University of Minnesota Duluth
MyU | Search | People | Departments | Events | News

Envelope: E-mail Tim Roufs

extended search

Flying Bird Image

When Everybody Called Me Gabe-bines,

Paul Peter Buffalo

Timothy G. Roufs (Ed.)
University of Minnesota Duluth

a note on tenses
  a note on style

orignal tapes information

Table of Contents

"This project has been financed in part with funds provided by the State of Minnesota from the Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund through the Minnesota Historical Society."

"This publication was made  possible in  part by the  people of  Minnesota  through  a grant funded by an appropriation  to  the  Minnesota  Historical Society  from the  Minnesota  Arts and Cultural  Heritage  Fund. Any views,  findings,  opinions,  conclusions  or recommendations expressed in this publication  are those  of  the authors  and  do not necessarily represent those of the State of  Minnesota, the  Minnesota  Historical Society, or the  Minnesota  Historic Resources Advisory Committee."


Buffalo Image



Aguar, Jyring, Whiteman, and Moser. November 1968. "Historic Resources Inventory of Itasca County." From "Outdoor Recreation Resources: Itasca County, MN. Historical Resources Inventory, Section III.C., pp. 1-22. Accessed 12 October 2018.

Albers, Patricia C., and William R. James. "Images and Reality: Post Cards of Minnesota's Ojibway People 1900-80. Minnesota History, Summer 1985, 229-240.

Anderson, Marcia G., and Kathy L. Hussey-Arntson, "Ojibwa Beadwork Traditions in the Ayer Collections," Minnesota History, 48:4 (1982), 153-157.

Anderson, O.L. 1922. "Modern Methusala, 137, Passes Away at Cass Lake, Minnesota." North Woods, 7:33:13-15.

Angel, Michael R. Discordant Voices, Conflicting Values: Ojibwa and Euro-American Perspectives on the Midewiwin. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Manitoba. Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1977.

Armour, David A., "Beads in the Upper Great Lakes: A Study in Acculturation," in Beads: Their Use by Upper Great Lakes Indians (Grand Rapids, MI: rand Rapids Public Museum) xxx.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Bachmann, Elizabeth M. "Minnesota Log Marks," Minnesota History, Vol. 26, No. 2 (Jun., 1945), pp. 126-137.

Barnouw, Victor, "A Psychological Interpretation of a Chippewa Origin Legend," Journal of American Folklore, 68 (1955), pp. 73-85, 211-223, 341-355.

Barnouw, Victor, "Reminiscences of a Chippewa Mide Priest," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 35 (1954):4:83-112.

Barnouw, Victor, (Ed.). Wisconsin Chippewa Myths and Tales and Their Relation to Chippewa Life, (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977).

Beardsley, Gretchen (1939). "The Groundnut as used by the Indians of Eastern North America." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Sciences Arts and Letters. 25: 507–525.

Beaulieu, C.H., Jr. 1922. "Wrinkled Meat Was Over 100." Minneapolis Journal, 24 February, p. 1.

Beaulieu, David. 1971. The Formal Education of Minnesota Indians: Historical Perspective Until 1934. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Training Center for Community Programs. 38 1. maps ERIC ED050873.

Belcourt, Christi. Onaman Collective. [Red Ochre paint.] Accessed 7 August 2018.

“Bena Will Celebrate Its Centennial On August 18, 2007.”  Cass County Clippings, Cass County Historical Society & Museum.  01 October 2006.  Accessed 05 March 2018. .

Benton-Banai, Edward. The Mishomis Book: The Voice of the Ojibwa. (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2010; reprint of Hayward, WI: Indian Country Communications and Red School House Press, 1988.)

Berg, Carol J. 1981. "Agents of Cullture Change: The Benedictines at White Earth." Minnesota History, 48:4:158-170.

Bishop, Charles A. "Northern Algonkian Cannibalism and Windigo Psychosis," in Psychological Anthropology (Papers from the IXth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Chicago, IL, August-September, 1973), edited by Thomas R. Williams (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), pp. 237-248).

Bishop, Charles A. "The Question of Ojibwa Clans," in Actes du Vingtième Congrès des Algonquinistes, William Cowan (Ed.), (1989), pp. 43-61.

Black, A.K. 1934, "Shaking the Wigwam,"Beaver, 265:3:13,39.

Blessing, Fred K. "Fasting and Dreams Among Minnesota Ojibway," Minnesota Archaeologist, 23:1 (1961), pp. 9-11.

Blessing, Fred K. "Some Observations on the Use of Bark by the Southern Ojibwa Indians," Minnesota Archaeologist, 19:4 (1954), pp. 3-14.

Blessing, Fred K. "Birchbark Mide Scrolls from Minnesota," Minnesota Archaeologist, 25:3 (1963), pp. 89-142.

Brown, Jennifer. "The Cure and Feeding of Windigos: A Critique," American Anthropologist, 73:1 (1971), pp. 19-22.

Brown, Jennifer S. H., and Robert Brightman (Eds.), "The Orders of the Dreamed": George Nelson on Cree and Northern Ojibwa Religion and Myth, 1823, (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1988).

Burton, Frederick R. American Primitive Music: With Especial Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways (NY, 1909; reprinted, Port Washington: Kennikat Press, 1969).

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Cadzow, Donald A. "Bark Records of the Bungi Midewin Society," Indian Notes, 3 (1926), pp. 123-134.

Carson, W. "Ojibwa Tales," Journal of American Folklore, 30 (1917), pp. 491-493.

Casagrande, Joseph B. "Ojibwa Bear Ceremonialism," in S. Tax (ed.) Proceedings of the International Congress of Americanists, 3 Vols, Vol. 2, Acculturation in the Americas, (1952), pp. 113-117.

Casagrande, Joseph B. "The Ojibwa's Psychic Universe," Tomorrow, 4:3 (1956), pp. 33-40.

Calkins, Hiram, 1855, "Indian Nomenclature of Northern Wisconsin, With A Sketch of the Manners and Customs of the Chippewas," Wisconsin State Historical Society Annual Reports and Collections, 1:119-126 (reprinted).

Chamberlain, A. F. "The Thunder-Bird Amongst the Algonkins," American Anthropologist, 3:1 (1890), pp. 51-54.

Chamberlain, A. F. "Nanibozhu Amongst the Otchipwe, Mississaqas, and Other Algonkian Tribes," Journal of American Folklore, 4 (1891), pp. 193-213.

Chequamegon History: Primary Research about the Chequameon Region before 1860. Accessed 27 June 2018.

Cf., "Kechewaishke" [Chief Buffalo / Pezeke]. Wikipedia. Accessed 27 June 2018.

Chow, Kat. "So What Exactly Is 'Blood Quantum'?" National Public Radio, 9 February 2018. Accessed 12 October 2018.

"Claims of Great Longevity Exaggerated." 1974. Science Newsletter, 106:101-102.

Clark, Julius T. "Reminiscences of Hole-in-the-Day," Wisconsin Historical Collections, 5 (1868), 378-401.

Cleland, Charles E. "The Inland Shore Fishery of the Northern Great-Lakeks: Its Development and Importance in Prehistory," American Antiquity, 47:4 (1982), pp. 761-784.

Closs, Michael P. "Tallies and the Ritual Use of Number in Ojibway Pictography," in Native American Mathematics, ed by Michael P. Closs (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1986), pp. 181-211.

Coatsworth, Emerson S., and David Coatsworth (Eds.), Adventures of Nanabush: Ojibway Indian Stories (New York: Atheneum, 1980).

Coleman, Sister Bernard, O.S.B. "The Religion of the Ojibwa of Northern Minnesota," Primitive Man [now Anthropological Quarterly], 10 (1937), pp. 3-4, 33-57.

Coleman, Sister Bernard, O.S.B. Where the Water Stops: Fond du Lac Reservation. Duluth, MN: College of St. Scholastica, 1967).

Coleman, Sister Bernard, O.S.B., Ellen Frogner, and Estelle Eich, Ojibwa Myths and Legends (Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1961).

Colombo, John Robert. Windigo: An Anthology of Fact and Fantastic Fiction, (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1982).

Cooper, John M. 1944, "The Shaking Tent Rite Among plains and Forest Algonquians," Primitive Man [now Anthropological Quarterly], 17:60-84.

Copway, George. 1850. The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibwa Nation. Boston: Sanborn, Carter, Bazin & Co.

Cormier-Shekerjian, Regina de, "Ojibway Dream Net," Dreamworks, 4:1 (1984), pp. 14-15.

Crawford, Dean A., David L. Peterson, and Virgil Wurr. 1967. Minnesota Chippewa Indians: A Handbook for Teachers. St. Paul: Upper Midwest Regional Education Laboratory. ERIC ED017383. <>

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Davis, Rose M., "How Indian is Hiawatha?" Midwest Folklore, 7 (1957), pp. 5-25.

Day, Rev. Eri H., 1889, "Sketches of the Northwest," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, 14:205-256.

Densmore, Frances, 1932, "An Explanation of a Trick Performed by Indian Jugglers," American Anthropologist, 34:2:310-314;

Densmore, Frances. Chippewa Music, (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute, Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology 45), pp. 1-209 (Reprinted, NY: Da Capo Press, 1972; Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1974).

Densmore, Frances. Chippewa Music--II, (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute, Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology 53), pp. 1-334 (Reprinted, NY: Da Capo Press, 1972; Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1974).

Densmore, Frances, "Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians," U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology, Annual Report, 1926-1927, 44 (1928), 275-397. (Reprinted as How Indians Use Wild Plants for Food, Medicine, and Crafts. New York: Dover, 1974).

Densmore, Francis, Chippewa Customs, (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 86), pp. 1-204. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. (Reprinted, Minneapolis: Ross and Haines, 1970; St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1979; and elsewhere.)

Diedrich, Mark, The Chiefs Hole-in-the-day of the Mississippi Chippewa (St. Louis Park, MN: Coyote Books, 1986).

Donlin, Piper Elizabeth. "The Power of Food: The Ojibwe Food Sovereignty Movement: A Movement Towards Regaining and Restoring Indigenous Lifeways Through Food in Minnesota. Master thesis in Culture, Environment and Sustainability. Center for Development and Environment, University of Oslo, May 2015. Accessed 01 July 2018.

Dumont, James, "Journey to Daylight-Land: Through Ojibwa Eyes," Laurentian University Review, 8:2 (1976), pp. 31-43.

Duncan, K. J. "Tom Pahbewash's Visions," Anthropologica, 6: (1964), pp. 237-243.

Dunning, R. W. Social and Economic Change Among the Northern Ojibwa, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1959; reprinted 1972).

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Ebbott, Elizabeth. 1985. Indians in Minnesota (4th ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Eggan, Fred. "Social Anthropology: Methods and Results," in Social Anthropology of the North American Tribes, 2nd ed., ed. by Fred Eggan (University of Chicago Press, 1955), pp. 521-536.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. "Chief Buffalo," Onigamiinsing Dibaajimowinan-Duluth's Stories, Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. Accessed 25 May 2018.

Fruth, Alban. 1958. A Century of Missionary Work Among the Red Lake Chippewa Indians, 1858-1958. Red Lake, MN: St. Mary's Mission.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Garte, Edna, Circle of Life: Cultural Continuity in Ojibwe Crafts (Duluth, MN: ST. Louis County Historyical Society, Chisholm Museum [now The Duluth Children's Museum], and Duluth Art Institute, 1984), pp. 16-18.

Graves Family Association. "Peter Graves of Canada and Minnesota." Accessed 7 March 2018.

Gris. H. 1974. "Inquirer Finds Oldest Man in World -- He's 140." National Inquirer, 12 November, p. 16.

Grover, Linda LeGarde. 2002. "The Vermillion Lake Indian School: From Assimilation to Termination." Minnesota History, pp. 224-240. Accessed 7 August 2018.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Hall, Stephen P. "The Hole-In-The-Day encounter," The Minnesota Archaeologist 36:2 (1977), 77-96.

A. Irving Hallowell, 1940, "Aggression in Saulteaux Society," Psychiatry, 3:395-407 (Reprinted in Personality in Nature, Society and Culture, 2nd ed., Ed. by Clyde Kluckhohn, H. A. Murray, and David M. Schneider. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1953, pp. 260-275; and in A. I. Hallowell, 1955a, pp. 277-290.)

A. Irving Hallowell, 1938, "Fear and Anxiety as Cultural and individual Variables in a Primitive Society." Journal of Social Psychology, 9:25-47 (Reprinted in A. I. Hallowell, 1955a, pp. 250-265).

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Freudian Symbolism in the Dream of a Saulteaux Indian," Man, 38 (1938), pp. 47-48.

Hallowell, A. Irving. 1940, "Magic: The Role of Conjuring in Saulteaux Society," in Papers Presented Before the Monday Night Group, 1939-40, ed. by M. A. May (New Haven: Institute of Human Relations), pp. 94-115.

Hallowell, A. Irving. 1964, "Ojibwa Ontology, Behavior, and World View." In Primitive Views of the World. Ed. by Stanley Diamond. New York: Columbia University Press, 49-82. (Reprinted.)h

Hallowell, A. Irving. 1963. "Ojibwa World View and Disease," in Man's Image in Medicine and Anthropology. Ed. by Iago Galdston. (New York Academy of Medicine, Institute of Social and Historical Medicine, Monograph 4. New York: International Universities Press, pp. 258-315.

Hallowell, A. Irving. The Role of Conjuring in Saulteaux Society, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1942, reprinted New York: Octagon Books, 1971).

Hallowell, A. Irving. "The Role of Dreams in Ojibwa Culture," in The Dream and Human Societies, ed. by Gustave E. von Grunebaum and Roger Caillois, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966, pp. 267-292.

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Spirits of the Dead in Saulteaux Life and Thought," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland," 70 (1940), pp. 29-51.

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Was Cross-Cousin Marriage Practised by the North-Central Algonian," Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Congress of Americanists, (NY, 1928), pp. 519-544.A. Irving Hallowell, "Cross Cousin Marriage in the Lake Winnipeg Area," in Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Studies, Philadelphia Anthroplogical Society, ed. by D. S. Davidson, (1937), pp. 95-110

Hallowell, A. Irving. "The Role of Dreams in Ojibwa Culture," in Gustav E. Von Grunebaum and Roger Caillois (Eds.) The Dream and Human Societies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966), pp. 267-292.

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Northern Ojibwa Ecological Adaptation and Social Organization," in Contributions to Anthropology: Selected Papers of A. Irving Hallowell, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976), pp. 333-350.

Hamilton, J. C. "The Algonquin Manabozho and Hiawatha," Journal of American Folklore, 16 (1903), pp. 229-233.

Harding, Arthur Robert. Deadfalls & Snares. St. Louis, Mo: A.R. Harding Publisher, 1907. Accessed 03 July 1807.

Hay, Thomas H. "The Windigo Psychosis: Psychodynamic, Cultural, and Social Factors in Aberrant Behavior," American Anthropologist, 73:1 (1971), pp. 1-19.

Helbig, Alethea. Nanabozhoo, Giver of Life (Brighton, MI: Green Oak Press, 1987).

Hickerson, Harold. "The Southwestern Chippewa: An Ethnohistorical Study," American Anthropologist, 64:3: (Part 2), Memoir 92 (1962).

Hickerson, Harold. "The Genesis of Bilaterality Among Two Divisions of Chippewa," American Anthropologist, 68:1 (1966), pp. 1-26.

Hilger, Sister M. Inez, O.S.B. 1936, "Chippewa Customs," Primitive Man [now Anthropological Quarterly], 9:2:17-24.

Hilger, Sister M. Inez. "Chippewa Hunting and Fishing Customs," Minnesota Quarterly, 1:2-3 (1936), pp. 17-19.

Hilger, Sister M. Inez. "Chippewa Burial and Mourning Customs," American Anthropologist, 46 (1944), pp. 564-568.

Hilger, Sister M. Inez. "Naming a Chippewa Indian Child," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 39 (1958), 120-126.

Hockett, Charles F. "The Proto Central Algonquian Kinship System," in Explorations in Cultural Anthropology, ed. by Ward H. Goodenough (NY: McGraw-Hill, 1964), pp. 239-257.

Hoffman, Walter James. "Pictography and Shamanistic Rites of the Ojibwa," American Anthropologist, 1:3 (1888), pp. 209-229 (reprinted in Native North American Art History, ed. by Zena P. Mathews and Aldona Jonaitis, Palo Alto, CA, 1982).

Hoffman, Walter James. "Notes on Ojibwa Folk-lore," American Anthropologist, 2:3 (1889), pp. 215-223.

Hoffman, Walter James. "Remarks on Ojibwa Ball Play," American Anthropologist 3:2 (1890), pp. 133-135.

Hoffman, Walter James. "The Midewiwin; or 'Grand Medicine Society' of the Ojibwa," in Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Seventh Annual Report, 1885-1886, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1891), pp. 143-300. Accessed 7 August 2018.

Holzhueter, J. O., "Chief Buffalo and Other Wisconsin-related Art in the National Capitol," Wisconsin Magazine of Art, 56:4 (1973) pp. 284-289.

Holzkamm, Tim E. "Ojibwa Horticulture in the Upper Mississippi and Boundary Waters." Papers of the Seventeenth Algonquian Conference, 1985. Edited by William Cowan. (Ottawa: Carleton University), pp. 143-154.

Holzhueter, John O. Madeline Island and the Chequamegon Region, (Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1974).

Howard, James H. The Plains-Ojibwa or Bungi, (Anthropological Papers Number 1, Vermillion, South Dakota: South Dakota Museum, University of South Dakota, 1965).

Hulbert, Thomas. 1846. "Hymns in the Chippewa and Ottawa Language To Which Is Appended a Short Summary of Christian Doctrine.
to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

"It's Not Just About The Blood." National Public Radio, 6 February 2018. Accessed 12 October 2018.
to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Jackson, Barbara D., "A Peyote Community in Northern Minnesota," in J. Anthony Paredes, Anishinabe: 6 Studies of Modern Chippewa (University Presses of Florida, 1980), pp. 127-193.

John Smith (Chippewa Indian). Wikipedia. Accessed 17 September 2018.

Johnston, Basil. Ojibwa Heritage, (N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1976).

Johnson, Basil H. Ojibwa Ceremonies, (Toronto: McClelland and Steward, 1982).

Jones, Peter. History of the Ojebway Indians (London: A.W. Bennett, 1861).

Jones, Peter. (trans.). 1840. A collection of Chippeway and English Hymns for the Use of the Native Indians. Translated by Peter Jones . . . To Which Are Added a Few Hymns Translated by Rev. James Evans and George Henry . . . . Toronto: Printed for the Translator. (This version is based onthe Jones 1829 ed., New York: Printed at the Conference Office by J. Collord. This work was reprinted and reissued numerous times, often under various titles.)

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

"Kechewaishke" [Chief Buffalo / Pezeke]. Wikipedia. Accessed 27 June 2018.

Kegg, Maude; and Nichols, John D. 1983. Nookomis Gaa-inaajimotawid, What My Grandmother Told Me, with Texts in Ojibwe (Chippewa) and English. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Archaeological Society.

Keiser, Albert. 1922. "The Work Among the Chippewas in Michigan and Minnesota." In Luthern Mission Work Among the American Indians. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, pp. 55-94.

Ketcham, William H. 1920. "The Chippewa Missions of Minnesota." The Indian Sentinel, 2:161-164.

Kinietz, W. Vernon. "Birch Bark Records Among the Chippewa," Indiana Academy of Science, Proceedings, 49 (1940), pp. 38-40.

Kuchera, Steve. "An Identity Crisis? Squaw Lake Isn't Caught up in Minnesota Name-change Initiative," Duluth News-Tribune, Monday, April 17, 1995, pp. 1A, 4A.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Lajimodiere, Denise K. Lajimodiere. "Native American Boarding Schools." MNOPEDIA, (modified) 4 May 2018. Accessed 10 September 2018.

Landes, Ruth. "The Abnormal Among the Ojibwa Indians." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 33 (1938):1:14-33.

Landes, Ruth. Ojibwa Religion and the Midewiwin. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968; Reprinted, N.y.: AMS Press, 1969).

Landes, Ruth. The Ojibwa Woman, Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology, 31 (1938; reprinted, NY: AMS Press, 1969; reprinted NY: W.W. Norton and Co., 1971).

Lawrence, Elizabeth Atwood. Human and horse medicine among some Native American groups. Agriculture and Human Values, June 1998, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 133–138. Accessed 10 August 2018.

League of Women Voters of Minnesota, Indians in Minnesota, 1974, p. 38. xxx

Leekley, Thomas B. The World of Manabozho, (New York: Vangard Press, 1965).

LeMay, Konnie. "Warrior Nation: Anton Treuer Leaves Nothing Out in This Red Lake Ojibwe History." Indian Country Today, 24 October 2015. Accessed 09 March 2018.

Lincoln, J. S. The Dream in Primitive Cultures, (London, 1935).

Lyons, Scott Richard. X-Marks: Native Signatures of Assent. (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.)

Lyford, Carrie A. Crafts of the Ojibwa (Phoeniz, AZ: Office of Indian Affairs, 1943).

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Maher, Savannah. "The Difficult Math Of Being Native American." National Public Radio. 7 February 2018. Accessed 12 October 2018.

Marano, Louis Anthony. "Windigo Psychosis: The Anatomy of an Emic-Etic Confusion," Current Anthropology, 23:4 (1985), pp. 385-421.

Matthews, Diana Leagh. "Prices in 1912" [the year Paul Buffalo returned from Tower Indian Boarding School]. Accessed 14 September 2018.

McKenney, Thomas Loraine. Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes, of the Character and Customs of the Chippeway Indians, and of Incidents Connected with the Treaty of Fond du Lac . . . , (Baltimore: Fielding Lucas, Jr., 1827; reprinted, Barre, MA: Imprint Society, 1972; reprinted, Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1959).

Mello, Amorin. "Chief Buffalo Picture Search." Chequamegon History: Primary Research about the Chequameon Region before 1860. 12 March 2016. Accessed 27 June 2018.

Messer, Ron. "A Jungian Interpretation of the Relationship of Culture: Hero and Trickster Figure within Chippewa Mythology," Studies in Religion, 11:3 (1982), pp. 309-320.

Mihesuah, Devon. "Indigenous Health Initiatives, Frybread, and the Marketing of Non-Traditional 'Traditional' American Indian Foods. Native American and Indigenous Studies 3:2 (Fall 2016), pp. 45-69. Accessed 26 June 2018.

, Jen. "Frybread." Smithsonian. July 2008. Accessed 01 July 2018.

Mittelholtz, Erwin F. Historical Review of the Red Lake Indian Reservation. Bemidji: General Council of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians and Beltrami County Historical Society, 1957.

Miller, Frank C. "Humor in a Chippewa Tribal Council," Ethnology, 6:3 (1967), pp. 263-271.

Minnesota Chippewa Tribe Curriculum Development Staff, Minnesota Chippewa Tribal Government -- Student Handbook (Cass Lake, MN: Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, 1978; Reprinted, Cass Lake, MN: Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, 2013).

Minnesota History Center. 2018. "Fur Trade in Minnesota: Overview." Accessed 12 October 2018.

Momaday, N. Scott. 1970. The Way to Rainy Mountain. NY: Ballantine Books.

Monckton, Elizabeth (Elizabeth Davis Fielder). The White Canoe and Other Legends of the Ojibwas (NY: Broadway Publishing Co., 1904).

Moore, Neal. "Passing on the dance of the Ojibwe." [Ball Club, MN] CNN iReport. 19 July 2009. Accessed 8 August 2018.

Myers, Frank A., (Comp.) "The Bear-walk," Inland Seas, 9:12-18, 98-103, 169-174, 250-254.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

National Park Service. "The Incredible Journey of Benjamin Armstrong and Chief Buffalo." Accessed 27 June 2018.

National Public Radio. "It's Not Just About The Blood." 6 February 2018. Accessed 12 October 2018.

Negri, Paul. "The Treaty of La Pointe and the Chief Buffalo Grant," (unpublished MS., University of Minnesota, Duluth Library, n.d.).

Neils, Patricia. "Julius Neils: Lumber Baron (1855-1933)." The Pacific Northwest Forum, Volume V, Number 3, pp. 2-9, Summer, 1980. Accessed 16 September 2018. <>.

Nelson, Richard. "Inscribed Birch Bark Scrolls and Other Objects of the Midewiwin," Papers of the Fourteenth Algonquian Conference, 1982, ed. by William Cowan, (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1983), pp. 219-235).

Nichols, Frances Sellman, compiler. "Index to Schoolcraft's 'Indian Tribes of the United States'." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin: 152. Washing, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. (See volume for detailed index of works of Schoolcraft, esp. pages 43-45, 154, 157, 171, 204.)

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index


Ojibwe People's Dictionary. Accessed 12 June 2018.

Ontario Parks. 08 February 2017. "Lac La Croix ponies at Quetico." Accessed 17 October 2018.

Osborn, Charles S., and Stellanova Osborn, Schoolcraft-Longfellow-Hiawatha, (Lancaster, PA: Jacques Catell Press, 1942).

Osborn, Chase S., and Setllanova Osborn, "Hiawatha" Jwith Its Original Indian Legends, (Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Catell Press, 1944).

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Jordan, Paper. "From Shaman to Mystic in Ojibwa Religion," Studies in Religion, 9:2 (1980), 185-199.

Parker, Seymour. "The Wiitiko Psychosis in the Context of Ojibwa Personality," American Anthropologist, 62 (1960), pp. 603-623.

Paredes, J. Anthony. "A Case Study of 'Normal' Windigo," Anthropologica, 14:2 (1972), pp. 97-116.

Paredes, J. Anthony. Anishinabe: 6 Studies of Modern Chippewa (University Presses of Florida, 1980), pp. 127-193.

Patterson, N.L. 1976, "Shaking Tents and Medicine Snakes: Traditional Elements in Contemporary Woodland Indian Art," Artmagazine (Canada), 7:28:52-57.

Powell, Ransom J. 1922. "'Wrinkled Meat' but 88 Years Old, U.S. Records Say." Minneapolis Journal, 15 February, p. 1.

Preston, Richard J. "The Witiko: Algonkian Knowledge and Whiteman Knowledge," in Manlike Monsters on Trial, edited by Marjorie M. Halpin and Michael M. Ames (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1980), pp. 111-131.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Radin, Paul. "Ojibwa and ottawa Puberty Dreams," in Essays in Anthropology Presented to alfred L. Kroeber, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1936, pp. 233-264).

Reagan, Albert B. "The Flood Myth of the Chippewas," Indiana Academy of Science, Proceedings, 28 (1919), pp. 347-352.

Reagan, Albert B. "Some Games of the Bois Fort Ojibwa," American Anthropologist 21:3 (1919), pp. 264-278.

Reagan, Albert B. "Flood Myth of the Bois Fort Chippewas," Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, 30 (1921), pp. 437-443.

Rees, Albert, and Donald Jacobs. National Bureau of Economic Research. "The Cost-of-Living Index." Real Wages in Manufacturing, 1890-1914. Princeton University Press, 1961, pp. 74-119. Accessed 14 September 2018.

Regguinti, Gordon. 1992. The Sacred Harvest: Ojibway Wild Rice Gathering. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company.

Reid, A. P. "Religious Beliefs of the Ojibois or Sauteux Indians," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 3 (1874), pp. 106-113.

Ritzenthaler, Robert E. "The Building of a Chippewa Indian Birch-bark Canoe," Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, Bulletin (1950), 19:2, pp. 53-99.

Ritzenthaler, Robert E. Chippewa Preoccupation with Health, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, Bulletin (1953), 19:4:175-257.

Robertson, Tom. "American Indians prefer to reflect on their own history" [Cf. re Peter Graves]. MPRNews, 9 June 2008. Accessed 08 March 2018.

Roddis, Louis H. 1919/1920. "The Last Indian Uprising in the United States." Publications of the Minnesota Historical Society, ed. by Solon J. Buck. Minnesota History Bulletin, 3:273-290.

Rohrl, Vivian J. "The Drum Societies in a Southwestern Chippewa Community," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 49:3 (1968), pp. 131-137.

Rohrl, Vivian J. "A Nutritional Factor in Windigo Psychosis," American Anthropologist, 72:1 (1970), pp. 97-101.

Rohrl, Vivian J. "Some Observations on the Drum Society of Chippewa Indians," Ethnohistory, 19:3 (1972), pp. 219-225.

Rottsolk, James E. 1960. Pines, Mines, and Lakes: The Story of ITASCA COUNTY, MINNESOTA. [Grand Rapids, MN??xxx]: Itasca County Historical Society.

Roufs, Timothy G. American Indian Oral History Collection, American Indian Oral History Collection, Vol. II, No. 21 -- Traditional Foods. (Paul Buffalo, et al. audiotape. Paul Buffalo discusses wild rice.) Dr. Joseph H. Cash, General Editor. New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, 1981. [UM DULUTH Library Multimedia PC 1203; see also microfiche collection]

Roufs, Timothy G. 2016. "Anishinabe Curing." Accessed 03 August 2018.

Roufs, Timothy G. "Patrilineal Kinship." Accessed 31 July 2018.

Roufs, Timothy G. 1967. Social Structure and Community Development: An Analysis of a Chippewa Case. Master's thesis, University of Minnetota.

Roufs, Timothy G. 1975. The Anishinabe of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series. (Reprinted, 2013. Cass Lake, MN: Minnesota Chippewa Tribe.)

Roufs, Timothy G. 1978. "Mississippi and Lake Superior Ojibwa: Reflections of Paul Buffalo," Timothy G. Roufs, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN 55812 (15 June 1978).

Roufs, Timothy G. 1980. Social Structure and Community Development: An Analysis of a Chippewa Case. In J. Anthony Paredes, Anishinabe: 6 Studies of Modern Chippewa (University Presses of Florida, 1980), pp. 194- 241.

Rue, Leonard Lee III. 2014. "Remembering the Outhouse: Fond, and not so fond, memories of the outhouse on the farm." Farm Collector, May 2014. Accessed 14 September 2018.

Rynkiewich, Michael A. "Chippewa Powwows," in Anishinabe: 6 Studies of Modern Chippewa, Ed. by J. A. Paredes, (Tallahassee, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1980), pp. 31-100.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Schensul, Stephen L., J. Anthony Paredes and Pertti J. Pelto. "The Twilight Zone of Poverty:" A New Perspective on an Economically Depressed Area." Human Organization, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Spring 1968), pp. 30-40. Accessed 14 September 2018.

Schoolcraft, Henry R. Archives of Aboriginal Knowledge. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. (Reprinted and reissued numerous times under various titles. For index see F. S. Nichols, 1954.)

Seeley, Mark W. 2006. Minnesota Weather Almanac.  St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, pp. 101-102.

Smith, John. 1921. Chief John Smith, A Leader of the Chippewa, Age 117 Years. His Life as Told by Himself. Being the Life Story of Chief John Smith as Narrated by Himself and Interpreted by His Adopted Son, Thomas E. Smith. Walker, MN: The Cass County Pioneer.

“SOLEMN REDMEN APPEAL AGAINST AGENCY MOVE Braves Don War Paint, Dance In Streets.”  The Ogden Standard-Examiner (Ogden, Utah), Thursday, March 31, 1938, p. 6. [Proposed move of the Indian Office from Cass Lake to Duluth.]

Slabbaert-Norrgard, Lorraine. A Gift to One, a Gift to Many / James Jackson, Sr., a video by Lorraine Slabbaert-Norrgard (60 min., 1992).

Spavin, Don. Chippewa Dawn: Legends of an Indian People (Bloomington, MN: Voyageur Press, 1977).

add to ch 39 bib:

Stanchfield, Daniel. 1901. "History of Pioneer Lumbering on the Upper Mississippi and Its Tributaries, with Biographic Sketches. A Personal Narration." Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, 9:325-362

Schell, James Peery. 1911. In the Ojibway Country, A Story of Early Missions on the Minnesota Frontier. Walhalla, ND: C.E. Lee.

Schwarz, Herbert T. "Windigo, and Other Tales of the Ojibways," (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1969).

Sicherman, Al. "xxxarticle on drying blueberries, " [Minneapolis] Star Tribune, Wednesday, July 6, 1988, 1T.

Smith, James G. E.. "Leadership Among the Southwestern Ojibwa," National Museums of Canada, Publications in Ethnology, 7 (Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1971).

Smith, James G. E. "Notes on the Wittiko," Papers of the Seventh Algonquian Conference, 1975, Edited by William Cowan, (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1976), pp. 18-38.

Smith, James G. E. "Termination of the Cross-Cousin Marriage Pattern Among the Southwestern Ojibwa," paper read at the 70th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New York, 18-21 November 1971.

Smith, Huron H. "Ethnobotany of Ojibwe Indians." Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee. Vol. 4, No. 3, Pp. 327-525, Plates 46-77, May 2, 1932.

Sommer, Barbara. "Ojibwa Totems," Manuscript, (Duluth, MN, 1976), 39 pp.

Squier, E. G. "Manabozho and the Great Serpent," American Whig Review, n.s. 2 (1848), 392-398.

Strong, William D. "Cross-Cousin Marriage and the Culture of the Northeastern Alquonkian," American Anthropologist, 31:2 (1929), pp. 277-288.

Sweet, G. W. "Incidents of the Threatened Outbreak of Hole-in-the-Day," Minnesota Historical Society, Collections, 6 (1894), 401-408.

Swift, Ivan. "Indian Legend of the Deluge," Michigan History Magazine, 23 (1939), 217-219.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

xxxcheck bib ref Tanner, John (Edwin James, ed.). 1830. Narratives of the Captivity and Adventures of John Tanner. New York: G and C and H Carvill.

Thompson, Stith. "The Indian Legend of Hiawatha," Publications of the Modern Language Association, 37 (1922), pp. 128-140.

United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. "Railroad Development in Minnesota, 1862-1956." National Registrar of Historic Places Continuation Sheet, OMB No. 1024-0018, (2005), pp. 1-178.

United States National Park Service, "Railroad Development in Minnesota, 1862-1956." 2005. Accessed 19 September 2018.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Vastokas, Joan M. "Interpreting Birch Bark Scrolls," Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, 1983, ed. by William Cowan, (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1984); 425-444.

Vecsey, Christopher. "Midewiwin Myths of Origin," Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, Ed. by William Cowan (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1983), pp. 445-467.

Vecsey, Christopher. "The Ojibwa Creation Myth: An analysis of its Structure and Content," Temenos: Studies in Comparative Religion, 20 (1985), pp. 66-100.

Vecsey, Christopher. Traditional Ojibwa Religion and Its Historical Changes, (Philadelphia, PA: The American Philogophical Society, 1983).

Vecsey, Christopher and John F. Fisher, "The Ojibwa Creation Myth: An Analysis of its Structure and Content," Temenos: Studies in Comparative Religion, 20 (1985), pp. 66-100.

Vennum, Thomas Jr. "A History of Ojibwa Song Form," in traditional Music of North American Indians, Ed. by Charlotte Heth, Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology, 3:2 (Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Music Department), pp. 42-75.

Vennum, Thomas Jr. 1982. The Ojibwa Dance Drum: Its History and Construction. Smithsonian Folklife Studies, Number 2. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Visenor, Gerald. 1972. The Everlasting Sky: New Voices from the People Named the Chippewa. New York: Crowell-Collier Press.

Visenor, Gerald. 1984. The People Named the Chippewa: Narrative Histories. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Vogel, Virgil J., American Indian Medicine. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.

Von Grunebaum, Gustav E., and Roger Caillois (Eds.) The Dream and Human Societies. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966), pp. 267-292.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Warren, William Whipple. History of the Ojibways Based Upon Traditions and Oral Statements, (Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, 5 (1885).

Weber, Eric W. Bonga, George (ca. 1802–1874). MNOPEDIA. Accessed 7 Septemer 2018.

Whaley, Rick, and Walter Bresette (Eds.) Walleye Warriors Milwaukee, WI: New Society Publishers (19xxx).

Whipple, Henry B. 1901. "Civilization and Christianization of the Ojibways of Minnesota." Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, 9:129-142.

White, Bruce M. "An Ethnographic Study of Indigenous Contributons to the City of Duluth." St. Paul, MN: Turnstone Historical Research, July 2015.

White, Bruce. We are at Home: Pictures of the Ojibwa People. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Press, 2007.

White Oak Society, Deer River Minnesota. accessed 09 June 2018.

"Wild Rice Regulations." Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Accessed 12 June 2018.

Williams, Mentor L., ed., Schoolcraft's Indian Legends from Algic Researches, the Myth of Hiawatha, Oneota, the Red Race in America, and Historical and Statistical Information Respecting . . . the Indian Tribes of the United States. (East Lansing, MI: State University Press, 1956.)

Wilson, Bonnie (Interviewer). "Transcript of an oral interview with Monroe Killy -- at his home January 15, 1988." Minnesota Historical Society, Minnesota Photographers Oral History Project. Accessed 27 June 2018.

Winchell, Newton H. (ed.), The Aborigines of Minnesota...., (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1911).

Wold, Pauline, "Some Recollections of the Leech Lake Uprising," Minnesota History, 24 (1943), 142-148.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

Zapffe, Carl A. 1975. The Man who Lived in 3 Centuries: A Biographic Reconstruction of the Life of Kahbe nag wiwens, a Native Minnesotan. Brainerd, MN: Historic Heartland Association.

Zorn, Eric. 2010. "Is `Canuck' an ethnic slur?" Change of Subject, Chicago Tribune, Sunday, 02 May 2010. Accessed 09 September 2018.

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

This site is under construction. Comments are welcome!

Envelope: E-mail
E-mail comments to

The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer.>
Copyright: © 1997 - 2018 Timothy G. Roufs

The views and opinions expressed in this page are strictly those of the page author.
The contents of this page have not been reviewed or approved by the University of Minnesota.

Page URL: /cla/faculty/troufs/Buffalo/PBbib.html
Last Modified Wednesday, 17-Oct-2018 12:30:13 CDT

Department of Anthropology, Sociology and Criminology
College of Liberal Arts
215 Cina Hall
University of Minnesota Duluth (maps)
Duluth, MN 55812 - 2496 (maps)

Gitchee-Gumee Live

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index

View Stats

© 2018 University of Minnesota Duluth
The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer.
Last modified on 10/17/18 12:30 PM
University of Minnesota Campuses
Crookston | Duluth | Morris
Rochester | Twin Cities