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Brush info Sonification challenge: The C5 Landscape Projects
(In 1975, five European villages were visited by a group of Canadian soundscape researchers and members of the R. Murray Schafer World Soundscape Project. The villages were in France, Sweden, Scotland, Germany, and Italy.)
Environmental Studies majors: This seminar provides the opportunity for you to present insights from your ongoing assignments and research. The seminars are held on Tuesday and Thursday at 2:00 pm, in Room ABAH 345, Art Department (unless otherwise stated on the web page, handout and in class)
Tues, Sept. 5
general discussion: handout/webpage/readings/draw fortune cookies/group projects: optional CD & movie/ hand clap timing cues &/or WWV time-code/make Root folderin Zip/drop/add/know what AV & Library has & where they are?/specialneeds/ meeting with you ((crumbs of audio falling from a slow moving vehicle. file under: music that makes your ears squint))
Thurs, Sept. 7 cont. general discussion: handout readings & reference lists/ student introductions/ recorded presentations: in person or via web page (major/personal interests & direction) Leif Brush: work/research
MEET in ABAH 345
Tues, Sept 12Workshop: mics, sensors & recorders MEET in ABAH 345
video: Ganges riverboat
Andra McCartney's soundwalk
Thurs, Sept 14
MEET in Bagley Nature Center for video/soundwalk
1st CLASS LED DISCUSSION (The individual total time
is devided by the number of participants)
Include references to at least three of the handouts I've given you through September 26th, and summarize areas in these which generally interest you and eventually may be incorporated into your final project. Be specific and use references which are based on key words mentioned in the xeroxes. You may also use and refer to resources from the UMD Library or Internet search engines such as Google, Yahoo, etc.
Tues. Sept 19Workshop: mics, sensors & audio recorders MEET in ABAH 345
Review and hand in Assignment 1
playbacks: video/soundwalk, soundbed ; group crits
Thurs, Sept 21
rcont. 1st assignment playback Intro assignment 2 give handouts
Workshop: begin transfering audiotapes & digital editing. MEET in ABAH 345
Tues, Sept 26continue loading Assignment # 1 into the computer and do a save as (name your file) to your Zip drive. During finals week this removeable hard drive is what you'll be handing in following your project presentation.
Up to that time let me have, via
Email or in class, the URLs and any UMD Library references you
are looking at in your research so that I can post these
As you become familiar with the recording equipment, please continue on with the assignments and work at your own pace, transfering each to your Zip disk
digital editing cont.
Thurs, Sept 28
Tues, October 31st student led discussions; general discussion: readings
Lina Castilla, Lucas Deyoung, Debra Flipovich, Bryan Karl, Stephanie Tuinstra
digital editing cont.
Thurs, Oct 51st student led discussions; general discussion: readings
Amy Benson, Nathan Blasing, Jacob Koenen, Angela Moeller, Kimberly Voss, David Nickel, Jacob Voit & Willow, Michelle Kamben
digital editing cont.
Tues. Oct 10 1st student led discussions; general discussion: readings
Chris Braaten, David Braun, Shelia Wokson, Anne Woods, Melissa Moening
digital editing cont.
Thurs, Oct 121st student led discussions; general discussion: readings
Mary Eggebraaten, Jennifer Erickson, Nicholas Hansen, Shaun Johnson, Nathan Reinbold, Angela Schmidt, Roderick McLean
digital editing cont.
I will be meeting with each of you
|Thurs, Oct 19work in class on assignments or continue your recordingsdigital editing cont.||
Tues, Oct 24work in class on assignments or continue your recxordingsdigital editing cont.
I will be meeting with each of you
Thurs, Oct 26work in class on assignments digital editing cont. or continue your recordings
I will be meeting with each of you
| 2nd CLASS LED DISCUSSION
Work again from an outline or notes to further clarify and refine your approach to acoustic ecology based upon the previous class discussions and your experience in your recordings.
Cite the library resources you've used, URLs you've visited, and summarize key points of your interest you're pursuing which may be incorporated
into your final essay and project. Continue to focus on key words to assist in your research.
Consider in your upcoming presentation content:
a. How has your perceptual approach to listening changed since the beginning of the course? How has this influenced the structure and content of your 5 minute audible construct?
b. In the context of acoustic ecology, what has emerged as the important aspects you are listening to as you do your walk in the soundscape? Does this experience have any structure models that you can use in constructing your audible construct?
c. Share the current thoughts or insights you've had as a result of your research, and/or recording, and/or information from fellow students.
Essay Outline suggestions
Tues, Oct 31 part 2 student led (all class) updates
Thurs, Nov 2part 2 student led (all class) updates
Chris Braaten, Jacob Koenen, Angela Moeller, Stephanie Tuinstra, Jacob Voit, Michelle Kamben, Nathan Blasing
Tues. Nov 7part 2 student led (all class) updates
David Braun, Shaun Johnson, Kimberly Voss, Shelia Wokson, Anne Woods
digital editing cont
Thurs, Nov 9part 2 student led (all class) updates
Amy Benson, Mary Eggebraaten, Debra Flipovich, Roderick Mclean, Melissa Moening, Nathan Reinbold, Angela Schmidt digital editing cont
Tues, Nov 14CD?
Listen to tapes CDs. (bring any recordings not heard in class and those in progress)
digital editing cont
|Thurs, Nov 16Class work session - continue digital editing cont||
Tues, Nov 21Class work session - continue on assignments,research and project discussions.
Workshop: digital editing contCD?
|Thurs, Nov 23 No Class|
|Tues, Nov 28Class work session - continue digital editing cont draw fortune cookies for final presentation||Thurs, Nov 30Class work session - continue digital editing cont|
|December||Tues, Dec, 5Class work session - continuedigital editing cont||Thurs, Dec 7Class work session - continue digital editing cont||Tues, Dec 12Project presentations|
Thurs, Dec 14
|Tues, Dec 19 Project presentations FINAL CLASS||Tues, Dec 21 Project presentations FINAL CLASS|
Quick review of Assignments
1 collect sounds to use and edit during the
save all recordings on one cassette
& select a collection of indoor & outdoor sounds
Find, focus and
record enough 1 minute indoor/outdoor sounds of environmental
interest to you which to are different, but related enough that
you may digitally edit them into a cohesive audible construct
of at least 5 minutes in length. Examples of possibilities:
DUE: Tues. Oct 19
environmental soundwalk recordings (Bagley Nature Center // BWCA
// your neighborhood // Again, use the hand clap or WWV
method to make recordings at the same time on two different days.
soundwalkings DUE: Thurs. Oct 31
4create a 5 minute soundwork based on noise/sound
feel deeply about, either positively or negatively. You may use
Voyages "My village of origin contained two significant buildings, significant not for their formal qualities, they were both simple cottages, but because one had been the home of Halley, the astronomer and the other the home of William Blake the poet. "
Look at other student URL links. Email me your URL research sites for posting to class page DUE: Tues. Nov 2
5sound as metaphor, a five minute soundwork Create a five minute soundwork
with the following in mind:
Sonic Geography DUE: Tues. Nov. 14
6 five page essay on some aspect of acoustic ecology
DUE: on date of your presentation
7 your focused final project
DUE: on the date which you've selected
Handouts & Recommended Reference Books (may be ordered from Amazon.com)
1. Noise, Acoustic Ecology, Study of Sound
2. From The Tuning of The World, by R. Murray Schafer, Alfred A. Knoph, New York, 1977 3."A Tourist in the Soundscape", 4."Outdoor versus Indoor Sounds," 5."Exploring the New Soundscape, Rhythm and Tempo in the Soundscape"
6. new sounding intruments
7. sound in Indian film
8."Early Humans go through the speech Barrier," Aleksey A. Leontyev
9. "Sounds of sound sculpture"
10. Psychoanalysis of Sound," Peter Ostwald
11. "Tuning in to the Past," 13."On insect 'wings of song',"R. Murray Schafer
12."COMMENTS ON SOME LADSCAPE REPERTOIRE," Ferran Cuadras
13. September 21 ES5001 essay guidelines
xx.. "... /From dawn to dusk...," Georg Jappe; "Body music #: the language of the genes," Liesl Ujvary; "Germ-code," Rainer Gottemeier;" Friction # 6," Robert Spour; "Rondo for double bass and short-wave receiver," Johannes Stockler; "Flotsam and jetsam," Christine Ulm; Marilyn Collins; "Lighthouse," Richardas Norvila; "Can you read me," Peter Battisti; "Applause," Rupert Huber ((With CD examples to be played in class before 2nd class presentation))
xx. Do Trees have Rights (due in)
Noise: The Political Economy
of Music (University of
Minnesota Press, 1985)
Noise & Politics
Noise & Politics
Our science has always desired to monitor,
measure, abstract, and castrate meaning,
forgetting that life is full of noise and that death alone is silent... Noise bought, sold
or prohibited... Nothing essential happens in the absence of noise.
Among sounds, music as an autonomous production
is a recent invention.
Ambiguous and fragile, ostensibly secondary and of minor importance, it has
invaded our world and daily life. Today it is unavoidable, as if, in a world now
devoid of meaning, a background noise were increasingly necessary to give people a
sense of security.
Music heralds, for it is prophetic. It obliges
us to invent categories and new dynamics
to regenerate social theory, which has become entrapped. Music makes mutations
audible. It has always been in its essence a herald of times to come...if it is true that
the political organisation of the 20th Century is rooted in the political thought of the
19th, the latter is almost entirely present in embryonic form in the music of the 18th
More than colours and forms, it is sounds and
their arrangements that fashion
societies. With noise is born disorder and its opposite: the world. With music is born
power and its opposite: subversion. In noise we can read the codes of life, the
relations among people. Clamour, Melody, Dissonance, Harmony. It is at the heart of
aesthetics, and it is a refuge for a residual irrationality; it is a means of power and a
form of enterainment.
Any theory of power today must include a theory
of the localisation of noise and its
endowment with form. Equivalent to the articulation of a space, it indicates the
limits of a territory and the way to make oneself heard within it, how to survive by
drawing one's sustenance from it. And since noise is the source of power, power has
always listened to it with fascination.
Eavesdropping, censorship, recording and surveillance
are weapons of power. The
technology of listening in on, ordering, transmitting and recording noise is at the
heart of the apparatus. To listen, to memorise - this is the ability to interpret and
control history, to manipulate the culture of a people, to control its violence and
The theorists of totalitarianism have all explained,
indistinctly, that it is necessary to
ban subversive noise because it betokens demands for cultural autonomy, support
for differences or marginality: a concern for maintaining tonalism, the primacy of
melody, a distrust of new languages, codes or instruments, a refusal of the
abnormal - these characteristics are common to all totalitarian regimes. They are
direct translations of the political importance of cultural repression and noise
control...to make music tranquil, reassuring and calm.
Everywhere we look, the monopolisation of the
broadcast of messages, control of
noise, and the institutionalisation of the silence of others assures the durability of
Musical distribution techniques are today contributing
to the establishment of a
system of eavesdropping and social surveillance - channels for the circulation of
orders. The monologue of standardised, stereotyped music accompanies and hems in
a daily life in which no one has the right to speak any more.
The distinction between musician and non-musician
undoubtedly represents one of
the very first divisions of labour, one of the very first social differentiations in
history, even predating the hierarchy of class.
What is called music today is all too often
only a disguise for the monologue of
power. Music now seems hardly more than a somewhat clumsy excuse for the
self-glorification of musicians and the growth of a new industrial sector, the
channelisation of desire into commodities to such an extreme as to become a
But a subversive strain of music has always
managed to survive, subterranean and
pursued, the inverse image of noise control: popular music, an instrument of the
ecstatic cult, an outburst of uncensored violence. Here music is a locus of subversion,
a transcendence of the body. At odds with the official religions and centres of power,
these gatherings of marginals have at turns been tolerated, offered integration into
official culture and brutally repressed. Music, the quintessential mass activity, like
the crowd, is simultaneously a threat and a necessary source of legitimacy: trying to
channel it is a risk that every system of power must run.
We are condemned to silence - unless we create
our own relation with the world and
try to tie other people into the meaning we thus create. That is what composing is.
Doing solely for the sake of doing. Inventing new codes, inventing the message at the
same time as the language. Playing for one's own pleasure which alone can create
the conditions for new communication. A concept such as this relates to the
emergence of the free act, self-transcedence, pleasure in being instead of having.
Composition thus appears as a negation of the
division of roles and labour as
constructed by the old codes. To listen to music in the network of composition is to
rewrite it. The listener is the operator.
Composition beyond the realm of music calls
into question the distinction between
worker and consumer, between doing and destroying; its beginning can be seen
today, incoherent and fragile, subversive and threatened, in techno's anxious
questioning of repitition, in its foreshadowing of the death of the specialist.
Head Magazine 6
The Joy of Music
(London, Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1954)
Bernstein's passion and enthusiasm for music
jumps out of the page in this remarkable
Wesleyan University Press, 1961)
Musica Practica (London,
Verso Press, 1994) A discussion of the social
practice of western music from Gregorian
chant to postmodernism.
(Trans. Julian, Robert, London, BFI Publishing,
1995) Analysis of Lynch's work. Contains
surprisingly little on sound.
La musique électroacoustique
(Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1982)
Thoughtful study of electro-acoustic music.
Jacques Tati (Paris, Cahiers du
Cinéma, 1987) Criticism and interpretation of
The Language of Music
(London, Oxford University Press, 1959/r1989)
Deconstructs music's affective power through
a study of intervals, harmony and rhythm
Digital Creativity (London,
Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 1996) The
book looks at how digital creativity has
evolved. It examines the tools available, gives
examples of a range of artistic works and
questions the implications of such digital
Lander, Dan & (eds.) Lexier, Micah
Sound by Artists (Art
Metropole, Toronto, Walter Phillips Gallery,
Meyer, Leonard B.
Emotion and Meaning in
(Chicago University Press, 1956) Still as
provocative as when it was first published.
In the Blink of An Eye (Los
Angeles, Silman-James Press, 1995) A
thought-provoking essay on film editing. The
reader is taken on a journey through the
aesthetics and practical issues of cutting film.
Being Digital (London, Hodder
and Stoughton, 1995) One of the world's
foremost experts on multimedia explores the
impact of digital technology in our lives.
Lynch on Lynch
(London, Faber and Faber, 1997) A survey of
Lynch's career combined with his own
insights into film-making and art.
Music and the Mind (London,
Harper Collins, 1992) A remarkable journey
through music psychology. This is a must
Sculpting in Time: Reflections
on the Cinema
(London, Faber, 1989) Contains a brief section
on sound but Tarkovsky's ideas on directing
and film in general are fascinating regardless
of your discipline.
Ocean of Sound (London,
Serpent's Tail, 1995) Discusses ambient sound,
contains interview with Brian Eno.
On Sonic Art (York,
Imagineering Press, 1985) Seminal work on
aesthetics of electro-acoustic music.
Signs and Meaning in the
(London, British Film Institute, 1970/ repr.
1992) Singin' in the Rain
(London, British Film Institute, 1992)
The background sound of an environment in relation to which all foreground sounds are heard, such as the 'SILENCE' of an empty room, conversation in a restaurant, or the stillness of a forest. Ambience is actually comprised of many small sounds, near and far, which generally are heard as a composite, not individually. Also called ambient noise.
Acoustics is the science of sound. It relates to recorded music, to speech and hearing, to the behavior of sound in concert halls and buildings, and to noise in our environment. Sound waves are used in medical diagnosis, for testing critical materials, and for locating fish in the ocean or oil-bearing rock formations underground.
Technique-- use either timing method to make recordings at the same time on two different days.
Listen for any simultaneous and interrelated sounds through a conscious effort on your part when you begin your walking experience. Evaluate your test recordings before doing two recording sessions. 1st recording: Respond to any focusing from your previous recordings as you walk through the Bagley Nature Center and then into UMD's soundscape. Check your playback and feedback to decide if this is a keeper. What were the essential sounds heard as you moved in time? What about the overall recording session, as you moved through changing sound contexts (through differing ambiences). If you decide this is the recording you'll keep, are you be primarily listening for a literal meaning to each sound? What? Does your self awareness approach only the emotional response? 2nd recording: select a different route than from Bagley Nature Center, across St. Marie Street onto the UMD campus so as to further concentrate on the specific aspects you learned from your 1st recording. Save both.
"The important point of Soundscape idea is that it starts from LISTENING.
The western music culture after Renaissance has been started from generating and emitting sound rather than listening. So there have been a lot of the invention and development of musical technique including the improvements of the musical instruments or orchestral techniques.
But the aspect of listening has been rather ignored or not well developed than making sound.So I like to stress the meaning of Listening among the themes in the soundscape issues.Of course Soundscape's importance may be firstly as a search for new possibilities of acoustic culture; new sound design, making a quiet society, developing new art field like sound art.
But in the same time, it is,I think, search for new style of culture too. For example Psychotherapist Carl Rodgers's idea of counseling is based on listening from people, not asserting oneself and Cage's music too. We can find the same kind of culture arising in many fields, i.e. film, theater, literature.
If we listen carefully to the world outside. We will find so manyinteresting things as well as sounds. That is the opposite direction of the attitude of music culture used to be . It is new attitude happened after John Cage's 4' 33". Listening is accepting and understanding and communication outside oneself not extending oneself toward the world like the conquest of the Earth which has been used to be a great theme of the mankind.
It means in stead of making things out of the world, we should find something important from the world and our inner self.And finally I hope we will reach to the new style of culture with the less aggressive and with equal society."
Yu Wakao-composer, soundscaper, professor of Hiroshima University
THE CULTURE SPECIFIC
USE OF SOUND IN INDIA CINEMA Shoma A. Chatterji, Film Critic,
" Musical Instruments used as Visuals: Indian cinema, mainly of the mainstream kind, is flush with visuals of musical instruments used within the scene of the film. Within the Indian ambience of cinema, the piano suggests affluence, The flute, on the other hand, is a direct descendant of Lord Krishna, whose famous flute is both the sign and the signifier of his visual or aural presence. Ironically however, neither the piano nor the flute is common in India's everyday cultural ethos. The piano has become a nonentity because of dwindling spaces in urban apartments. The flute is neatly sidetracked because it is not considered 'hep.' Yet, Indian cinema thrives on its visual and aural use. This representation, tied to tangible musical instruments, is not really in keeping with contemporary Indian reality. Granted, that the question of culture?specificity of cinema in any nation is today fraught with the fear of the great Hollywood invasion. The crisis of culture in an era of economic globalisation has itself evolved into a significant issue of discussion and debate. India is no exception. Yet, India is an exception. Because, in its cinema, simply by virtue of the massive size of numbers of films released every year, the threat of the Hollywood influx is dissipated. It is not possible for the cinematic influences of a foreign culture to uproot the cultural roots of a nation dotted with a largely illiterate mass population nurtured on a steady and generous diet of mythology, folklore, theatre, folk arts, music, all of which have success fully found themselves reflected, represented, interpreted, distorted and even questioned in and by its cinema, both of the mainstream and of the arthouse variety.
The Politics of Silence as a Metaphor of the Oppressed : "Only in a sound film, can a director use silence for dramatic effect' wrote VY Perkins. Music director Bliaskar Chandavarkar says "if you cannot express things through music, you can use silence which is likely to reveal more than what music or dialogue could have revealed. Silence does not exist in an absolute sense. Bresson once said, "on the obvious level, silence in music relates to space indirectly. In the cinema, on the other hand, it relates to space in movement." Though mainstream cinema m India does not accept 'silence' as a part of the sound design of the film, Along with its sophisticated cousin, off? mainstrearn or arthouse cinema), it has, almost unwittingly, defined the role of silence with reference to particular characters in some films. This silence, or 'muteness' inthe characters is voluntary and not physiological or genetic. It therefore, is also culture? specific to Indian films, never mind the generic label. It would be right to define it as a political statement on the oppressed, the marginalised, the poor and the outcasts, which includes women. Silence in this sense, is an explosive expression of resistance, revolt, suppressed anger, rebellion, which finds eloquence because of its juxtaposition against all the sounds that characterise the normal sound film also because it is self?imposed, Therefore, its dramatic impact is more coincidental to the director's total design for the entire film than intentionally imposed from without.
1. Silence in Indian cinema is invested with the questionable 'quality' of ambivalence
2.Silence is associated with characters in a film, not with the narrative or the cinematic
3. Silence is rarely used to intensify the quality of sound in a film.
4.Character centric silence is not associated
with the spatial element of the film though
the time element is often confirmed through flashbacks and interior monologue.
5.The characters such silence is linked to
are always found to belong to 'social
outgroups' such as tribals (Aakrosh), low caste untouchables (Damul) women (Sholay,
Andhi Galli), minority communities, working class people (Main Zinda Hoon).
6. Character centric silence is both ambivalent
and ambiguous. It could mean rebellion in
one character, it could mean submission in another. It could be read as 'protest' in yet
another. Or an expression of appeasement in a fourth one.
Africa Canada natural radio Stephen P. McGreevy,@<earshot> exploration, navigation and composition of sound on the web So earshot is the result of an experiment into cultural splicing: part toy, part tool, part musical instrument and partly an on-going resistance against the increasing Disneyfication of the Internet.
Rainforest Soundwalks: Ambiences of Bosavi, Papua New Guinea-- Steven Feld.
Soundscape Exhibitions "The History Of Noise," Amsterdam
Ken Seehus with his dog on Westgate Boulevard Near I-35 CHARLES KURTIS / Duluth News Tribune
Outlining your points will help you see key words easier 1, it will also let you update your most recent draft and it will allow your writing to flow logically and naturally. You can write an outline in words and phrases or in complete sentences.2
Tentative thesis statement & Topic Cohesion:
Write your thesis sentence. 3 When outlining main and supporting points, make sure that all of them support the goal and purpose of your essay .
Topical- this is when you have several ideas to present and one idea seems naturally to preceed the other. This is one of the most common types of patterns, and it is especially useful for shareing researched information.
Chronological- this uses time sequence for a framework.
This pattern is useful for informative and persuasive writing, both of which require background information in the form of footnotes, endnotes, bibliography, etc.4
Spatial- this organizes your research and writing according to a descriptive "physical space." You may create the sense of an acoustic ecological spatial order in any format.
Professional Research Terms- puts things into an Acoustic Ecology/Soundscape context.5 You can use this pattern for accomplishing the purpose(s) in support of your thesis.
Problem/Solution- this is used mostly for persuasion. The first part could outline an acoustic ecological problem and the body of the second part suggests your solution.
Cause/Effect- can be used also for persuasion. The first part describes the cause of an acoustic ecological problem from your perspective and the second describes its effect.
Introduction of thesis and thesis Conclusion- reasons to use an introduction puts you on the record
and shows your topic's importance and presents your thesis possibly
as a forecast for your major ideas. What a conclusion should
Inform and provide direction to your sources. Advocate a point of view. Summarize your vital ideas. Leave the reader informed and with useable ideas to remember .
1. Use these key words during your research
via UMD Library or Internet searches.
2. Use what ever outline format you are currently familiar.
3. I propose, or adovate, or will demonstrate the belief... to offer two definitions of noise...
4. Use whatever endnote, reference, bibliograpic, reference, citations and URL format you are currently useing.
5. e.g., Psychological effects of audio via soundscuplture, acoustic architecture, soundwalking, etc.
series. Sounds that offer testament that our planet breathes."
Critique of Assignments
Digitizing for your CD-ROM