentrates on the completely new forms of music and art-made-of-sound that have been able to be created as a result of developments in technology in the second half of the Twentieth Century, and considers the ways in which this has altered previous ideas about the roles of composer, performer and audience. It also explores the new ways of listening that this music inspires.

Is Acoustic Ecology About Ecology?

There are advantages with integrating the study of soundscapes with a more
general framework, such as ecology. Soundscape studies will be able to use the rich
theoretical framework of ecology, as well as benefit from publicity due to the
current ecological movement. However, ecology puts new demands on the
theoretical concepts used in soundscape studies, and these new demands are likely
to cause some problems. This article aims at exposing one of the basic conceptual
differences between soundscape studies and ecology ­the difference between a
phenomenological and an ecological approach- and to discuss some of its

RADIO THEORY SITE World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE) LINKS



















Example of a Duluth sound location possibly for before and after location-recordings.

RENEE KNOEBER / Duluth News Tribune

Select a site in Duluth and visit twice under differing conditions (weather, crowded, ect.) At/or approximately the same time (you could use the WWV time-code) make at least 4 - 1 minute recordings from N.S.E.W. positions. In each of these, use the time code signal, hand clap or whatever to establish cues. Go to Room 175 Library or reserve and check out from here the equipment you'll need.

Duluth sound location-after













indoor & outdoor ambient and acoustic recordings

Find and record enough indoor/outdoor unique sounds which to you seem to be related so that you may digitally edit them into an audible construct.

architectural acoustics- UMD lecture room, hall closet, a bridge underpass, UMD Tweed courtyard - where sound reflects back to you

ambience- those sounds which share your immediate space: a.(atmospheric-outdoors/natural)- UMD Bagley Nature Center, the BWCA- a voice travels beyond yourself without any reflective

echo-sound; b.(outdoors/& human made/urban)-a voice competes in a froth of other sounds

You will eventually be digitally editing all of your recordings














The background sound of an environment in relation to which all foreground sounds are heard, such as the 'SILENCE' of an empty room, conversation in a restaurant, or the stillness of a forest. Ambience is actually comprised of many small sounds, near and far, which generally are heard as a composite, not individually. Also called ambient noise.















Acoustics is the science of sound. It relates to recorded music, to speech and hearing, to the behavior of sound in concert halls and buildings, and to noise in our environment. Sound waves are used in medical diagnosis, for testing critical materials, and for locating fish in the ocean or oil-bearing rock formations underground.
















































by Andra McCartney and other sitesHeikki Uimonen Text: Heikki Photo: Jacob ReminHannu

Technique-- use either timing method to make recordings at the same time on two different days.

Listen for any simultaneous and interrelated sounds through a conscious effort on your part when you begin your walking experience. Evaluate your test recordings before doing two recording sessions. 1st recording: Respond to any focusing from your previous recordings as you walk through the Bagley Nature Center and then into UMD's soundscape. Check your playback and feedback to decide if this is a keeper. What were the essential sounds heard as you moved in time? What about the overall recording session, as you moved through changing sound contexts (through differing ambiences). If you decide this is the recording you'll keep, are you be primarily listening for a literal meaning to each sound? What? Does your self awareness approach only the emotional response? 2nd recording: select a different route than from Bagley Nature Center, across St. Marie Street onto the UMD campus so as to further concentrate on the specific aspects you learned from your 1st recording. Save both.


















referenced URL bookmarks for this assignment

You may use the art/scientific methods.

Paul Panhuysen Composers write scores, give instructions to performers who perform these instructions, usually in concerts. Sculptors create or assemble objects which are
displayed, usually in galleries or museums. What can be said of sculptors who work with sounds, or composers who work with objects? Are they merely
anomolies of the accepted plastic arts and performing arts? Is there a large enough body of this work to justify a new genre specifically for these artists?

What Stuff Looks Like, Two from Richard Lerman

Dorian Berg & Kristen Roos One of the most interesting developments that came from this collaboration was the effect that sound had on water. Sound, that Kristen created, was played through vessels containing water, which I sculpted. A speaker playing these sounds was built into the vessels, allowing sound vibrations to be transduced into visual patterns on the surface of the water.

Sound Sculpture by Ros Bandt

Sound sculpture is an audio-visual, time-dependent artform which has a history in Australia reaching back to the 1950s and before, with the works of Percy Grainger. It crosses the boundaries of fine art and musical art, challenging traditional notions of sculpture and sound, and amalgamating them in new ways.

Very Large Array / A Sound Sculpture-Environment
Aaron Ferrucci

$B2;6AD&9o$N8=>u$K4X$9$k9M;!(B This text says about a "Sound Sculpture". I`m sorry but this text is Japanese only now.

Sound Sculpture and Electronic Music?? I have defined sound sculpture as a sound generating construction with a high degree of randomness built
into it; this could describe industrial turbines and other aspects of heavy industry.

The Talking Chair

The Talking Chair is an interactive listening environment created in collaboration by designer Marc Raszewski and myself, a composer. Integrating sculpture, electronics and industrial design, the Chair immerses the listener in a 3-dimensional sound space. Iain Mott

see SONIC BANDGAPS for this "sound sculpture" consists of one-meter-long metal bars arranged in a hybrid honeycomb-triangular pattern.


















personal metaphor














"The important point of Soundscape idea is that it starts from LISTENING.

The western music culture after Renaissance has been started from generating and emitting sound rather than listening. So there have been a lot of the invention and development of musical technique including the improvements of the musical instruments or orchestral techniques.

But the aspect of listening has been rather ignored or not well developed than making sound.So I like to stress the meaning of Listening among the themes in the soundscape issues.Of course Soundscape's importance may be firstly as a search for new possibilities of acoustic culture; new sound design, making a quiet society, developing new art field like sound art.

But in the same time, it is,I think, search for new style of culture too. For example Psychotherapist Carl Rodgers's idea of counseling is based on listening from people, not asserting oneself and Cage's music too. We can find the same kind of culture arising in many fields, i.e. film, theater, literature.

If we listen carefully to the world outside. We will find so manyinteresting things as well as sounds. That is the opposite direction of the attitude of music culture used to be . It is new attitude happened after John Cage's 4' 33". Listening is accepting and understanding and communication outside oneself not extending oneself toward the world like the conquest of the Earth which has been used to be a great theme of the mankind.

It means in stead of making things out of the world, we should find something important from the world and our inner self.And finally I hope we will reach to the new style of culture with the less aggressive and with equal society."

Yu Wakao-composer, soundscaper, professor of Hiroshima University












" Musical Instruments used as Visuals: Indian cinema, mainly of the mainstream kind, is flush with visuals of musical instruments used within the scene of the film. Within the Indian ambience of cinema, the piano suggests affluence, The flute, on the other hand, is a direct descendant of Lord Krishna, whose famous flute is both the sign and the signifier of his visual or aural presence. Ironically however, neither the piano nor the flute is common in India's everyday cultural ethos. The piano has become a nonentity because of dwindling spaces in urban apartments. The flute is neatly sidetracked because it is not considered 'hep.' Yet, Indian cinema thrives on its visual and aural use. This representation, tied to tangible musical instruments, is not really in keeping with contemporary Indian reality. Granted, that the question of culture?specificity of cinema in any nation is today fraught with the fear of the great Hollywood invasion. The crisis of culture in an era of economic globalisation has itself evolved into a significant issue of discussion and debate. India is no exception. Yet, India is an exception. Because, in its cinema, simply by virtue of the massive size of numbers of films released every year, the threat of the Hollywood influx is dissipated. It is not possible for the cinematic influences of a foreign culture to uproot the cultural roots of a nation dotted with a largely illiterate mass population nurtured on a steady and generous diet of mythology, folklore, theatre, folk arts, music, all of which have success fully found themselves reflected, represented, interpreted, distorted and even questioned in and by its cinema, both of the mainstream and of the arthouse variety.

The Politics of Silence as a Metaphor of the Oppressed : "Only in a sound film, can a director use silence for dramatic effect' wrote VY Perkins. Music director Bliaskar Chandavarkar says "if you cannot express things through music, you can use silence which is likely to reveal more than what music or dialogue could have revealed. Silence does not exist in an absolute sense. Bresson once said, "on the obvious level, silence in music relates to space indirectly. In the cinema, on the other hand, it relates to space in movement." Though mainstream cinema m India does not accept 'silence' as a part of the sound design of the film, Along with its sophisticated cousin, off? mainstrearn or arthouse cinema), it has, almost unwittingly, defined the role of silence with reference to particular characters in some films. This silence, or 'muteness' inthe characters is voluntary and not physiological or genetic. It therefore, is also culture? specific to Indian films, never mind the generic label. It would be right to define it as a political statement on the oppressed, the marginalised, the poor and the outcasts, which includes women. Silence in this sense, is an explosive expression of resistance, revolt, suppressed anger, rebellion, which finds eloquence because of its juxtaposition against all the sounds that characterise the normal sound film also because it is self?imposed, Therefore, its dramatic impact is more coincidental to the director's total design for the entire film than intentionally imposed from without.

1. Silence in Indian cinema is invested with the questionable 'quality' of ambivalence

2.Silence is associated with characters in a film, not with the narrative or the cinematic

3. Silence is rarely used to intensify the quality of sound in a film.

4.Character centric silence is not associated with the spatial element of the film though
the time element is often confirmed through flashbacks and interior monologue.

5.The characters such silence is linked to are always found to belong to 'social
outgroups' such as tribals (Aakrosh), low caste untouchables (Damul) women (Sholay,
Andhi Galli), minority communities, working class people (Main Zinda Hoon).

6. Character centric silence is both ambivalent and ambiguous. It could mean rebellion in
one character, it could mean submission in another. It could be read as 'protest' in yet
another. Or an expression of appeasement in a fourth one.


Sonic geography & Purifying Violence, John Luther Adams

"...My music has long been grounded in the physical, cultural and spiritual landscapes of the (Alaskan) North and in an ideal of sonic geography -- place as music, and music as place.... The awesome and indifferent forces of nature are stark reminders of the insignificance of our personal dramas and passions. They offer us undeniable reassurance that whatever we may inflict upon ourselves and one another, there are processes at work in the world far larger, older and more complex than we can understand..."















Africa Canada natural radio Stephen P. McGreevy,@<earshot> exploration, navigation and composition of sound on the web So earshot is the result of an experiment into cultural splicing: part toy, part tool, part musical instrument and partly an on-going resistance against the increasing Disneyfication of the Internet.

Rainforest Soundwalks: Ambiences of Bosavi, Papua New Guinea-- Steven Feld.

Soundscape Exhibitions "The History Of Noise," Amsterdam


















there is no distinction between sound and n o i s e.

Sound is a sensory perception and the complex pattern of sound waves is labeled noise, music, speech etc.

Noise is unwanted sound.

Ken Seehus with his dog on Westgate Boulevard Near I-35 CHARLES KURTIS / Duluth News Tribune

























CHARLES KURTIS / Duluth News Tribune

A picture and text can cover this story. Can a soundscape convey this context?

Chuck Frederick, New Tribune staff writer "An absorbent boom was placed acrosss the St. Louis River's Stryker Bay last week after an oil-like sheen was reported on the water's surface... It's been happening like that for 20 years said Anne Moore of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency in Duluth...The corporations responsible for cleanup laid out the 800 to 1000 foot boom Thursday near the shoreline closest to Hallett Dock Company...four coroprations have been tagged to clean up the mess and are still negotiating with the state pollution control agency to choose the best method..."

" It's such a nice area. They should just clean it up." Anne Williams

















Essay Contents
Outlining your points will help you see key words easier 1, it will also let you update your most recent draft and it will allow your writing to flow logically and naturally. You can write an outline in words and phrases or in complete sentences.2

Tentative thesis statement & Topic Cohesion:
Write your thesis sentence. 3 When outlining main and supporting points, make sure that all of them support the goal and purpose of your essay .

Organizational Patterns:
Topical- this is when you have several ideas to present and one idea seems naturally to preceed the other. This is one of the most common types of patterns, and it is especially useful for shareing researched information.
Chronological- this uses time sequence for a framework.
This pattern is useful for informative and persuasive writing, both of which require background information in the form of footnotes, endnotes, bibliography, etc.4
Spatial- this organizes your research and writing according to a descriptive "physical space." You may create the sense of an acoustic ecological spatial order in any format.

Professional Research Terms- puts things into an Acoustic Ecology/Soundscape context.5 You can use this pattern for accomplishing the purpose(s) in support of your thesis.

Problem/Solution- this is used mostly for persuasion. The first part could outline an acoustic ecological problem and the body of the second part suggests your solution.

Cause/Effect- can be used also for persuasion. The first part describes the cause of an acoustic ecological problem from your perspective and the second describes its effect.

Introduction of thesis and thesis Conclusion- reasons to use an introduction puts you on the record and shows your topic's importance and presents your thesis possibly as a forecast for your major ideas. What a conclusion should do:
Inform and provide direction to your sources. Advocate a point of view. Summarize your vital ideas. Leave the reader informed and with useable ideas to remember .


1. Use these key words during your research via UMD Library or Internet searches.
2. Use what ever outline format you are currently familiar.
3. I propose, or adovate, or will demonstrate the belief... to offer two definitions of noise...
4. Use whatever endnote, reference, bibliograpic, reference, citations and URL format you are currently useing.
5. e.g., Psychological effects of audio via soundscuplture, acoustic architecture, soundwalking, etc.

Hand in your tentative outline at the conclusion of your second presentation.
















Marty Weintraub's "Lake Superior Call"

"The TerraAura
series. Sounds that offer testament that our planet breathes."





























Critique of Assignments



Digitizing for your CD-ROM