Some sample exam 1 questions:

1. Briefly define the following terms:


   Integrity Constraint

   Candidate Key

   Primary Key

   Foreign Key

   System Catalog

   Bulk Loading of a B+ Tree


   Natural Join

2. What is meant by the term Buffer Replacement Policy?  Give an example of
   a buffer replacement policy and explain how this policy affects a DB.
   Make sure to give advantages and disadvantages of your sample policy.

3. What are the advantages of using a variable length format for records in
   a file.  Give an example of how you might represent a record with four
   fields, each of varying lengths.

4. Describe how each of the following page formats represents records:

   * Variable length records with a slot directory
   * Packed fixed length records
   * Unpacked fixed length records with a bitmap

5. Three file storage mechanisms are heap files, sorted files and hashed files.
   Give advantages and disadvantages of each.  Make your answers specific with
   respect to normal DB operations such a searching for a particular record,
   or scanning all of the records, etc.

6. We discussed three representations for data entries in an index file. 
   Define these three possible representations and discuss advantages and
   disadvantages of each representation and when they would be appropriate.

7. Define the following properties of indexes:
     clustered versus clustered
     dense versus sparse
     primary versus secondary

8. For each of the following index methods describe
     (1) How the index is represented
     (2) Where data is stored in the index
     (3) How the following operations are executed
         searching the index for a key value
         insert a key value in the index
         deleting a key value from the index
   Also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

   The methods:

     B+ Trees
     Static Hashing
     Extendible Hashing
     Lineary Hashing

9. Give an algorithm for a two-way external merge sort.  How many passes would
   your algorithm need for a file consisting of 87 pages?

10. Give an algorithm for a n-way external merge sort.  How many passes would
   your algorithm need for a file consisting of 87 pages when you have 15

11. Define the following operations in relational algebra:

    Selection, Projection, Cross Product, Intersection, Union, Natural Join,

    How would you perform operations similar to these in Domain Relational

12. For the following relations (keys are shown with _s over the field name):

  Student                  Class_Grade      Class
         ___               ___ ___          ___
  sname  sid  age  gpa     sid cid grade    cid cdept cnum
  --------------------     -------------    --------------
  Ann      1   21  3.5       1   1   A-       1  CS   1621 
  Bob      2   19  3.4       1   2   A        2  BIOL 1011
  Cal      3   20  2.6       2   1   B        3  ECE  1315
  Dee      4   22  4.0       2   3   C
                             3   1   A
                             3   2   C
                             3   3   F
                             4   2   A

  How would you design the following queries in Relational Algebra:

  - The id#s of students who are 19 or 20.
  - The student names (sname) of those students who have taken CS 1621.
  - Students (names) who have taken a biology course or ECE course.
  - Students (names) who have taken every course in Class.
  - Students (names) who have received an A.

13. Answer the same question using Domain Relational Calculus.