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History of Cultural Anthropology:

The Development of Ethnological Theory

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Source: "A Geneology of Ethnological Theory," Melville J. Herskovits,
in Context and Meaning in Cultural Anthropology by Melford E. Spiro (Ed.), p. 407.
New York: The Free Press, 1965.


EXAMPLES OF MAJOR FIGURES AND AREAS IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

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      2. NINETEENTH-CENTURY EVOLUTIONISTS (1860-ca. 1900)

    (a) Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (1831-1917)
    (b) Henry Sumner Maine (1822-1888)
    (c) Sir James Frazer (1854-1941)
    (d) Louis Henry Morgan (1818-1881)
    (e) Karl Marx (1818-1883)
    3. POSITIVISM

    (a) Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

    4. DIFFUSIONISM
    A. American
    (a) Clark Wissler (1870-1947)
    (b) Alexander Goldenweiser (1880-1940)

    B. English ("Heliolithic")

    (a) Grafton Elliot Smith (1871-1937)

    (b) William James Perry (1887-1949)

    (c) W.H.R. Rivers (1864-1922)

    C. German ("Kulturkreise")
    (a) Robert Fritz Graebner (1837-1934)

    (b) Wilhelm Schmidt (1868-1954)

    5. ANNEE SOCIOLOGIQUE

    (a) Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

    (b) Marcel Mauss (1872-1950)

    6. HISTORICAL EMPIRICISM (HISTORICAL PARTICULARISM)

    (a) Franz Boas (185-1942)

    7. PRIMITIVE MENTALITY

    (a) Lucien Levy-Bruhl (1857-1939)

    8. and 11. FUNCTIONALISM AND STUCTURALISM

    (a) Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)

    (b) Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955)

    (E.E. Evans-Pritchard, 1902-1973, Meyer Fortes, Max Gluckman, 1911-1975, Raymond Firth)

    9. CULTURAL DYNAMICS

    (a) James Mooney (1861-1921)

    10. ACCULTURATION (CULTURE CONTACT)

    -- Although this term was used as early as 1800 most studies date from 1935

    11. See #8

    12. PSYCHOENTHNOGRAPHY

    These studies focused on the following areas:

    (a) Culture and Personality

    e.g., Margaret Mead

    Ruth Benedict, 1887-1948

    (b) Enculturation
    e.g., Melville J. Herskovitz, 1895-1963

    (c) Language and Culture

    e.g., Edward Sapir, 1884-1939

    Benjamin Lee Whorf, 1897-1941

    (d) National Character Studies

    e.g., Margaret Mead

    Rhoda Metraux

    (e) World View
    e.g., Clifford Geertz
    (f) French Structuralism
    e.g., Claude Levi-Strauss

    (g) Ethnoscience

    e.g., Harold C. Conklin

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    13. ETHNOPHILOSOPHY

    These studies include studies of:

    (a) Cultural Relativism
    e.g., Melville J. Herskovitz, 1895-1963

    (b) Values

    e.g., Florence R. Kluckhohn

    Fred L. Strodtbeck

    14. NEO-EVOLUTIONSIM

    (a) Leslie White (1900-1975)

    (b) Julian Steward (1902-1972)

    (c) Marshall D. Sahlins

    (d) Elman R. Service

© 1998 - 2014 Timothy G. Roufs    Envelope: E-mail
Page URL: http:// www.d.umn.edu /cla/faculty/troufs/anth1604/major_figures.html
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