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Title:

Current Views on Eye Development

Author(s):

Guillermo Oliver & Peter Gruss

Source/Publisher:

Trends Neurosci. (1997) 20

Page #(s):

415-421

Overview:

Through genetics, embryology, and anatomy, the source describes the process of how an insect eye can form from the same common ancestor as vertebrates. It then uses genetic evidence to show the similarities in the genes used to form arthropod and all other eyes. The article discusses the Pax6 and Six3 genes, and their functions in their representative organisms.

Analysis:

This source, amongst many others, related to the functional genomics of eye-forming genes. The bonus of this article, is that it gave information on eye growth-regulating genes on both Drosophila, fruit flies, and fish. This offered a comparative view of eye development genes, which many other articles did not have.


Title:

Principles of Genetics (Second Edition)

Author(s):

Snustad, D. Peter and Simmons, Michael J.

Source/Publisher:

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Page #(s):

361-362

Overview:

The source listed, is a Genetics text book that I used last year. It contains a lot of information on the basics of genetics, and many examples pertaining to the subject.

Analysis:

This source was useful for its examples. In particular, the Streptomyocin example was handy. It helped me to illustrate a how quickly bacteria can evolve when present in large numbers.


Title:

Vision, Optics, and Evolution

Author(s):

Dan-Erik Nilsson

Source/Publisher:

Bioscience 39(5), May, 1989

Page #(s):

298-307

Overview:

Offered a logical description of eye evolution through optics. Helps to understand how it makes sense for eyes to evolve the way they did, because the laws of physics (optics) have caused it to so.

Analysis:

This source helps describe how eyes have evolved through a (at least to me) simple and sensible way. It made so much sense, that I decided that it would be best only to site Dr. Nilsson when there was an idea proposed that I hadn't already read or thought of on my own. Although older than most of the other resources, it was also one of the most valuable.


Title:

The Visual System II

Author(s):

Patton, Dr. Paul

Source/Publisher:

http://soma.npa.uiuc.edu/courses/bio303/Ch11b.html

Last Updated:

Unknown

Date Accessed:

March 13, 2002

Overview:

Dr. Paul Patton set this up to be a lecture which was given some time between 1999 and 2001, although the exact date is unknown. A lot of the information provided in this presentation may have not have been used, but it set some good guidelines for the outline of this site.

Analysis:

A lot of the pictures from this presentation were used in my research. Unfortunately, I do not know their true origins, so I can not cite them properly. Therefore, I have not cited them at all, until I can give proper citation to their creators.


Title:

The Evolution of Eyes

Author(s):

M.F. Land & R.D. Fernald

Source/Publisher:

Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 15, 1992

Page #(s):

1-29

Overview:

Was a long-winded, and well-researched article on the evolution of the eye. Included many examples and descriptions, as well as many diagrams. Covered the subject both from a well-stated comparative approach through genetics and physiology.

Analysis:

If I didn't have an answer, I looked here. This was a great fall back source, from which I could have written almost my entire project from. Fortunately, there were many other sources, and I was able to use them as well.


Title:

Evolution of Color Vision

Author(s):

Pichaud, Franck, Briscoe, Adriana, & Desplan, Claude

Source/Publisher:

Curr. Op. In Neurobiol. 9(5), 1 October, 1999

Page #(s):

622-627

Overview:

The source explains how a dual visual system can evolve from a single visual system. It also gives great examples of dual visual systems present in organisms today. *A dual visual system is a system which can distinguish between both light and dark, and color.

Analysis:

This source gave me a great insight to how a dual visual system can form, and also gave me an idea of how rare color vision is.


Title:

Evolutionary Analysis (Second Edition)

Author(s):

Freeman, Scott and Herron, Jon C.

Source/Publisher:

Prentice Hall

Page #(s):

31

Overview:

This is the Evolution book I am currently using in my Evolution class here at UMD. It contains much information pertaining to evolution, and a very small portion (one or two pages) about eye evolution.

Analysis:

The organism Thphlotitron spelaeus is mentioned in the text. It was an excellent example of an organism which evolved eyes in an ancestor, and then went to living in a dark environment where eyes were no longer needed. It shows that although vestigial, eyes are a common trait in animals in one way or another.


Title:

Where D'You Get Those Peepers?

Author(s):

Dawkins, Richard

Source/Publisher:

New Statesmen Society 8

Page #(s):

29

Overview:

A short description of how the human (vertebrate) eye has evolved, and how it forms during development.

Analysis:

This short article was a great help in describing the formation of the blind spot in vertebrate eyes. It also provided a lot of information on vertebrate eye development that I could not use, since those topics had already been covered, but I was curious about it nonetheless.