"A set of structures in and around the midbrain,
forming a functional unit regulating motivational-emotional
types of behavior such as waking and sleeping, excitement
and quiescence, feeding, and mating" (Hilgard,
Introduction to Psychology)
We attach names to things. "When something has a name, it means
that one has a perception category for the item, and that gives
it meaning. . . . The name gives structure and order
to the [perceptual] world."
"If we can attach names, then it is that knowledge of
order that gives structure to our world."
19th century brain injury (1848) to Phineas P. Gage led to personality change ("no longer Gage")
John, the English man could recognize individual letters [on signs],
but couldn't read the words.
but if he heard his wife, for example, in the railroad station,
he would recognize her -- so his hearing was not suffering
from the problem that his vision was
The Man who Mistook his Wife for a Hat could recognize
individual letters, but couldn't read the words
The Birmingham analysis sought (1) to check "recognition" (but
the Englishman could see and could even copy by drawing the picture
of the bird); their (2) second question was could the patient find
a name for the item (but the Englishman knew the names and
The 3-D image literally doesn't exist in our heads; it is
created by the brain
Larry does not have recognition at a conscious level, but he does
have recognition at an unconscious level. There is a difference
between having conscious knowledge of something, and having unconscious
knowledge of something.