Wilderness Philosophy

 Midterm Exam Review


1.      Describe the definition of wilderness from multiple cultural/religious backgrounds.

2.      What did Paul Gruchow mean by the term “empty places?”

3.      What does Indigenous America mean in the context of this course?

4.      Perhaps two American Presidents had a profound historical impact on wilderness, name them and identify contributions they made to this history.

5.      It is often claimed that Yellowstone National Park designation is the beginning of wilderness in America—refute that idea at least two different ways.

6.      What was the importance of parks in the wilderness history of the US?

7.      Name Minnesota’s first state park and date. Is it a designated wilderness area?

8.      Describe two competing ideas of land management of the early 20th Century that shaped American wilderness land management

9.      Why was Hetch-Hetchy a significant debate?

10.  What was John Muir’s contribution to wilderness history in America?

11.  What was the contribution of the Group of Seven to Canadian Wilderness identity?

12.  Identify the four land management agencies that comprise the National Wilderness Preservation System. Provide the % of total NWPS land managed by each.

13.  Identify what year each agency of the NWPS came into operation; when was the NWPS established? Describe the basic process of Federal Wilderness Designation.

14.  Provide a basic overview of the definition of wilderness as it appears in US law.

15.  List the 7 principles of Leave No Trace and provide a specific example of what we did or could have done on our trip to Crosby Manitou to respect the principle.

16.  Provide your interpretation of Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic.

17.  Is Crosby Manitou a wilderness area?  Explain.

18.  Would you consider Wendell Berry an advocate for wilderness or wildness?  Explain.