```Some sample exam 2 questions:

1. Briefly define the following terms:

Unsupervised learning

Clustering Algorithm

Dendrogram

Control Learning

Delayed Reward

Discounted Future Reward

Markov Decision Process

Bayes Theorem

Maximum a posteriori hypothesis

Maximum likelihood hypothesis

Bayes optimal classifier

Gibbs classifier

Bayes network

Bagging

Boosting

Stacking

Itemset

The Apriori Properties

Eager learning

Lazy Learning

Curse of dimensionality

kd Tree

Single Point Crossover

Two Point Crossover

Uniform Crossover

Point Mutation

Inverted Deduction

PAC Learning

Agnostic Learning

e-exhausting a Version Space

Shattering a Set of Instances

Vapnik-Chervonenkis Dimension

2. What are the two main approaches for generating clusters?  Explain in
general terms how these approaches work.

3. List two methods that could be used to estimate the validity of the
results of a clustering algorithm.  Explain how these methods work.

4. Explain how the following clustering methods work:

K-Means

5. A distance measure is important both in memory-based reasoning methods
such as the k-nearest neighbor method and in clustering.  Why is it so
critical in these methods.  In which is it possible to "learn" to do
a better job of measuring the distance between points?  Why?

6. Give pseudo-code for the learning cycle of a Q learner.  What is the
update rule for a deterministic world?  How about a non-deterministic
world?

7. How are the V(s) and Q(s,a) functions related in Q learning?  What are
the advantages of using the Q function over the V function?

8. What is Bayes theorem?  Discuss two examples showing how Bayes theorem
can be used to justify approaches to learning.  Also, discuss an example
of a learning method based on Bayes theorem.

9. What is a Bayesian Belief network?  Give an example of such a network.
What are the advantages of a Bayesian network over a naive Bayes learner?

10. Explain the fundamental difference between the Bagging and Ada-Boosting
ensemble learning methods?  How do these notions relate to the concept of
each method?

11. How does the Apriori algorithm learn an association rule (give the
algorithm)?  Give two examples of ways to speedup this algorithm.
Show an example of how the algorithm works.

12. How does a k-Nearest Neighbor learner make predictions about new data points?
How does a distance-weighted k-Nearest Neighbor learner differ from a
standard k-Nearest Neighbor learner?  What is locally weighted regression?

13. How does a Radial Basis Function network work?  How does a kernel function
work?

14. How are concepts represented in a genetic algorithm?  Give an example of
of concept represented in a GA.

15. What operators are used in a genetic algorithm to produce new concepts?
Give an example of a mechanism that can be used to judge a GA concept.

16. Give pseudo-code for a general genetic algorithm.  Make sure to outline
the way concepts are represented, the operators used to create new
concepts, how concepts are chosen to reproduce, and how concepts are
evaluated.

17. Give two different mechanisms for selecting which members of a GA