Craig Stroupe | Associate Professor of Information Design | Department of Writng Studies | 1201 Ordean Court # 420 | University of Minnesota Duluth | Duluth, MN 55812 | 218-726-6249 | fax 218-726-6882 | cstroupe@d.umn.edu

Unintended Consequences:
The European Starling in America

starling

200 million European Starlings in North America descended from 60 to 100 birds released in Central Park, New York in 1890.

Eugene Schieffelin, president of the American Acclimatization Society, tried to introduce every bird species mentioned in the works of William Shakespeare to North Americain in the 1890s.

Starlings travel in enormous flocks, pose danger to air travel, disrupt agriculture, displace native bird, and roost on city blocks. Corrosive droppings on structures cause hundreds of millions of dollars of yearly damage.