Some sample exam 1 questions:

1. Briefly define the following terms:

   Concept Learning

   Continuous-Valued Attribute

   Discrete-Valued Attribute

   Inductive Learning

   The Inductive Learning Hypothesis

   Version Space

   Inductive Bias


   Decision Tree


   Information Gain

   Gain Ratio (in decision trees)


   Gradient Descent

   Artificial Neural Network

   Linear Threshold Unit

   Sigmoid Unit


   Multi-Layer Perceptron

   Batch mode Gradient Descent

   Incremental or Stochastic Gradient Descent

   Input Unit
   Hidden Unit

   Output Unit

   Margin in a Support Vector Machine

   Support Vector

   Slack Variables

   Dual Representation of a Problem in SVMs

   Kernel Function in SVMs

2. Outline the four key questions that must be answered when designing a
   machine learning algorithm.  Give an example of an answer for each question.

3. Define the following algorithms: (a real question would just ask for one
   of these)


   List-Then-Eliminate (Version Space)

   Candidate Elimination (Version Space)


   Perceptron Training Algorithm (assuming linear artificial neurons)

   Backpropagation (assuming sigmoidal artificial neurons)

4. For each of the algorithms above, show how it works on a specific problem
   (examples of these may be found in the book or in the notes).

5. Why is inductive bias important for a machine learning algorithm?  Give
   some examples of ML algorithms and their corresponding inductive biases.

6. How would you represent the following concepts in a decision tree:

   A OR B
   (A AND B) OR (C OR NOT D)

7. What problem does reduced-error pruning address?  How do we decide when
   to prunce a decision tree?

8. How do you translate a decision tree into a corresponding set of rules?

9. What mechanism was suggested in class for dealing with continuous-valued
   attributes in a decision tree?

10. What mechanism was suggested in class for dealing with missing attribute
   values in a decision tree?

11. What types of concepts can be learned with a perceptron using linear units?
    Give an example of a concept that could not be learned by this type of
    artificial neural network.

12. A multi-layer perceptron with sigmoid units can learn (using an
    algorithm like backpropagation) concepts that cannot be learned by 
    artificial neural networks that lack hidden units or sigmoid activation
    functions.  Give an example of a concept that could be learned by such
    a network and what the weights of a learned representation of this concept
    might be.

13. An artificial neural network uses gradient descent to search for a local
    minimum in weight space.  How is a local minimum different from the global
    minimum?  Why doesn't gradient descent find the global minimum? 

14. A concept is represented in C4.5 format with the following files.  The
    .names file is:

    Class1,Class2,Class3.  | Classes

    FeatureA:  continuous
    FeatureB:  BValue1, BValue2, BValue3, BValue4
    FeatureC:  continuous
    FeatureD:  Yes, No

    The data file is as follows:


    What input and output representation would you use to learn this problem
    using an artificial neural network?  Give the input and output vectors for
    each of the data points shown above.  What are the advantages and 
    disadvantages of your representation?

15. How is a problem phrased as a linear program in a support vector machine?
    Give an example.  What are slack variables used for and how are they
    represented in the linear program?

16. Explain the concept of a Kernel function in Support Vector Machines.
    Why are kernels so useful?  What properties should a kernel have to be
    used in an SVM?