Some sample exam 2 questions:
1. BRIEFLY define the following terms and give an example of how each term is used.
• Valid (in logic)
• Satisifiable (in logic)
• Unsatisfiable (in logic)
• Predicate
• Function (in logic)
• Propositional Logic
• Model in First-order Logic
• First-order Logic
• Unification
• Propositionalization
• Conjuctive Normal Form
• Horn Clause
• Universal quantifier
• Existential quantifier
• Situation Calculus
• Frame Problem
• Frame Axiom
• Negation by Failure
• STRIPS operator
• Partial Order Planning
• Clobbering in Planning
• Demotion in Planning
• Promotion in Planning
• Inductive Learning
• Unsupervised Learning
• K Means Clustering
• Reinforcement Learning
• Discounted Future Reward
2. Give algorithms for the following (in addition, for each algorithm indicate whether the search is complete, optimal and give some estimate of the cost of the algorithm):
• Forward Chaining in propositional logic
• Backward Chaining in propositional logic
• Resolution in propositional logic
• Forward Chaining in first-order logic
• Backward Chaining in first-order logic
• Resolution in first-order logic
• K means clustering
• Q learning
3. For each of the algorithms discussed above define a set of propositions/predicates and then show how the algorithm would work for those rules/facts.
4. Define the rule Modus Ponens for propositional logic. Give an example. How does it differ for first-order logic?
5. Repeat the previous question for Resolution.
6. Give three rules used to convert a logical formula to Conjunctive Normal Form.
7. Give three rules used to convert a logical formula to Horn Clauses.
8. Explain how first-order logic differs from propositional logic. Give an example of the key parts of first-order logic.
9. Why is First-Order Logic used over Propositional Logic?
10. Look at samples of logical sentences in the text and convert them to first-order logic.
11. How do the universal, existential quantifiers and negation relate?
12. What is the frame problem? Why is it important in planning? What is a frame axiom? Give an example.
13. Give two notions of negation in logic. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each.
14. What is unification? Why is it so important to first-order logic?
15. How does planning differ from search? Give an example.
16. How do STRIPS operators work? How are they used in planning?
17. How is the V value defined in reinforcement learning? Give an example of an update rule using this definition.
18. How is the Q value defined in reinforcement learning? Give an example of an update rule using this definition. How does it change if the problem is nondeterministic?