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Flying Bird Image

When Everybody Called Me Gabe-bines,

Teachings from Paul Buffalo

Timothy G. Roufs (Ed.)
University of Minnesota Duluth

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a note on tenses
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"This project has been financed in part with funds provided by the State of Minnesota from the Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund through the Minnesota Historical Society."

"This publication was made  possible in  part by the  people of  Minnesota  through  a grant funded by an appropriation  to  the  Minnesota  Historical Society  from the  Minnesota  Arts and Cultural  Heritage  Fund. Any views,  findings,  opinions,  conclusions  or recommendations expressed in this publication  are those  of  the authors  and  do not necessarily represent those of the State of  Minnesota, the  Minnesota  Historical Society, or the  Minnesota  Historic Resources Advisory Committee."

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"137-Year-Old Chippewa Indian Dies in North Minnesota Home." [Obituary of John Smith.] Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota: The Star-Tribune, Feb. 8, 1922. Accessed 14 March 2019. <>.

"About the Ojibwe Language," Ojibwe People's Dictionary. Accessed 12 June 2018.

Aguar, Jyring, Whiteman, and Moser. November 1968. "Historic Resources Inventory of Itasca County." From "Outdoor Recreation Resources: Itasca County, MN. Historical Resources Inventory, Section III.C., pp. 1-22. Accessed 12 October 2018.

Albers, Patricia C., and William R. James. "Images and Reality: Post Cards of Minnesota's Ojibway People 1900-80. Minnesota History, Summer 1985, 229-240.

"Allen James Wilson Sr." (obituary) Grand Rapids HeraldReview. 11 October 1998. Accessed March 16, 2019.

American Indian Communities in Minnesota Natural Resources.” Minnesota Senate. Accessed October 1, 2018,

American Indian Oral History Collection, Vol. I -- Kinship III. (Paul Buffalo discussion of traditional Ojibwa divorce and remarriage.) Dr. Joseph H. Cash, General Editor. New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1981. American Indian Oral History Collection, Vol. II - Traditional Foods. (Paul Buffalo, et al audiotape. Paul Buffalo discusses wild rice.) Dr. Joseph H. Cash, General Editor. New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1981.

Anderson, Kim. Life Stages and Native Women: Memory, Teachings, and Story Medicine. Winnepeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2011.

Anderson, Marcia G., and Kathy L. Hussey-Arntson, "Ojibwa Beadwork Traditions in the Ayer Collections," Minnesota History, 48:4 (1982), 153-157.

Anderson, O.L. 1922. "Modern Methusala, 137, Passes Away at Cass Lake, Minnesota." North Woods, 7:33:13-15.

Angel, Michael R. Discordant Voices, Conflicting Values: Ojibwa and Euro-American Perspectives on the Midewiwin. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Manitoba. Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1977.

Armour, David A., "Beads in the Upper Great Lakes: A Study in Acculturation," in Beads: Their Use by Upper Great Lakes Indians (Grand Rapids, MI: rand Rapids Public Museum) xxx.

“Assiniboine,” Wikipedia, updated May 22, 2018, Assiniboine.

Armour, R.C. North American Indian Fairy Tales Folklore and Legends. (London: Gibbons & Co., 1905).
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Bachmann, Elizabeth M. "Minnesota Log Marks," Minnesota History, Vol. 26, No. 2 (Jun., 1945), pp. 126-137.

Bachmann, Elizabeth M. "A History of Forestry in Minnesota." St. Paul, MN: Department of Natural Resources, 1969 (Reprinted with additions, 1969). Accessed 14 November 2018.

Balikci, Asen. “Note sur le midewiwin,” Anthropologica, no. 2 (1956): 165–217.

Barnouw, Victor. "A Psychological Interpretation of a Chippewa Origin Legend," Journal of American Folklore, 68 (1955), pp. 73-85, 211-223, 341-355.

Barnouw, Victor. "Reminiscences of a Chippewa Mide Priest," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 35 (1954):4:83-112.

Barnouw, Victor. “A Chippewa Mide Priest’s Description of the Medicine Dance,” Wisconsin Archaeologist 41, no. 4 (1960): 77–97.

Barnouw, Victor, (Ed.). Wisconsin Chippewa Myths and Tales and Their Relation to Chippewa Life, (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977).

Bear, Charla. "American Indian Boarding Schools Haunt Many" [Part 1 of 2.] National Public Radio. May 13, 2008. Accessed 17 March 2019.

Bear, Charla. "American Indian School a Far Cry from the Past." [Part 2 of 2.] National Public Radio. May 13, 2008. Accessed 17 March 2019.

Beardsley, Gretchen (1939). "The Groundnut as used by the Indians of Eastern North America." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Sciences Arts and Letters. 25: 507–525.

Beaulieu, C.H., Jr. 1922. "Wrinkled Meat Was Over 100." Minneapolis Journal, 24 February, p. 1.

Beaulieu, David. 1971. The Formal Education of Minnesota Indians: Historical Perspective Until 1934. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Training Center for Community Programs. 38 1. maps ERIC ED050873.

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Belcourt, Christi. Onaman Collective. [Red Ochre paint.] Accessed 7 August 2018.

“Bena Will Celebrate Its Centennial On August 18, 2007.”  Cass County Clippings, Cass County Historical Society & Museum.  01 October 2006.  Accessed 05 March 2018.

Benton-Banai, Edward. The Mishomis Book: The Voice of the Ojibwa. (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2010; reprint of Hayward, WI: Indian Country Communications and Red School House Press, 1988.)

Berg, Carol J. 1981. "Agents of Cullture Change: The Benedictines at White Earth." Minnesota History, 48:4:158-170.

Bishop, Charles A. "Northern Algonkian Cannibalism and Windigo Psychosis," in Psychological Anthropology (Papers from the IXth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Chicago, IL, August-September, 1973), edited by Thomas R. Williams (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), pp. 237-248).

Bishop, Charles A. "The Question of Ojibwa Clans," in Actes du Vingtième Congrès des Algonquinistes, William Cowan (Ed.), (1989), pp. 43-61.

Black, A.K. 1934, "Shaking the Wigwam,"Beaver, 265:3:13,39.

Blessing, Fred K. "Fasting and Dreams Among Minnesota Ojibway," Minnesota Archaeologist, 23:1 (1961), pp. 9-11.

Blessing, Fred K. "Some Observations on the Use of Bark by the Southern Ojibwa Indians," Minnesota Archaeologist, 19:4 (1954), pp. 3-14.

Blessing, Fred K. "Birchbark Mide Scrolls from Minnesota," Minnesota Archaeologist, 25:3 (1963), pp. 89-142.

Blessing, Fred K. “Medicine Bags and Bundles of Midewiwin,” Minnesota Archaeologist 30, no. 4 (1969): 79–121.

Bowen, Joe. 2018. "'One who walks alone' walks on: Trailblazing American Indian leader Larry Aitken dies at age 74." The Bemiji Pioneer, 5 October 2018. Accessed 04 March 2019. <>

Brown, Jennifer. "The Cure and Feeding of Windigos: A Critique," American Anthropologist, 73:1 (1971), pp. 19-22.

Brown, Jennifer S. H., and Robert Brightman (Eds.), "The Orders of the Dreamed": George Nelson on Cree and Northern Ojibwa Religion and Myth, 1823, (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 1988).

Burton, Frederick R. American Primitive Music: With Especial Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways (NY, 1909; reprinted, Port Washington: Kennikat Press, 1969).

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Cadzow, Donald A. "Bark Records of the Bungi Midewin Society," Indian Notes, 3 (1926), pp. 123-134.

Campbell, Alexia Fernández. "How America's Past Shapes Native Americans’ Present." The Atlantic, 12 October 2016. Accessed 14 October 2018.

Cannon, Walter B. “‘Voodoo’ death.” American Anthropologist 44, no. 2 (1942): 169– 81.

Carson, W. "Ojibwa Tales," Journal of American Folklore, 30 (1917), pp. 491-493.

Casagrande, Joseph B. "Ojibwa Bear Ceremonialism," in S. Tax (ed.) Proceedings of the International Congress of Americanists, 3 Vols, Vol. 2, Acculturation in the Americas, (1952), pp. 113-117.

Casagrande, Joseph B. "The Ojibwa's Psychic Universe," Tomorrow, 4:3 (1956), pp. 33-40.

Cass County Historical Society and Museum. "Bena Will Celebrate its Centennial on August 18, 2007." Cass County Clippings. 01 October 2006. Accessed 4 November 2018.

Calkins, Hiram, 1855, "Indian Nomenclature of Northern Wisconsin, With A Sketch of the Manners and Customs of the Chippewas," Wisconsin State Historical Society Annual Reports and Collections, 1:119-126 (reprinted).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Mortality Statistics 1912: Thirteenth Annual Report. US Bureau of the Census. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1913 (2012).

Chamberlain, A. F. "The Thunder-Bird Amongst the Algonkins," American Anthropologist, 3:1 (1890), pp. 51-54.

Chamberlain, A. F. "Nanibozhu Amongst the Otchipwe, Mississaqas, and Other Algonkian Tribes," Journal of American Folklore, 4 (1891), pp. 193-213.

Chatfield, William, ed. “The Midewiwin Songs of Fine-Day,” Museum News 15, no. 10 (1954): 1–2.

Chequamegon History: Primary Research about the Chequameon Region before 1860. Accessed 27 June 2018.

Cf., "Kechewaishke" [Chief Buffalo / Pezeke]. Wikipedia. Accessed 27 June 2018.

“Chief Buffalo.” Wikipedia, updated December 13, 2016, Chief_Buffalo.

“Chief Buffalo Picture Search.” Chequamegon History. Accessed 12 March 2016, and 21 November 2018.

"Chief Buffalo: Chief Buffalo’s Reservation.” Onigamiinsing Dibaajimowinan-Duluth’s Stories, Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. Accessed 3 March 2019.

Chow, Kat. "So What Exactly Is 'Blood Quantum'?" National Public Radio, 9 February 2018. Accessed 12 October 2018.

"Claims of Great Longevity Exaggerated." 1974. Science Newsletter, 106:101-102.

Clark, Julius T. "Reminiscences of Hole-in-the-Day," Wisconsin Historical Collections, 5 (1868), 378-401.

Cleland, Charles E. "The Inland Shore Fishery of the Northern Great-Lakeks: Its Development and Importance in Prehistory," American Antiquity, 47:4 (1982), pp. 761-784.

Closs, Michael P. "Tallies and the Ritual Use of Number in Ojibway Pictography," in Native American Mathematics, ed by Michael P. Closs (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1986), pp. 181-211.

Coatsworth, Emerson S., and David Coatsworth (Eds.), Adventures of Nanabush: Ojibway Indian Stories (New York: Atheneum, 1980).

Coleman, Sister Bernard, O.S.B. "The Religion of the Ojibwa of Northern Minnesota," Primitive Man [now Anthropological Quarterly], 10 (1937), pp. 3-4, 33-57.

Coleman, Sister Bernard, O.S.B. Where the Water Stops: Fond du Lac Reservation. Duluth, MN: College of St. Scholastica, 1967).

Coleman, Sister Bernard, O.S.B., Ellen Frogner, and Estelle Eich, Ojibwa Myths and Legends (Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1961).

Colombo, John Robert. Windigo: An Anthology of Fact and Fantastic Fiction, (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1982).

Cook County Historical Society. n.d. "The History of the Saint Francis Xavier Church (Chippewa City Church)." Accessed 22 October 2018.

Cooper, John M. 1944, "The Shaking Tent Rite Among plains and Forest Algonquians," Primitive Man [now Anthropological Quarterly], 17:60-84.

Copway, George. 1850. The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibwa Nation. Boston: Sanborn, Carter, Bazin & Co.

Cormier-Shekerjian, Regina de, "Ojibway Dream Net," Dreamworks, 4:1 (1984), pp. 14-15.

Covington, Calvin. “A historical look at dairy cow replacement prices.Progressive Dairyman, published April 18, 2014. Accessed 12 March 2019.

Crawford, Dean A., David L. Peterson, and Virgil Wurr. 1967. Minnesota Chippewa Indians: A Handbook for Teachers. St. Paul: Upper Midwest Regional Education Laboratory. ERIC ED017383. <>

Craven, Margaret. I Heard the Owl Call My Name. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin & Company, 1967.

Culkin, William E. “Tribal Dance of the Ojibway Indians,” Minnesota History Bulletin 1, no. 3 (1915): 83–93.

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“Dakota people,” Wikipedia, updated July 28, 2018,

Dailey, Robert C. “The Midewiwin, Ontario’s First Medical Society,” Ontario History 50, no. 3 (1958): 133–38.

Davis, Rose M., "How Indian is Hiawatha?" Midwest Folklore, 7 (1957), pp. 5-25.

Day, Rev. Eri H., 1889, "Sketches of the Northwest," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, 14:205-256.

d'Errico, Peter. (Not) Fry Bread: The Sioux Chef’s Indigenous Kitchen. Indian Country Today, 13 July 2017. Accessed 4 October 2018.

Densmore, Frances, 1932, "An Explanation of a Trick Performed by Indian Jugglers," American Anthropologist, 34:2:310-314.

Densmore, Frances. 1910. Chippewa Music, (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute, Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology 45), pp. 1-209 (Reprinted, NY: Da Capo Press, 1972; Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1974). Accessed 20 October 2018.;view=1up;seq=5

Densmore, Frances. 1913. Chippewa Music--II, (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute, Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology 53), pp. 1-334 (Reprinted, NY: Da Capo Press, 1972; Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines, 1974). Accessed 20 October 2018.;view=1up;seq=9

Densmore, Frances. 1980-1989. Songs of the Chippewa, recording, Washington, DC: U.S. Library of Congress, Music Division, Archive of American Folk Song AAFS L22.

Densmore, Frances, "Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians," U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology, Annual Report, 1926-1927, 44 (1928), 275-397. (Reprinted as How Indians Use Wild Plants for Food, Medicine, and Crafts. New York: Dover, 1974).

Densmore, Francis. 1929. Chippewa Customs, (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 86), pp. 1-204. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. (Reprinted, Minneapolis: Ross and Haines, 1970; St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1979; and elsewhere.) Accessed 20 October 2018.;view=1up;seq=177

Diedrich, Mark, The Chiefs Hole-in-the-day of the Mississippi Chippewa (St. Louis Park, MN: Coyote Books, 1986).

Donlin, Piper Elizabeth. "The Power of Food: The Ojibwe Food Sovereignty Movement: A Movement Towards Regaining and Restoring Indigenous Lifeways Through Food in Minnesota. Master thesis in Culture, Environment and Sustainability. Center for Development and Environment, University of Oslo, May 2015. Accessed 01 July 2018.

Dumont, James, "Journey to Daylight-Land: Through Ojibwa Eyes," Laurentian University Review, 8:2 (1976), pp. 31-43.

Duncan, K. J. "Tom Pahbewash's Visions," Anthropologica, 6: (1964), pp. 237-243.

Dunning, R. W. Social and Economic Change Among the Northern Ojibwa, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1959; reprinted 1972).

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Eastman, Mary H. 1853. The American Aboriginal Portfolio. Illustrated by S. Eastman, U.S. Army. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Grambo & Co.

Ebbott, Elizabeth. 1985. Indians in Minnesota (4th ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

"Education Division." Minnesota Chippewa Tribe.

Eggan, Fred. "Social Anthropology: Methods and Results," in Social Anthropology of the North American Tribes, 2nd ed., ed. by Fred Eggan (University of Chicago Press, 1955), pp. 521-536.

Elizabeth Sherer Russell photograph collection.” Collection Finding Aids, Minnesota Historical Society. Accessed October 12, 2018.

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Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. "Chief Buffalo," Onigamiinsing Dibaajimowinan-Duluth's Stories, Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. Accessed 25 May 2018.

Forest History Center, "Logging Industry." Accessed 14 November 2018.

Freud, Sigmund. 1899. The Interpretation of Dreams. Leipzig& Vienna: Franz Deuticke.

Fruth, Alban. 1958. A Century of Missionary Work Among the Red Lake Chippewa Indians, 1858-1958. Red Lake, MN: St. Mary's Mission.

"Fur Trade in Minnesota: Overview." 2018. Minnesota History Center. Accessed 12 October 2018.

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Garte, Edna, Circle of Life: Cultural Continuity in Ojibwe Crafts (Duluth, MN: ST. Louis County Historyical Society, Chisholm Museum [now The Duluth Children's Museum], and Duluth Art Institute, 1984), pp. 16-18.

Graves Family Association. "Peter Graves of Canada and Minnesota." Accessed 7 March 2018.

Greenhalgh, I., and A.R. Butler. "Sanatoria revisited: sunlight and health." Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, Vol. 47, Issue 3, September 2017, 276–80.) Accessed 15 March 2019.

Gris. H. 1974. "Inquirer Finds Oldest Man in World -- He's 140." National Inquirer, 12 November, p. 16.

Grover, Linda LeGarde. 2002. "The Vermillion Lake Indian School: From Assimilation to Termination." Minnesota History, pp. 224-240. Accessed 7 August 2018.

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Hall, Stephen P. "The Hole-In-The-Day encounter," The Minnesota Archaeologist 36:2 (1977), 77-96.

Hallowell, A. Irving. 1940. "Aggression in Saulteaux Society," Psychiatry, 3:395-407 (Reprinted in Personality in Nature, Society and Culture, 2nd ed., Ed. by Clyde Kluckhohn, H. A. Murray, and David M. Schneider. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1953, pp. 260-275; and in A. I. Hallowell, 1955a, pp. 277-290.)

Hallowell, A. Irving. “The Passing of the Midewiwin in the Lake Winnipeg Region,” American Anthropologist 38, no. 1 (1936): 32–51.

Hallowell, A. Irving. 1938. "Fear and Anxiety as Cultural and individual Variables in a Primitive Society." Journal of Social Psychology, 9:25-47 (Reprinted in A. I. Hallowell, 1955a, pp. 250-265).

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Freudian Symbolism in the Dream of a Saulteaux Indian," Man, 38 (1938), pp. 47-48.

Hallowell, A. Irving. 1940, "Magic: The Role of Conjuring in Saulteaux Society," in Papers Presented Before the Monday Night Group, 1939-40, ed. by M. A. May (New Haven: Institute of Human Relations), pp. 94-115.

Hallowell, A. Irving. 1964, "Ojibwa Ontology, Behavior, and World View." In Primitive Views of the World. Ed. by Stanley Diamond. New York: Columbia University Press, 49-82. (Reprinted.)h

Hallowell, A. Irving. 1963. "Ojibwa World View and Disease," in Man's Image in Medicine and Anthropology. Ed. by Iago Galdston. (New York Academy of Medicine, Institute of Social and Historical Medicine, Monograph 4. New York: International Universities Press, pp. 258-315.

Hallowell, A. Irving. The Role of Conjuring in Saulteaux Society, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1942, reprinted New York: Octagon Books, 1971).

Hallowell, A. Irving. "The Role of Dreams in Ojibwa Culture," in The Dream and Human Societies, ed. by Gustave E. von Grunebaum and Roger Caillois, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966, pp. 267-292.

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Spirits of the Dead in Saulteaux Life and Thought," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland," 70 (1940), pp. 29-51.

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Was Cross-Cousin Marriage Practised by the North-Central Algonian," Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Congress of Americanists, (NY, 1928), pp. 519-544.A. Irving Hallowell, "Cross Cousin Marriage in the Lake Winnipeg Area," in Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Studies, Philadelphia Anthroplogical Society, ed. by D. S. Davidson, (1937), pp. 95-110

Hallowell, A. Irving. "Northern Ojibwa Ecological Adaptation and Social Organization," in Contributions to Anthropology: Selected Papers of A. Irving Hallowell, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976), pp. 333-350.

Hamilton, J. C. "The Algonquin Manabozho and Hiawatha," Journal of American Folklore, 16 (1903), pp. 229-233.

Harding, Arthur Robert. Deadfalls & Snares. St. Louis, Mo: A.R. Harding Publisher, 1907. Accessed 03 July 1807.

Haskins, Doug. 1998. The Journey to an Indigenous Church: the History of The Christian and Missionary Alliance Work with Native Americans. Alliance Academic Review. Accessed 24 February 2018.

Hay, Thomas H. "The Windigo Psychosis: Psychodynamic, Cultural, and Social Factors in Aberrant Behavior," American Anthropologist, 73:1 (1971), pp. 1-19.

Helbig, Alethea. Nanabozhoo, Giver of Life (Brighton, MI: Green Oak Press, 1987).

Hickerson, Harold. “Notes on the Post-Contact Origin of the Midewiwin,” Ethnohistory 9, no. 4 (1962a): 404–23.

Hickerson, Harold. "The Southwestern Chippewa: An Ethnohistorical Study," American Anthropologist, 64:3: (Part 2), Memoir 92 (1962).

Hickerson, Harold. “The Sociohistorical Significance of Two Chippewa Ceremonials,” American Anthropologist 65, no. 1 (1963): 67–85.

Hickerson, Harold. "The Genesis of Bilaterality Among Two Divisions of Chippewa," American Anthropologist, 68:1 (1966), pp. 1-26.

Hickerson, Harold. The Chippewa and Their Neighbors: A Study in Ethnohistory (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1970).

Hilger, Sister M. Inez, O.S.B. 1936, "Chippewa Customs," Primitive Man [now Anthropological Quarterly], 9:2:17-24.

Hilger, Sister M. Inez. "Chippewa Hunting and Fishing Customs," Minnesota Quarterly, 1:2-3 (1936), pp. 17-19.

Hilger, Sister M. Inez. "Chippewa Burial and Mourning Customs," American Anthropologist, 46 (1944), pp. 564-568.

Hilger, Sister M. Inez. "Naming a Chippewa Indian Child," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 39 (1958), 120-126.

Hill, Edward E. 1965. "Preliminary Inventory (PI 163) of the Records of The Bureau of Indian Affairs (RG 75), Washington, D.C. Area. Accessed 5 November 2018.

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Hockett, Charles F. "The Proto Central Algonquian Kinship System," in Explorations in Cultural Anthropology, ed. by Ward H. Goodenough (NY: McGraw-Hill, 1964), pp. 239-257.

Hoffman, Walter James. "Pictography and Shamanistic Rites of the Ojibwa," American Anthropologist, 1:3 (1888), pp. 209-229 (reprinted in Native North American Art History, ed. by Zena P. Mathews and Aldona Jonaitis, Palo Alto, CA, 1982).

Hoffman, Walter James. "Notes on Ojibwa Folk-lore," American Anthropologist, 2:3 (1889), pp. 215-223.

Hoffman, Walter James. "Remarks on Ojibwa Ball Play," American Anthropologist 3:2 (1890), pp. 133-135.

Hoffman, Walter James. "The Midewiwin [Mide'wiwin] or 'Grand Medicine Society' of the Ojibwa,"Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1885-1886. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1891), pp. 143-300. Accessed 7 August 2018.

Holzhueter, J. O., "Chief Buffalo and Other Wisconsin-related Art in the National Capitol," Wisconsin Magazine of Art, 56:4 (1973) pp. 284-289.

Holzkamm, Tim E. "Ojibwa Horticulture in the Upper Mississippi and Boundary Waters." Papers of the Seventeenth Algonquian Conference, 1985. Edited by William Cowan. (Ottawa: Carleton University), pp. 143-154.

Holzhueter, John O. Madeline Island and the Chequamegon Region, (Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1974).

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Hutchinson, Walter. Customs of the World, (London: Hutchinson& Co., 1913).

Hulbert, Thomas. 1846. Hymns in the Chippewa and Ottawa Language To Which Is Appended a Short Summary of Christian Doctrine; Peter Jones (trans.). 1840. A collection of Chippeway and English Hymns for the Use of the Native Indians. Translated by Peter Jones . . . To Which Are Added a Few Hymns Translated by Rev. James Evans and George Henry. . . . Toronto: Printed for the Translator. (This version is based on the Jones 1829 ed., New York: Printed at the Conference Office by J. Collord. This work was reprinted and reissued numerous times, often under various titles.)
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"Inspiring Visions: Artists’ Views of the American West." 2003. Amon Carter Museum. eastman_art.html.

"It's Not Just About The Blood." National Public Radio, 6 February 2018. Accessed 12 October 2018.
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Jackson, Barbara D. "A Peyote Community in Northern Minnesota." In Anishinabe: 6 Studies of Modern Chippewa, edited by J. Anthony Paredes, 127-193. Tallahassee: University Presses of Florida, 1980.

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Johnson, Basil H. Ojibwa Ceremonies, (Toronto: McClelland and Steward, 1982).

Jones, Peter. History of the Ojebway Indians (London: A.W. Bennett, 1861).

Jones, Peter. (trans.). 1840. A collection of Chippeway and English Hymns for the Use of the Native Indians. Translated by Peter Jones . . . To Which Are Added a Few Hymns Translated by Rev. James Evans and George Henry . . . . Toronto: Printed for the Translator. (This version is based onthe Jones 1829 ed., New York: Printed at the Conference Office by J. Collord. This work was reprinted and reissued numerous times, often under various titles.)

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Kahneman, Daniel. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

"Kechewaishke" [Chief Buffalo / Pezeke]. Wikipedia. Accessed 27 June 2018.

Kegg, Maude; and Nichols, John D. 1983. Nookomis Gaa-inaajimotawid, What My Grandmother Told Me, with Texts in Ojibwe (Chippewa) and English. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Archaeological Society.

Keiser, Albert. 1922. "The Work Among the Chippewas in Michigan and Minnesota." In Luthern Mission Work Among the American Indians. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, pp. 55-94.

Ketcham, William H. 1920. "The Chippewa Missions of Minnesota." The Indian Sentinel, 2:161-164.

Kidwell, Clara Sue. "The Power of Women in Three American Indian Societies." The Journal of Ethnic Studies, Vol. 6, n 3, (Fall 1978): 113-21.

Kinietz, W. Vernon. "Birch Bark Records Among the Chippewa," Indiana Academy of Science, Proceedings, 49 (1940), pp. 38-40.

Kolata, Gina. Flu: The Story Of The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus that Caused It. NY: Touchstone, 1999.

Kuchera, Steve. "An Identity Crisis? Squaw Lake Isn't Caught up in Minnesota Name-change Initiative," Duluth News-Tribune, Monday, April 17, 1995, pp. 1A, 4A.

Kurath, Gertrude P. “Chippewa Sacred Songs in Religious Metamorphosis,” Scientific Monthly 79, no. 5 (1954): 311– 17.

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Lac La Croix Ponies at Quetico.” Ontario Parks. Published February 8, 2017.

Ladd, E.F., and H.P. Bassett, “Bleaching of Flour,” Journal of Biological Chemistry 6 (1909): 75–86.

Lafleur, L.J. “On the Mide of the Ojibway,” American Anthropologist 42, no. 4 (1940): 706–8.

Lajimodiere, Denise K. Lajimodiere. "Native American Boarding Schools." MNOPEDIA, (modified) 4 May 2018. Accessed 10 September 2018.

Landes, Ruth. "The Abnormal Among the Ojibwa Indians." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 33 (1938):1:14-33.

Landes, Ruth. Ojibwa Religion and the Midewiwin. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968; Reprinted, N.y.: AMS Press, 1969).

Landes, Ruth. The Ojibwa Woman, Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology, 31 (1938; reprinted, NY: AMS Press, 1969; reprinted NY: W.W. Norton and Co., 1971).

Landes, Ruth. “Ojibwa Sociology,” in Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969) 29:1–144 (repr., New York: AMS Press, 1969).

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Lyford, Carrie A. Crafts of the Ojibwa (Phoeniz, AZ: Office of Indian Affairs, 1943).

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Maher, Savannah. "The Difficult Math Of Being Native American." National Public Radio. 7 February 2018. Accessed 12 October 2018.

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Momaday, N. Scott. 1970. The Way to Rainy Mountain. NY: Ballantine Books.

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“Nakoda (Stoney),” Wikipedia, updated July 4, 2018, https://

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Nelson, Richard. “Midewiwin Medicine Bags of the Ojibwa,” in Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, ed. William Cowan (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1984), 397–408.

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Norman, Howard. “Ojibwa Pictures and Song-Pictures,” Alcheringa 3 (Winter 1971): 64–67.

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“Ojibwe,” Wikipedia, updated August 2, 2018, https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Ojibwe.

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Jordan, Paper. "From Shaman to Mystic in Ojibwa Religion," Studies in Religion, 9:2 (1980), 185-199.

Parker, Seymour. "The Wiitiko Psychosis in the Context of Ojibwa Personality," American Anthropologist, 62 (1960), pp. 603-623.

Paredes, J. Anthony. "A Case Study of 'Normal' Windigo," Anthropologica, 14:2 (1972), pp. 97-116.

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Phillips, Ruth B. “Zigzag and Spiral: Geometric Motifs in Great Lakes Indian Costume,” in Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, ed. William Cowan (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1984), 409–24.

Powell, Ransom J. 1922. "'Wrinkled Meat' but 88 Years Old, U.S. Records Say." Minneapolis Journal, 15 February, p. 1.

Preston, Richard J. "The Witiko: Algonkian Knowledge and Whiteman Knowledge," in Manlike Monsters on Trial, edited by Marjorie M. Halpin and Michael M. Ames (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1980), pp. 111-131.

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Radin, Paul. 1926. Crashing Thunder: The Autobiography of an American Indian. Oxford, England: Appleton.

Radin, Paul. "Ojibwa and ottawa Puberty Dreams," in Essays in Anthropology Presented to alfred L. Kroeber, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1936, pp. 233-264).

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Reagan, Albert B. "The Flood Myth of the Chippewas," Indiana Academy of Science, Proceedings, 28 (1919), pp. 347-352.

Reagan, Albert B. "Some Games of the Bois Fort Ojibwa," American Anthropologist 21:3 (1919), pp. 264-278.

Reagan, Albert B. "Flood Myth of the Bois Fort Chippewas," Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, 30 (1921), pp. 437-443.

Reagan, Albert B. “Medicine Songs of George Farmer,” American Anthropologist 24, no. 3 (1922): 332–69.

Reagan, Albert B. “Picture Writings of the Chippewa Indians,” Wisconsin Archaeologist 6 (1927): 80–83.

Reagan, Albert B. “The O-ge-che-dah or Head- Men Dance of the Bois Forte Indians,” Americana 28 (1934): 302–6.

Reagan, Albert B. “A Ritual Parchment and Certain Historical Charts of the Bois Fort Chippewa of Minnesota,” Americana 29 (1935): 228–44.

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Ritzenthaler, Robert E. "The Building of a Chippewa Indian Birch-bark Canoe," Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, Bulletin (1950), 19:2, pp. 53-99.

Ritzenthaler, Robert E. Chippewa Preoccupation with Health, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, Bulletin (1953), 19:4:175-257.

Robertson, Tom. “Squaw Lake Resists Name Change,” Minnesota Public Radio, April 30, 2001,

Robertson, Tom. "American Indians prefer to reflect on their own history" [Cf. re Peter Graves]. MPRNews, 9 June 2008. Accessed 08 March 2018.

Roddis, Louis H. 1919/1920. "The Last Indian Uprising in the United States." Publications of the Minnesota Historical Society, ed. by Solon J. Buck. Minnesota History Bulletin, 3:273-290.

Rohrl, Vivian J. “A Chippewa Funeral,” Wisconsin Archaeologist 48, no. 2 (June 1967): 137–40.

Rohrl, Vivian J. "The Drum Societies in a Southwestern Chippewa Community," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 49:3 (1968), pp. 131-137.

Rohrl, Vivian J. "A Nutritional Factor in Windigo Psychosis," American Anthropologist, 72:1 (1970), pp. 97-101.

Rohrl, Vivian J. "Some Observations on the Drum Society of Chippewa Indians," Ethnohistory, 19:3 (1972), pp. 219-225.

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Rottsolk, James E. 1960. Pines, Mines, and Lakes: The Story of ITASCA COUNTY, MINNESOTA. [Grand Rapids, MN??xxx]: Itasca County Historical Society.

Roufs, Timothy G. American Indian Oral History Collection, American Indian Oral History Collection, Vol. II, No. 21 -- Traditional Foods. (Paul Buffalo, et al. audiotape. Paul Buffalo discusses wild rice.) Dr. Joseph H. Cash, General Editor. New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, 1981. [UM DULUTH Library Multimedia PC 1203; see also microfiche collection]

Roufs, Timothy G. 2016. "Anishinabe Curing." Accessed 03 August 2018.

Roufs, Timothy G. "Patrilineal Kinship." Accessed 31 July 2018.

Roufs, Timothy G. 1967. Social Structure and Community Development: An Analysis of a Chippewa Case. Master's thesis, University of Minnetota.

Roufs, Timothy G. 1975. The Anishinabe of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series. (Reprinted, 2013. Cass Lake, MN: Minnesota Chippewa Tribe.)

Roufs, Timothy G. 1976. “Early Indian Life in the Lake Superior Region,” in Duluth: Sketches of the Past, Ryck Lydecker, Lawrence J. Sommer, and Arthur Larsen (Eds.) Special Bicentennial Volume of Duluth’s Legacy Series, Duluth, Minnesota, 1976, (reprinted in The Minnesota Archaeologist, Vol. 37, No. 4, (November 1978) pp. 157-197.

Roufs, Timothy G. 1978. "Mississippi and Lake Superior Ojibwa: Reflections of Paul Buffalo," Timothy G. Roufs, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN 55812 (15 June 1978).

Roufs, Timothy G. 1978. “Nature and the Concept of Power Among Lake Superior Ojibwa: Reflections of Paul Buffalo,” 16 pp., March 1978. Reprinted in two parts as “The Ojibwa Concept of Power,” Red River Valley Heritage Press, Red River Valley Historical Society, Vol. 4 (1981): pp. 8 ff.

Roufs, Timothy G., "Reminiscences of Paul Buffalo, Leech Lake Band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Parts I - XXII." University of South Dakota Indian Oral History Collections, Part II, No. 4, 1-243. Sanford, North Carolina: Microfilming Corporation of America, 1979.

Roufs, Timothy G. 1980. Social Structure and Community Development: An Analysis of a Chippewa Case. In Anishinabe: 6 Studies of Modern Chippewa, J. Anthony Paredes, 194- 241. Tallahassee: University Presses of Florida, 1980.

Roufs, Timothy G. 1980. Social Structure and Community Development: An Analysis of a Chippewa Case. In J. Anthony Paredes, Anishinabe: 6 Studies of Modern Chippewa (University Presses of Florida, 1980), pp. 194- 241.

Roufs, Timothy G. and Kathleen Smyth Roufs. 2014. Sweet Treats around the World, Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Rue, Leonard Lee III. 2014. "Remembering the Outhouse: Fond, and not so fond, memories of the outhouse on the farm." Farm Collector, May 2014. Accessed 14 September 2018.

Rynkiewich, Michael A. "Chippewa Powwows." In Anishinabe: 6 Studies of Modern Chippewa, edited by J. Anthony Paredes, 31-100. Tallahassee: University Presses of Florida, 1980.

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"The Sacraments of Healing." Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1422–1446. The Holy See ["The Vatican"]. Accessed 15 March 2019.

Schensul, Stephen L., J. Anthony Paredes and Pertti J. Pelto. "The Twilight Zone of Poverty:" A New Perspective on an Economically Depressed Area." Human Organization, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Spring 1968), pp. 30-40. Accessed 14 September 2018.

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Simms, S.C. “The Metawin Society of the Bungees or Swampy Indians of Lake Winnipeg,” Journal of American Folklore 19 (1906): 330–33.

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Smith, John. 1921. Chief John Smith, A Leader of the Chippewa, Age 117 Years. His Life as Told by Himself. Being the Life Story of Chief John Smith as Narrated by Himself and Interpreted by His Adopted Son, Thomas E. Smith. Walker, MN: The Cass County Pioneer.

“SOLEMN REDMEN APPEAL AGAINST AGENCY MOVE Braves Don War Paint, Dance In Streets.”  The Ogden Standard-Examiner (Ogden, Utah), Thursday, March 31, 1938, p. 6. [Proposed move of the Indian Office from Cass Lake to Duluth.]

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Schwarz, Herbert T. "Windigo, and Other Tales of the Ojibways," (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1969).

Sicherman, Al. "xxxarticle on drying blueberries, " [Minneapolis] Star Tribune, Wednesday, July 6, 1988, 1T.

Smith, James G. E.. "Leadership Among the Southwestern Ojibwa," National Museums of Canada, Publications in Ethnology, 7 (Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1971).

Smith, James G. E. "Notes on the Wittiko," Papers of the Seventh Algonquian Conference, 1975, Edited by William Cowan, (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1976), pp. 18-38.

Smith, James G. E. "Termination of the Cross-Cousin Marriage Pattern Among the Southwestern Ojibwa," paper read at the 70th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New York, 18-21 November 1971.

Smith, Huron H. "Ethnobotany of Ojibwe Indians." Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee. Vol. 4, No. 3, Pp. 327-525, Plates 46-77, May 2, 1932.

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Strong, William D. "Cross-Cousin Marriage and the Culture of the Northeastern Alquonkian," American Anthropologist, 31:2 (1929), pp. 277-288.

Sweet, G. W. "Incidents of the Threatened Outbreak of Hole-in-the-Day," Minnesota Historical Society, Collections, 6 (1894), 401-408.

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United States Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Consolidated Chippewa Agency. 1922-1947. Organization Authority Record . Accessed 5 November 2018.

United States National Park Service, "Railroad Development in Minnesota, 1862-1956." 2005. Accessed 19 September 2018.

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Vastokas, Joan M. "Interpreting Birch Bark Scrolls," Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, 1983, ed. by William Cowan, (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1984); 425-444.

Vecsey, Christopher. "Midewiwin Myths of Origin," Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, Ed. by William Cowan (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1983), pp. 445-467.

Vecsey, Christopher. "The Ojibwa Creation Myth: An analysis of its Structure and Content," Temenos: Studies in Comparative Religion, 20 (1985), pp. 66-100.

Vecsey, Christopher. Traditional Ojibwa Religion and Its Historical Changes, (Philadelphia, PA: The American Philogophical Society, 1983).

Vecsey, Christopher and John F. Fisher, "The Ojibwa Creation Myth: An Analysis of its Structure and Content," Temenos: Studies in Comparative Religion, 20 (1985), pp. 66-100.

Vennum, Thomas, Jr. 1980. "A History of Ojibwa Song Form," in traditional Music of North American Indians, Ed. by Charlotte Heth, Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology, 3:2 (Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Music Department), pp. 42-75.

Vennum, Thomas, Jr. “Constructing the Ojibwa Dance Drum,” Wisconsin Archaeologist 54, no. 4 (1973): 162–74.

Vennum, Thomas, Jr. “Ojibwa Origin-Migration Songs of the Mitewiwin,” Journal of American Folklore 91, no. 36 (1978): 753–91.

Vennum, Thomas Jr. 1982. The Ojibwa Dance Drum: Its History and Construction. Smithsonian Folklife Studies, Number 2. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Vennum, Thomas Jr. 1988. Wild Rice and the Ojibwa People. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society.

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Warren, William Whipple. History of the Ojibways Based Upon Traditions and Oral Statements, (Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, 5 (1885); reprinted, Minneapolis: Ross and Haines, 1957.

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Zapffe, Carl A. 1975. The Man who Lived in 3 Centuries: A Biographic Reconstruction of the Life of Kahbe nag wiwens, a Native Minnesotan. Brainerd, MN: Historic Heartland Association.

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