First Use of Violent Force (FUVF)

The FUVF variables indicate which state(s) initiated violent force within a militarized interstate dispute (MID), which state was the target of that force, and the date of that violent force.




The FUF project was created to determine which country or countries in the militarized interstate disputes were the first to use force in the dispute.  Until this point, conflicts only coded for the existence of force in a dyad.  This dataset codes the direction of that force.  






The FUF dataset is available in both MS Excel and in comma-separated variable formats.  Click on the appropriate link to begin download.  The current version is v1.10.


FUF v1.10: MS Excel (.xls) ASCII (.csv)
Codebook MSWord (.doc) Adobe (.pdf)  


Please cite this dataset as:

Caprioli, Mary, and Peter F. Trumbore. 2006. “Special Data Feature: First Use of Violent Force (FUVF) in Militarized Interstate Disputes, 1980-2001,”  Journal of Peace Research 43(6): forthcoming.








Mary Caprioli, PhD
Assistant Professor, University of Minnesota, Duluth.
Peter F. Trumbore, PhD
Assistant Professor, Oakland University.

Lead Investigator:

Ole J. Forsberg, PhD
University of Tennessee




Refereed FUVF Articles:





Caprioli, Mary and Peter Trumbore, 2003.“Ethnic Discrimination and Interstate Violence: Testing the International Impact of Domestic Behavior,” Journal of Peace Research 40(1): 5-23.




Caprioli, Mary, and Peter Trumbore, 2003. "Hierarchies of dominance: Identifying Rogue States and Testing Their Interstate Conflict Behavior,” European Journal of International Relations 9(3): 377-406.

Caprioli, Mary, 2003. “Gender Equality and State Aggression: The Impact of Domestic Gender Equality on State First Use of Force,” International Interactions 29(3): 195-214.


  Caprioli, Mary, and Peter F. Trumbore, 2005. “Rhetoric versus Reality: Rogue States in Interstate Conflict,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49(5): 770-791.

Trumbore, Peter F., 2003. “Victims or Aggressors? Ethno-political Rebellion and Use of Force in Militarized Interstate Disputes,” International Studies Quarterly 47(2): 183-201.


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This page was last updated on March 10, 2006.