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Bibliography on Orality and Rhetoric

Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World. New York: Random House, 1996. Also see David M. Smith.

Baldwin, T. W. William Shakspere's Small Latine and Lesse Greeke. 2 vols. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1944.

Baldwin discusses commonplaces extensively. Also see Cavanaugh; Lechner; Moss; Plett; Ong, "Oral Residue in Tudor Prose Style"; Ong, The Presence of the Word; Ong, "Typographic Rhapsody: Ravisius Textor, Zwinger, and Shakespeare"; Plett; Rechtien; Charles G. Smith, Shakespeare's Proverb Lore; Charles G. Smith, Spenser's Proverb Lore; Taylor and Whiting; Webster; Whiting, Chaucer's Use of Proverbs; Whiting, Early American Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases; Whiting, Proverbs in Early English Drama; Whiting and Whiting; Yeo.

Bender, John and David Wellbery, eds. The Ends of Rhetoric: History, Theory, Practice. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1990.

Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. New York: Knopf, 1976.

Black, Mary B. “Ojibwa Taxonomy and Percept Ambiguity.” Ethos 5 (1977): 90-118.

Blaeser, Kimberly M. Gerald Vizenor: Writing in the Oral Tradition. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1996.

Bolzoni, Lina. The Gallery of Memory: Literary and Iconographic Models in the Age of the Printing Press. Trans. Jeremy Parzen. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 2001.

Also see Carruthers; Havelock; Yates.

Bradt, Kevin M. Story as a Way of Knowing. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1997.

Brubaker, E. S. Shakespeare Aloud: A Guide to His Verse on Stage. Lancaster, PA: Bruker, 1976.

Buber, Martin. I and Thou. Trans. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970.

Bultmann, Rudolf. Gnosis. Trans. J. R. Coates. 1933. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1952.

Carr, David M. Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 2005.

Carruthers, Mary. The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 1990.

---. The Craft of Thought: Meditation, Rhetoric, and the Making of Images, 400-1200. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 1998.

Cavanaugh, John R. The Use of Proverbs and Sententiae for Rhetorical Amplification in the Writings of Thomas More. Diss. St. Louis U, 1969. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1970. Order No. 7020373.

Certeau, Michel de. The Practice of Everyday Life. Trans. Steven Rendall. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984. See especially the chapter on "Scriptural Economy."

Cmiel, Kenneth. Democratic Eloquence: The Fight over Popular Speech in Nineteenth-Century America. Berkeley: U of California P, 1990.

Connors, Robert J. "Greek Rhetoric and the Transition from Orality." Philosophy and Rhetoric 19 (1986): 38-65.

Covino, William A. Magic, Rhetoric, and Literacy: An Eccentric History of the Composing Imagination. Albany: State U of New York P, 1994.

Draper, Jonathan A., ed. Orality, Literacy, and Colonialism in Antiquity. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

---, ed. Orality, Literacy, and Colonialism in Southern Africa. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

Dundes, Alan. Holy Writ as Oral Lit: The Bible as Folklore. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.

Dyson, Michael Eric. I May Not Get There with You: The True Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Free Press, 2000.

Edwards, Mark W. Sound, Sense, and Rhythm: Listening to Greek and Latin Poetry. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2002.

Elbow, Peter, ed. Landmark Essays on Voice and Writing. Davis, CA: Hermagoras P, 1994.

Reprints (19-34) selection from Ong's The Presence of the Word (111-38).

Elsky, Martin. Authorizing Words: Speech, Writing, and Print in the English Renaissance. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1989.

Enders, Jody. Rhetoric and the Origins of Medieval Drama. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1992.

Erzgraber, Willi. James Joyce: Oral and Written Discourse as Mirrored in Experimental Narrative Art. Trans. Amy Cole. New York: Peter Lang, 2002.

Essien, Patrick Paul. The Use of Annang Proverbs as Tools of Education in Nigeria. Diss. St. Louis U, 1978. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1978. Order No. 7814554.

Farrell, Thomas J. Walter Ong's Contributions to Cultural Studies: The Phenomenology of the Word and I-Thou Communication. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton, 2000.

Fields, Wayne. Union of Words: A History of Presidential Eloquence. New York: Free P/Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Fleigelman, Jay. Declaring Independence: Jefferson, Natural Language, and the Culture of Performance. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1993.

Foley, John Miles. Homer’s Traditional Art. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1999.

---. How to Read an Oral Poem. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 2002.


---. Oral-Formulaic Theory and Research: An Introduction and Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, 1985.

---, ed. A Festschrift for Walter J. Ong. Oral Tradition 2.1 (1987): 7-382

---, ed. Teaching Oral Traditions. New York: Modern Language Association, 1998.

Folkerth, Wes. The Sound of Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 2002.

Forrest, Kathleen Kemp. Speech and Power: A Renaissance Theme in King Lear. Diss. St. Louis U, 1976. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1976. Order No. 7622535.

Fox, Adam. Oral and Literate Culture in England, 1500-1700. New York: Oxford UP, 2000.

Gellrich, Jesse M. Discourse and Dominion in the Fourteenth Century: Oral Contexts of Writing in Philosophy, Politics, and Poetry. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1998.

Goetsch, Paul. The Oral and the Written in Nineteenth-Century British Fiction. New York: Peter Lang, 2003.

Graham-White, Anthony. Punctuation and Its Dramatic Value in Shakespearean Drama. Cranbury, NJ: U of Delaware P, 1995.

Gronbeck, Bruce E., Thomas J. Farrell, and Paul A. Soukup, eds. Media, Consciousness, and Culture: Explorations of Walter Ong's Thought. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1991.

Harvey, John D. Listening to the Text: Oral Patterning in Paul’s Letters. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1998.

Havelock, Eric A. The Greek Concept of Justice: From Its Shadow in Homer to Its Substance in Plato. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1978.

---. The Literate Revolution in Greece and Its Cultural Consequences. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1982.

---. Preface to Plato. Cambridge, MA: Belknap P of Harvard UP, 1963.

Horsley, Richard A. and Jonathan A. Draper, eds. Whoever Hears You Hears Me: Prophets, Performance, and Tradition in Q. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity International P, 1999.

Horsley, Richard A., Jonathan A. Draper, and John Miles Foley, eds. Performing the Gospel: Orality, Memory, and Mark. Minneapolis: Augsburg-Fortress P, 2006.

Howell, Wilbur Samuel. "Ramus and the Decay of Dialogue [Review of Ong's Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue and Ong's Ramus and Talon Inventory]." Quarterly Journal of Speech 46 (1960): 86-92.

Hurm, Gerd. Rewriting the Vernacular Mark Twain: The Aesthetics and Politics of Orality in Samuel Clemens’s Fiction. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2003.

Jaffee, Martin S. Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism, 200 BCE – 400 CE. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001.

Jones, Gayl. Liberating Voices: Oral Tradition in African American Literature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1991.

Jousse, Marcel. The Oral Style. Trans. Edgard Sienaert and Richard Whitaker. New York: Garland, 1990.

Karp, Andrew J. "Homeric Origins of Ancient Rhetoric." Arethusa 10 (1977): 237-58.

Kim, Jinyo. The Pity of Achilles: Oral Style and the Unity of the Iliad. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2000.

Kleinman, Ed. "Mark Twain's 'Rhapsody': Printing and the Oral Tradition in Huckleberry Finn." University of Toronto Quarterly 59 (1990): 535-48.

Lechner, Joan Marie. Renaissance Concepts of Commonplaces: An Historical Investigation of the General and Universal Ideas Used in All Argumentation and Persuasion, with Special Emphasis on the Educational and Literary Tradition of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. New York: Pageant, 1962.

Lee, Dorothy. Freedom and Culture. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland P, 1987.

---. Valuing the Self: What We Can Learn from Other Cultures. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland P, 1986.

Lippert, Paul John. Detechnologizing the Study of the Word: Method in the Thought of Walter Jackson Ong (Communication Media). Diss. New York U, 1990. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1991. Order No. 9113099.

Lord, Albert B. The Singer of Tales. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1960.

Love, Harold. The Culture and Commerce of Texts: Scribal Publication in Seventeenth-Century England. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1998.

Lumpp, Randolph Franklin. Culture, Religion and the Presence of the Word: A Study of the Thought of Walter Jackson Ong. Diss. U of Ottawa ( Canada), 1976. Not available through UMI.

Mackay, E. Anne. Signs of Orality: The Oral Tradition and Its Influence in the Greek and Roman World. Boston: Brill, 1999.

Marotti, Arthur F. Manuscript, Print, and the English Renaissance Lyric. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1995.

Marotti, Arthur F. and Michael D. Bristol, eds. Print, Manuscript, and Performance: The Changing Relationships of the Media in Early Modern England. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 2000.

Martin, Richard P. The Language of Heroes: Speech and Performance in the Iliad. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1989.

McLuhan, Marshall. The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man . Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1962.

---. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.

McWhorter, John. Doing Our Own Thing: The Degradation of Language and Music and Why We Should, Like, Care. New York: Gotham Books, 2003.

Middleton, Joyce Irene. "Confronting the 'Master Narrative': The Privilege of Orality in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye." Cultural Studies 9 (1995): 301-17.

---. Confronting Lingering Questions in Plato's Phaedrus: How Textbook Authors Draw on Historical Speech Strategies to Teach Writing. Diss. U of Maryland, 1988. Ann Arbor UMI. Order No. 8818181.

Miller, Keith D. Voice of Deliverance: The Language of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Its Sources. New York: Free Press, 1992.

Minchin, Elizabeth. Homer and the Resources of Memory: Some Applications of Cognitive Theory to the Iliad and the Odyssey. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP, 2001.

Morris, Adalaide, ed. Sound States: Innovative Poetics and Acoustical Technologies. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1998.

Morris, Ian and Barry Powell, eds. A New Companion to Homer. Leiden: Brill, 1997.

Moss, Ann. Printed Commonplace Books and the Structuring of Renaissance Thought. Oxford Clarendon P of Oxford UP, 1996.

Mostert, Marco, ed. New Approaches to Medieval Communication. Turnout: Brepols, 1999.

Contains a classified bibliography of 1580 items prepared by Marco Mostert.

Nagy, Gregory. "Orality and Literacy." Encyclopedia of Rhetoric. Ed. Thomas O. Sloane. New York: Oxford UP, 2001. 533-38.

Neusner, Jacob. The Oral Torah: The Sacred Books of Judaism: An Introduction. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986.

---. Oral Tradition in Judaism: The Case of the Mishnah. New York: Garland Publishing, 1987.

Niditch, Susan. Oral World and Written Word: Ancient Israelite Literature. Louisville: Westminster John Knox P, 1996.

Obiechina, Emmanuel. "Narrative Proverb in the African Novel." Oral Tradition 7 (1992): 197-230. Also see Pachocinski.

Ong, Walter J. The Barbarian Within: And Other Fugitive Essays and Studies. New York: Macmillan, 1962.

---. "Before Textuality: Orality and Literature." Oral Tradition 3.3 (1988): 259-69.

Reprinted in Faith and Contexts: Volume 3 (215-25).

---. "Commonplace Rhapsody: Ravisius Textor, Zwinger, and Shakespeare." Classical Influences on European Culture, A.D. 1500-1700. Ed. R. R. Bolgar. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP 1976: 91-126.

Reprinted with the title "Typographic Rhapsody: Ravisius Textor, Zwinger, and Shakespeare" in Interfaces of the Word (147-88) and in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry (429-63).

---. "A Dialectic of Aural and Objective Correlatives." Essays in Criticism ( Oxford) 8 (1958): 166-81.

Reprinted in The Barbarian Within (26-40) and in Faith and Contexts: Volume 3 (28-42).

---. Faith and Contexts. 4 vols. Ed. Thomas J. Farrell and Paul A. Soukup. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992-1999; now distributed by Rowman & Littlefield.

---. "Hermeneutic Forever: Voice, Text, Digitization, and the 'I'." Oral Tradition 10.1 (1995): 3-36.

Reprinted in Faith and Contexts: Volume 4 (183-203).

---. "Historical Backgrounds of Elizabethan and Jacobean Punctuation Theory." PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association 59 (1944): 349-60.

Reprinted in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry. Also see Graham-White; Parkes; Saenger.

---. " Hopkins' Sprung Rhythm and the Life of English Poetry." Immortal Diamond: Studies in Gerard Manley Hopkins. Ed. Norman Weyand. New York: Sheed and Ward, 1949. 93-174.

Reprinted in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry (111-74).

---. "Information and/or Communication: Interactions." Communication Research Trends 16.3 (1996): 3-17.

Reprinted in Faith and Contexts: Volume 4 (217-37) and in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry (505-25).

---. Interfaces of the Word: Studies in the Evolution of Consciousness and Culture. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1977.

---. "The Jinnee in the Well-Wrought Urn." Essays in Criticism ( Oxford) 4 (1954): 309-20.

Reprinted in The Barbarian Within (15-25) and in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry (199-208).

---. An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry. Ed. Thomas J. Farrell and Paul A. Soukup. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2002.

---. "Oral Residue in Tudor Prose Style." PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 80 (1965): 145-54.

Reprinted in Rhetoric, Romance, and Technology (23-47) and in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry (313-29).

---. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. London: Methuen, 1982.

---. "Orality-Literacy Studies and the Unity of the Human Race." Oral Tradition 2.1 (1987): 371-82.

This double issue of Oral Tradition is a festschrift for Ong. Ong's article in the festschrift is reprinted in Faith and Contexts: Volume 1 (209-18).

---. The Presence of the Word: Some Prolegomena for Cultural and Religious History. New Haven: Yale UP, 1967. Contains an important section on commonplaces.

---. Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1958.

---. Review of Havelock's Preface to Plato. Manuscripta 8 (1964): 179-81.

Reprinted in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry.

---. Review of Howell's Eighteenth Century British Logic and Rhetoric. William and Mary Quarterly 29 (1972): 637-43.

Reprinted in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry (355-61).

---. Review of Lord's The Singer of Tales. Criticism: A Quarterly for Literature and the Arts 4 (1961-1962): 74-78.

Reprinted in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry (301-06).

---. Review of Vickers' Classical Rhetoric in English Poetry. College English 33 (1971-1972): 612-16.

Reprinted in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry (349-54).

---. Rhetoric, Romance, and Technology: Studies in the Interaction of Expression and Culture. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1971.

---. "Voice as a Summons for Belief: Literature, Faith, and the Divided Self." Thought: A Review of Culture and Idea 33 (1958): 43-61.

Reprinted in The Barbarian Within (49-67) and in Faith and Contexts: Volume 2 (68-84) and in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry (259-75).

---. "World as View and World as Event." American Anthropologist 71 (1969): 634-47.

Reprinted in Faith and Contexts: Volume 3 (69-90). See David M. Smith.

Pachocinski, Ryszard. Proverbs of Africa: Human Nature in the Nigerian Oral Tradition: an Exposition and Analysis of 2,600 Proverbs from 64 Peoples. St. Paul, MN: PWPA Books/Paragon House, 1996.

Palmeri, Anthony Joseph. Walter J. Ong's Perspective on Rhetorical Theory. Diss. Wayne State U, 1987. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1988. Order No. 8809123.

Parkes, M. B. Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U of California P, 1993.

Parry, Milman. The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry. Ed. Adam Parry. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1971.

Peters, John Durham. Speaking into the Air: A History of the Idea of Communication. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1999.

Picker, John M. Victorian Soundscapes. New York: Oxford UP, 2003.

Plett, Heinrich F. "Rhetoric and Intertextuality." Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric 17 (1999): 313-29.

Rechtien, John G. Thought Patterns: The Commonplace Book as Literary Form in Theological Controversy during the English Renaissance. Diss. St. Louis U, 1975. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1975. Order No. 7526306.

Rhodes, Neil and Jonathan Sawday, ed. The Renaissance Computer: Knowledge Technology in the First Age of Print. London: Routledge, 2000.

Richards, I. A. "Literature, Oral-Aural and Optical." Complementarities: Uncollected Essays (Ed. John Paul Russo). Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1976. 201-08.

Robey, David. Sound and Structure in the Divine Comedy. New York: Oxford UP, 2001.

Saenger, Paul. Space Between Words: The Origins of Silent Reading. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1997.

Schaeffer, John D. "The Dialectic of Orality and Literacy: The Case of Book 4 of Augustine's De Doctrina Christiana." PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association 111 (1996): 1133-1145.

Smith, Bruce R. The Acoustic World of Early Modern England: Attending to the O-Factor. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1999.

Smith, Charles G. Shakespeare's Proverb Lore: His Use of the Sententiae of Leonard Culman and Publius Syrus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1963.

---. Spenser's Proverb Lore: With Special Reference to His Use of the Sententiae of Leonard Culman and Publius Syrus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1970.

Smith, David M. "World as Event: Aspects of Chipewyan Ontology." Circumpolar Animism and Shamanism. Ed. Takako Yamada and Takashi Irimoto. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido UP, 1997. 67-91. Also see Abram.

Smith, Jeanne Jacoby. The Origins of the Individual Voice in Writing from 1890 to 1990. Diss. Kansas State U, 1991. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 1992. Order No. 9208097.

Sweet, Leonard I., ed. Communication and Change in American Religious History. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1993.


Swigg, Richard. Look with Ears: Charles Tomlinson’s Poetry of Sound. New York: Peter Lang, 2002.

Taplin, Oliver. Homeric Soundings: The Shaping of the Iliad. Oxford: Clarendon P of Oxford UP, 1992.

Taylor, Archer and Bartlett Jere Whiting. A Dictionary of American Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases, 1820-1880. Cambridge, MA: Belknap P of Harvard UP, 1967.

Thompson, Emily. The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, 1900-1933. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology P, 2002.

Violi, Patrizia. Phonosymbolism and Poetic Language. Turnhout, Belgium, 2000.

Walker, Jeffrey. Rhetoric and Poetics in Antiquity. New York: Oxford UP, 2000.

Walsh, Thomas M. and Thomas D. Zlatic. "Mark Twain and the Art of Memory." American Literature 53 (1981): 214-31.

Winner of the Norman Foerster Prize for the best article in American Literature in 1981.

Webb, Stephen H. The Divine Voice: Christian Proclamation and the Theology of Sound. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos P/Baker Book House, 2004.

Webster, John. "Oral Form and Written Craft in Spenser's Faerie Queene." Studies in English Literature 16 (1976): 75-93.

Weeks, Dennis L. and Jane Hoogestraat, eds. Time, Memory, and the Verbal Arts: Essays on Walter Ong's Thought. Cranbury, NJ: Susquehanna UP/Associated U Presses, 1998.

Welch, Kathleen A. Electric Rhetoric: Classical Rhetoric, Oralism, and a New Literacy. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology P, 1999.

Welsh, Andrew. Roots of Lyric: Primitive Poetry and Modern Poetics. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1978.

Whiting, Bartlett Jere. Chaucer's Use of Proverbs. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1934.

---. Early American Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases [Up to approximately 1820]. Cambridge, MA: Belknap P of Harvard UP, 1977.

---. Proverbs in the Earlier English Drama: With Illustrations from Contemporary French Plays. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1938.

Whiting, Bartlett Jere and Helen Wescott Whiting. Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases from English Writings Mainly Before 1500. Cambridge, MA: Belknap P of Harvard UP, 1968.

Wong, Timothy C. "Commentary and Xiaoshuo Fiction." Journal of the American Oriental Society 120 (2000): 400-09.

Yates, Frances A. The Art of Memory. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1966.

Yeo, Richard. Encyclopaedic Visions: Scientific Dictionaries and Enlightenment Culture. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2001. Includes commonplace books.

Young, Richard E. and Yameng Liu, eds. Landmark Essays on Rhetorical Invention in Writing. Davis, CA: Hermagoras P, 1994; now distributed by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reprints (135-46) Ong's "Literacy and Orality in Our Times."

Youngkin, Betty Rogers. The Contributions of Walter J. Ong to the Study of Rhetoric. Lewiston, NY: Mellen UP, 1995.

Zlatic, Thomas D. "Language Technologies in A Connecticut Yankee." Nineteenth Century Fiction 45 (1991): 453-77.

---. "Mark Twain's View of the Universe." Papers on Language and Literature, 27 (1991): 338-55.

---. "'The Seeing Eye and the Creating Mouth': Orality and Literacy in Mark Twain's Joan of Arc." CLIO: A Journal of Literature, History, and the Philosophy of History 21 (1992): 285-304.