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Flying Bird Image

When Everybody Called Me Gabe-bines,
An Ethnographic Biography of
Paul Peter Buffalo

Timothy G. Roufs
University of Minnesota Duluth

a note on tenses
  a note on style

orignal tapes information

Table of Contents

"This project has been financed in part with funds provided by the State of Minnesota from the Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund through the Minnesota Historical Society."

"This publication was made  possible in  part by the  people of  Minnesota  through  a grant funded by an appropriation  to  the  Minnesota  Historical Society  from the  Minnesota  Arts and Cultural  Heritage  Fund. Any views,  findings,  opinions,  conclusions  or recommendations expressed in this publication  are those  of  the authors  and  do not necessarily represent those of the State of  Minnesota, the  Minnesota  Historical Society, or the  Minnesota  Historic Resources Advisory Committee."


Buffalo Image

xxx 30 29

Midewiwin: Grand Medicine

I believe in the mI-dày-way.

I wasn't really baptized through the priest. I wasn't really baptized through the priest. I was baptized from an individual person, my grandpa, John S. Smith, without a ministering. I was baptized from an individual who believes in the Book. There was a Bible there and so he read it, but he wasn't a full-power priest. See, the Bible reads that the first stage of Baptism can be given by a believer. When anyone's going to die, and if it's too late to call in a priest, and you want to be a Catholic, he'll throw holy water. So as a Catholic my grandpa just put a stamp on. It reads in the Bible that that's a Baptism part.(1) But he's not a priest. We figured that he was not a priest. He just read the book. He just read the Bible to me. That shouldn't count; he has no empowerment. And so I went(2) to the Grand Medicine.(3) So then I went back to m^-da-way. So I came back as mI-dày-way, and I believe of the Indian way of life.

I don't think you'll get anybody as close as I am with that stuff(4) talking about it. There are a lot of others who practiced more on that than I did. They(5) won't tell you anything until you want to join them, and want to be initiated in an Indian belief. A lot of them know what I'm talking about. They're scared of it. I'm scared of it too, but I know I'm getting old; I can talk about it.(6) If you know all about it, that's all right. But if you're told, that's another question there.(7) See, we have a lot of points in the Indian way of life. I know what happened. I can pass it on. And by passing it on I will meditate it so it's in the book.(8) A lot of them ask me about that.

So I feel good about that. I tell what I know to the ones that are interested to know what went on. Maybe that's why the Great Spirit blesses me for the good work I do, for the translation(9) I do from the Indian to English.

But a lot of times the Indian says to me, "You shouldn't tell a white man nothing!"


"You know what they've done," he said. "They've taken everything -- blueberries, game, wild life, flowers, even the land. We haven't any of that now. They're even trying to take away our religion -- even our belief! After they've taken it away, you don't know what they're going to do with us and this country."

"Well," I told him, "that remains to be seen."

So that's why you can't get a word out of the Indian. I'm brave enough to tell you what's happening, so I do know all about it.(10) That's why I talk to you. That's why I'm glad you're asking those questions. They're not foolish questions. That's just the way the Indian lives, and that's just the style we try to live with.

Well, I wouldn't say much about some things.(11) That stuff would back-fire. I wouldn't say much about it, but I'll say a few things trying to tell you about it. But there is just so far that we go. And if they know too much, and then pass it on to the other, that's unlegal.(12)

I don't want to get myself in a jam. Sure, I work with you, to a certain extent. I do. But I don't want to give you dope that I feel is laying around idle.(13) So I'm telling you why we believe what we do. After awhile you'll see it.

Regardless of how anybody feels, it's not easy for me to tell you this. I'm exercising the faculties of my life, and trying to live the way I'm supposed to live. And you're supposed to live the same.

But it seems to me the more I tell you, the more you want. You want more, more, more. You think we can go right ahead too fast. Take your time, old boy. The more you learn, the more experience you have, the more you will begin to understand this world. Sooner or later you know how to pick up one more stem, then pretty soon you'll have a bouquet. That's true.

I want it that way.

That's why my mother and dad told me, "Be careful. Don't go too fast."

That's a big word. . . .

I want to help, but I don't want to go too fast.(14)

I know what I'm doing -- well I should know. Well, that's my business. That's the way I do it. See, you aren't coaching me; no. You don't have to; no. But I put my foot down on certain spots. I have a right to.

So that's all right to tell you now. That's the way we believe it.(15)

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Grand Medicine Lodge and Chief Ojibway, White Earth.


Grand Medicine Lodge and Chief Ojibway, White Earth.
Photographer: Robert G. Beaulieu
Photograph Collection, 1910
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location no. E97.37 r48 Negative no. 40458

Grand Medicine is more a doctoring work. It gives life to the Indians when they respect one another, and respect the birds, respect the animals, respect the nature of the timber outdoors. It gives them life because these timbers and things are given to them for medicine. They use certain parts of the wood and bark for their medicine.(16)

That's natural, it's given to them, and it works.

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Strong's medicine pole, Nett Lake.

Strong's medicine pole, Nett Lake.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1954
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.26 p8 Negative No. 35582

They have power in that medicine, but they have to go through fasting and they have to go through certain medications to get that power into that medicine. When they do the requirement for the question that arises for this medicine,(17) they empower the medicine. After it's empowered, the medicine is used by this man,(18) or by anybody. But to use the medicine, you have to show that you believe in that. You have to show that you're looking forward for this medicine to act up.

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"Medicine" on pole near grave of Mrs. John Nett Lake.

"Medicine" on pole near grave of Mrs. John Nett Lake.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1947
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.26 p5 Negative No. 35601

Without believing in anything, it's no use. If you don't believe in anything on earth, it's no use for you to use that medicine. You have to believe in all things.

Everybody does their own ways in good terms. You can see a person by their action, by the words they talk, buy the language they use, and you know that in his ways, he's a sort of a nice person. Action speaks louder than words in this world, and you can tell a person according to what he believes in and how he lives.

Midewiwin stays with you as long as you believe in that. You join that belief, and if you believe strong in that, you get so that your belief continues to get stronger. Then you commence to believe almost like Christian Science, then after awhile you'll commence to be a staff(19) of that belief, Midewiwin.(20) When you believe strong, you're heading for a Midewiwin staff. You believe in that medicine when you're in the Mide. When you belong to the Midewiwin you go to meetings wherever there's a bunch gathering. They generally have a bunch get together at Inger.(21)

That belief is pretty near like Christian Science, but they believe in trees, and they believe in the God, the Manitou.(22) They believe in everything. They respect everything.

Midewiwin staff maa-mósh-m^sh-ka-w^-zíiz . . . maa-mo-m^'sh-k^-wI-zíi, is "in the head, strong good will." I'm talking about good will, not bad will. The good will is the one that helps you along in this great world we have from God who put it here.

Bad will, that's easy. The devil's working on that. If you believe in the devil you'll do anything. You're in trouble. You won't last long. If you believe in the good Lord, you'll get old.(23) He wants to take care of you. He's going to take care of you. So that's God's word.

How often they get together all depends on what they call on,(24) the same as a powwow(25). I think they generally had one meeting in the fall and one in the spring. Sometimes at other times. It all depends on who calls it on. In the spring, when the leaves were coming out, it was a good time of the year. Maybe there's something to that natural season we go by. But in the spring they generally had a big doings. We called that spring meeting maa-wIn-jíi-i-dI-wI'n, that's "get together." That's in the springtime, when you're able to have a lot of room to speak.

When we get together at a Grand Medicine meeting we listen to a good sermon -- which is just the same, predn'near the same, as the sermon in any church we go to: "If you do good, you'll be paid good. And if you do bad, it's bad for you. But the more good you do, the more well you feel. If you do a good turn for anybody, you'll feel good. If you do bad things, and don't do people right, well, there's something in your mind that starts working that isn't good for it."(26)

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Midi ceremony near Walker.

Midi ceremony near Walker.
Photograph Collection, Postcard, 1898
Minesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.37 r81 Negative No.

And then every spring, they had a special meeting, thanking God. That's what they call a Grand Medicine dance. In that dance some of these young Indians are ready to go into Grand Medicine. It's just the same as an initiation. In Grand Medicine they have a re-meditation every spring. Re-meditation in the spring of the year is called mi-naa-wàa mi-day wi-w^g; mi-naa-wàa mi-day-I-wày. That's the second issue of meditating of life, empowering it more in a second stage.

They probably(27) have one in the fall of the year and in the spring. They re-meditate to more empower this guy that's going for a higher staff. They meditate. That's called mI-day-wi-àah.

The ones up for initiation learned what the higher staff taught them, and they were ready to be a Grand Medicine believer. These Grand Medicine believers put on a big dinner, with rice, meats, and maple sugar. They put a big panfull right out there for you to help yourself, with a dish. It was like a cafeteria restaurant where you just take what you want. You can have all you want to.

Grand Medicine believers generally gather according to the area they lived in. They gather in their bunch. It could be a campsite of about three hundred people -- two- three- hundred people. But there never were that many in a bunch lately, in the last few years.

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Indian ceremony(?), Cass Lake.

Indian ceremony (?), Cass Lake.
Photograph Collection, 1930
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location no. E97.37 r112

But there still is in the family affairs, in the family itself,(28) one that talks to the Great. There is usually one in a family who is higher staff. See, in medicine, there's a higher staff in power that they call "the highest." Well, we would say in English, "the sacrament, the last(29) sacrament."

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Ojibway Grand Medicine Ceremony at Squaw Point, Leech Lake.

Ojibway Grand Medicine Ceremony at Squaw Point, Leech Lake.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1932
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.37 p50 Negative No. 35575

There are about three high staff now.(30) In the olden days there were more, in different areas. They got branched off.(31) They got branched off of the reservation in the old history of the Indians. It(32) tells where the tribe is, and that they go visit one another, and that they have a feast and gathering, and talk about the power of the spirit of some thing.(33)

They do that over and over to prove it, to prove power of the Midewiwin.

The highest staff is chi-mI-dày-wi, "Big, big, big Grande." "Big, big, big Grand Medicine person," is chi-mI-dày-way. He's the leader-of-all.

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John Smith and Ojibway Grand Medicine Ceremony at Squaw Point, Leech Lake.

John Smith and Ojibway Grand Medicine Ceremony
at Squaw Point, Leech Lake.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1932
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.37 p52 Negative No. 35600

His medicine has the most power. This most powerful medicine is not to speak about, anywhere!! It's so respected and powerful. They use that in the end.(34) This medicine is something made out of a tree. It's out of a tree, the heart of a tree. I think it's more or less from down the root of a tree. I know the name of it, but I wouldn't know the name of it in English. In Indian it's ohn-naa-màn. It's the highest medicine there is. Ya. It's a highest power of the natural resources. It's the highest herb of natural resources. That's only for the high staff. To the Indian, that's the most respected and powerful thing to carry. There are very few who want to carry that. And there are quite a few who don't like to have that on them. It's so powerful that you have to know how to handle it. That's the highest I know. It's respected.

xxx cf., Belcourt, Christi. Onaman Collective. [Red Ochre paint.] Accessed 9 January 2018. Murdoch, Isaac, and Christi Belcourt, Hosts. Onaman/Wanaman "Ceremony About Sacred Paint". 24 September 2016 Accessed 9 January 2018.

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Ojibway Grand Medicine Ceremony at Squaw Point, Leech Lake.

Ojibway Grand Medicine Ceremony at Squaw Point,
Leech Lake.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1932
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.37 p53 Negative No. 35574

And when anybody carries that, they have the highest staff of the spiritual doctoring of Grande.(35) When you have that, you have something to carry. And that's a great thing. When anybody carries that, look out! You know, you should know, if he's got it.(36) They're nothing to fool with. If they carry that, whatever they say, that's what will happen. But there are very few that carry that ohn-naa-màn! That's the highest.

Oh, they could carry that, but it all depends on how much they have to give out. They give it out when they have a session.(37) It's just like palms. You're supposed to take that palm on Palm Sunday. If you're Catholic, you're supposed to take that palm on Palm Sunday. You're supposed to take that palm home and respect it.

Well, that's pred'near the same as in any religion. Most religions will say to you, "You're supposed to take this and respect it. When it's time to use it, you use it. If you fear something's going to happen, you use that." That's supposed to take care of you.

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Jim Greenhill and Ojibway Grand Medicine Ceremony at Squaw Point, Leech Lake.

Jim Greenhill [Wishawasquashawave] and Ojibway Grand Medicine Ceremony at Squaw Point,
Leech Lake, 1932.

Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1932
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.37 p54 Negative No. 35585


xxx Wishawasquashawave

from <>



Next to the leader-of-all would be the spiritual medicine doctor, the spiritual in Grand Medicine. There are six or seven staffs.(38) The higher you go, the more you see.(39) There are different names for the staffs, but I don't know the names for them all. That's secretive.(40) There are a lot of different names for them; most of them are names of herbs.

They grind up herbs. Yea. They grind them up and they put them in there.(41) They put them in a small buckskin bag, a "medicine" or "luck" bag. Some people call it a "luck bag," in English. In Indian, it's b^ss-kwày-gIn-^-m^'ss-kIn-móed. m^sh-kay-moed that's "bag," b^ss-kwày-gIn, that's "buckskin." If you just say b^ss-kwày-gIn m^sh-kay-moed, "buckskin bag," everybody knows it's a medicine bag. It's either way, either way you want it -- for luck or for medicine. If you want luck, good luck medicine, you got it. It's all combined in one. Just the way you handle it for good or bad, that's what will happen.(42)

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Flatmouth (Ne-gon-e-bin-ais) holding bag that is now (1975) in Minnesota Historical Society Museum Collections.

Flatmouth (Ne-gon-e-bin-ais) holding bag that is now
(1975) in Minnesota Historical Society Museum Collections.
Photograph Collection, 1898
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.1N p3 Negative No. 16527

That's what God put on earth. They're meditated. See, these herbs are meditated. They could take any medicine, herbs, roots, and grind them up and meditate them for what it's going to be used for. Sometimes we use paint rock too. We mix the three colors of that paint rock. It could be that they put some tobacco in it too -- kinnickinik(43) -- and maybe some pipe tobacco(44), and maybe some medicine. They put some stone, something beautiful, in there. They put in whatever they pick up.

It's all blessed by the powerman. They have a drum and they drum and sing. They sing for empowerment and everything. Once in a while, when they feel like it, at a certain time, they go through a lot of things.(45)

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xxx Duplicate from Chs. 02, 23, and 33
Chippewa medicine man singer with ceremonial turtle clan drum.

Chippewa medicine man singer with ceremonial turtle clan drum.
Photograph Collection, 1900
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.37 p20 Negative No. 21120

The powerful spiritual man will meditate that. It's the same as a priest blessing that. He's given the power to do that. The Indian that wants to carry that medicine keeps it for that purpose, the purpose for which it was meditated.

In a session you'll see men here and men there.(46) They're selected. They're the guardians. They're staffs. It's the same as in the other societies.(47)

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ndian Medicine Dance inside the lodge, Keshena, Wisconsin.

Indian Medicine Dance inside the lodge, Keshena, Wisconsin.
Photographer: Truman W. Ingersoll
Photograph Collection, 1891
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location no. E96 p2 Negative no. 66590

That was held lately here too. See . . . oh . . . they still go for that.(48) Four, five years ago, I remember, they were having Grand Medicine dances.(49) That's their belief, Grand Medicine, and maybe that's still going on.(50)

I'll tell you how it looks. They had their big meeting in May, I guess it's May on the calendar, when the leaves are coming out. When the leaves are coming out they had a meeting in a great big fenced church.(51) The place where they had their meeting was just like it was fenced. Oh, that fence was about six feet, seven, eight feet high, and about sixty to a hundred feet long. The fence is there, and it's made there, with little poles driven in the ground. Maybe the fence is sixty to a hundred feet. It's sixty to a hundred feet long, and it's forty or fifty feet wide. There's room enough for all. Then they put a bigger pole across the top, the long way, down the middle. And this mI-dày-wIn, this fence church, is curved, curved on the top. And there's a door on either end of it. On the short ends, around it.

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Midewiwin, or Grand Medicine Society, religious ceremony being held in the special lodge known as the Midewigan.

Midewiwin, or Grand Medicine Society,
religious ceremony being held in the special lodge
known as the Midewigan.

The Anishinabe of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Timothy G. Roufs
(Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series, 1975; Reprinted, Cass Lake, MN: Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, 2013), pp. 10-11.


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Framework for a Midewiwin Lodge.

Framework for a Midewiwin Lodge.
Photograph Collection, 1920
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.37 r88 Negative No.

That's where you keep out, unless you believe in it. You aren't supposed to step in there unless you believe in it, unless you're willing to be initiated by their good will.

But whoever wants to join, whoever wants to dance, they can go in.


Onlookers can stand outside the fence. But you can't go in there unless you want to join in their medicine. You're supposed to join their group to go in there. That's just like going to church. They dance for happiness, good will, and good summer.(52)


There's a wigwam setting over there, a little ways from the fence church, with a door on. The spiritual men sweat in there before a doings.(53) There's a wigwam, but it's on the narrow end, not in the center.(54) The wigwam was just a regular wigwam, but it was used for the sweat. There is no fence around that wigwam. There's just the wigwam at the one end. And that's where the Mide sweat before the ceremonies.

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Sweat lodge used in Midewiwin ceremony,  Squaw Point, Leech Lake.

Sweat lodge used in Midewiwin ceremony,
Squaw Point, Leech Lake.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1946
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.37 p49 Negative No. 35579

They don't mind the children running in and out of that area because they're young in mind. Because the children jump in and they're training with their father and mother or the old people. The children dance too. They never say anything to the children. But they clear them away when they're throwing the wishes of the best power and good will to all.(55) When the children are cleared out, then they can talk to the God.

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Chippewa Grand Medicine Lodge, White Earth.

Chippewa Grand Medicine Lodge, White Earth.
Photograph Collection, Postcard, 1910
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.31 r89 Negative No. 17320

There'd be quite a few people inside of there, inside of that fence church, quite a few. Some drop off, some keep right on going. Hoh! There would be about thirty, forty, sometimes sixty. They have room enough to dance with their medicine. The more dancers they have, the bigger they make it.

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Mide Enclosure, Nett Lake.

Mide Enclosure, Nett Lake.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1946
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. Collection I.69.86 Negative No.

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Framework of lodge used in Chippewa Midewewin ceremony at Henry Benner's, Nett Lake.

Framework of lodge used in Chippewa Midewewin ceremony
at Henry Benner's, Nett Lake.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1946
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.37 p57 Negative No. 35597


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Ojibway Grand Medicine Ceremony at Squaw Point, Leech Lake.

Ojibway Grand Medicine Ceremony at Squaw Point,
Leech Lake.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1932
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.37 p55 Negative No. 35584

They dance with the animal skin,(56) and the medicine dance has a different language from the Indian language of the world. The language of the Midewiwin is mI-dày wi-gaa-gií-i$-do-wI'n. The Indian language of the world the Mide live in has a certain way to it, now này-kaa-n^-g^-n^-gay-nao whàyay-hùu; này-kaa-n^-g^-n^-gay-n^. They kind-a chant it. They keep time when they sing that.


That's medicine songs. The old medicine Indian sit right here(57), and he's singing, and they all sing and dance with joy and happiness. There's a man sitting there. He's got power to do good, bad, or anything he wants. And he knows the history of life. He's an old man setting there. And he sings a song. Then they pound the drums and sing, just like the songs I sang for you. They pound a drum and they dance. They have medicine and they dance around with their medicine in fur hides: mink hides, skunk hides, beaver hides. They use anything they get. They dry them hides and put medicine in those dried hides.

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xxx Duplicate Chs. 02, 32, 30
xxx image removed

Mide (Medicine Man) rattle and sticks.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1950
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.26 p4 Negative No. 35594

They have special songs for that. They sing a spiritual song. There's an answer to everything. When this guy sings the song, he sees he will get an answer. It's a spiritual song. It's a medicine song. Medicine Men use that in Grand Medicine. If I had a drum, I'd beat that drum, bang! Rrrrrrrrrrrr; it's just like a rattlesnake. There's dope(58) in there too. That sound at the end of the song is when they get answers. It's a medicine song. They're talking to the spirits. It's a spiritual song. Those songs are nothing to fool with either. The Medicine Men get an answer(59) by them. Birds carry the message.(60) Birds carry these songs. When you see the bird around, he's answering. Something's going to happen.

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Medicine posts with carved wooden 'talisman' of owl at Mr. and Mrs. Wooden Frog's home, Nett Lake.

Medicine posts with carved wooden 'talisman' of owl at Mr.
and Mrs. Wooden Frog's home, Nett Lake.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1946
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.26 p6 Negative No. 35577

Birds are a good sign. Unless they're black. Crawlers are a bad sign. It isn't good to see a crawler. You don't like them. A lot of Indians don't like snakes because you don't know what that snake is, because in the medicine of the Indian's Grand Medicine they use a lot of crawlers for messengers. In Grand Medicine they'll send crawlers out into the world, if they want to.

Crawlers are given to you to clean out the food and the bugs and all that. And the bugs feed your frogs and the snakes; that's all vegetation what crawls. I mean to say all vegetation has crawlers. In Indian you have to be careful as you walk. It's all vegetation that grows there, and you're liable to meet something there in the vegetation. A crawler might come to you in mild weather, like summer.

They use all this stuff, even butterflies. And, of course, they use mii-gis. mii-gis is a sea shell. They use that for sending messages. It's good. It's big.(61) It's power. They don't talk about mii-giss. The old Indians know that mii-gis. That's why the younger class respected the old class -- because they had lots of power, lots of belief; they had will power.(62) And they used that will power. When they said to this animal, when they sent it off with a certain meditation which they believed in, it would go there, it would get there to where it was going, and you'd see things happen.

And they all have that medicine bag like I carry. In the olden days you'd see them dancing with a hide on their belt. And that hide on their belt could be a weasel hide, mink hide, skunk hide or any hide. And they purify that through processing. They'd get the meat off and use just the hide. They'd wash it and dry it, wash it and dry it, and wash and dry it. So when they dried it the last time, it became clean. Then when they dried it the last time, they'd stretch it out. With the sun they cured it. And when it's cured, they meditated it for what it's for. That hide is full of medicine. It's empowered by the Great of which they believe. That's the first religion that the Indian had, and it was good! It worked!

The old people already know what that hide's for. They aren't scared. But the young people, if they see that hide, if they find that, they jerk their hand away because it might be good or it might be bad.

I've always carried these animal hides. The Indian believes in their Indian way of life. They believe in a spirit on earth which is in their person.(63) And I have a weasel hide that I went along with all the time. I have my weasel skin at all times. I have my weasel skin which is meditated by me. It's already approved by my Indians way back. And I carry it when I get serious, very serious, about things. And I have it with me now. It goes with me. I ask this weasel skin a question. I ask this skin of mine, "What could I do? What shall it be?"

"What do I expect?"

I just tell this weasel skin what I expect, and I see it. In not very long time the answer is there.

It never fails! And I respect it. If it fails a little at first, it doesn't bother me. If it fails there's something on my side that I forgot. Maybe I forgot to do something. Maybe I forgot to recognize(64) something.

That's the way it works. With me it's been working, and I expect it will work always. I believe in that. We all carry that in our Indian way of life. Grandes and believers(65) all carry hides.

Grand Medicine has lots of them hides. But they go through a different method with their hides. They go through fasting. They go through meditation. They go through drums.(66) They go through a doctoring of their own methods.

So this is what an animal hide's for. And I show this to my friends in my home town, and they ask me about a lot of things. These weasel hides we carry lived one time on this earth. Maybe it lived a hard life. And it died. So, for luck, we carry them, and then we use them as a Grand Medicine helper. When we go to a Grand Medicine dance we use them, we operate with them. We dance with them. That's what we do. The Grand Medicine Indians are stronger and higher power than the believers.

"Believers" are those who believe in the Indian religion or way of life, but are not Mide. The believers are on either side. Either they go to church or they don't, but they believe in God.(67) But the Grand Medicine is really higher staff, and it's stronger. And they have a lot more power.

In a ceremony we take those hides out. We carry them because they have medicine in there that's supposed to give you health, that's supposed to give the others health, that's supposed to show you the better way of life. They're supposed to help you in your life. You believe in that and you work for that. You use all kinds of medicine, ground up, and then you put a selected portion of that medicine in there. And we carry them.

And this you respect. You respect the other one, the other person -- they might have the same thing too! So by respecting the others you are normal; you are normal. Do right. If you do right, you'll never be hurt. The other's may do right, and they'll never hurt.

But we have some who destruct, who are destructors. We have some people that destruct this belief by trying to tear it down. We find that anywhere, in any church, or any religion. We don't laugh. We don't pay any attention to little spots. Of course we have people that get beyond their personal power. They come in there with just bad talking. A little of that don't hurt them. But watch out if they go too far!

You had it. When we went there to Inger you had a whole heart for that.(68) You felt it. Otherwise, if you didn't believe it, if you didn't want to hear it, it wouldn't work.(69) If you're willing to learn about it, then it does you good. You see things. But if you didn't carry it, if you think it is a joke, maybe you'll run into a big problem with your life. You have to be careful if you go. You have to agree with it, for the best.

That's the way we live. We live that. Almost what we think comes true, if we're deep enough on it.

I think they all feel good about it, those that carry this hide. They're happy. They're good-hearted. These Indians are good-hearted. They're kind to others. And they're respected. They're too good-hearted. We carry that hide for getting help to others. That hide is your reminder as you go. That's your reminder as you go, when you're out into the world. It's the same as a medal,(70) only this was living in life. It's nothing to fool with! It's nothing foolish. It's something you go by. You feel good about it. It makes you happy that you're able,(71) time and time, year after year. It makes me feel good. You feel good when you respect that. You feel good when you respect one another.

Maybe, maybe you take this now, but this doesn't stop. This does good as long as you carry it. The heavier you take this, the more you get braver. When you take it, that's when you'll have braveness in you. After awhile you don't care for anything else but the Great. This hide here will do that to you.

It's the same thing when you carry that hide. All this happens when you carry that hide. Don't swear with that on you. It's the same thing. Watch your life! Be alert! And when you speak to your weasel, you'll be heard. That power's there.

But the power of your hide stops on you. When you find a weasel skin that belongs to somebody else, that's his power. The hides have power, and the hide he carries gives him power. Even if you lose your weasel hide it's yours. When it's found, sure, it's still yours.

Some of them in town ask me, "Could they work on you with it? With your own hide? Could they take it and work on you?"



But if you use anybody else's hide, that will come back to you.(72) If people steal these, it don't benefit them. Somebody's going to get sick if he isn't protected, if he touches that hide of the other or tries to keep it. That's bad stuff for him.

I lost another hide that I carry. My hide will come back to me some day.(73) xxx They probably try to pull weasel skins out of my pocket. That thing crawls out anytime. I've lost two or three, in the last year. Somebody's watching me. Maybe they're thinking, "We'll weaken him if we pull that weasel skin out."

That's why I also got a medal(74) this time.

Sometime's they're probably just fooling around. Bud Tibbetts had my weasel skin in his hand one time too. "Hay, hay," he joked as he showed it to everybody. And I said, "Bud, that's going to work-back against you." He threw it to me.

You aren't supposed to touch somebody else's hide!

But if I recommend that he could use it, it'll work, ya. xxx I let you use a weasel hide and you gave it to Tommy. xxx If you give a hide to somebody they have to re-mediate it -- have it re-blessed -- the way he wants it, if he wants to use that.

How do I now know that a person I gave a hide to is he's not using that hide to work on me? Nooh! He isn't. Because he don't doesn't use it,(75) he just puts it up in the house, to protect his house. That's what he believes in. But how do I know that he's not using it? He wouldn't use that on anybody! His personality speaks louder than his words.

That hide that they use in the Midewiwin is loaded.(76) And if we want to work on somebody or doctor somebody, we dance, then the drummer dances, and then we all dance again.

When we initiate the next one(77) we inject that power into him. When they get a person that's joining the Midewiwin they confirm him by throwing their power into him. They throw(78) it at one another. When you're injected with power you slump, you drop everything.

Shooting with the hide is mI-day-we-aàhh. They have power to throw their medicine. Indian power lets you throw your medicine. That's their beliefs. And when they're doctoring, that's Indian doctoring, they use the same medicine. But in the initiation they throw it at the one who wants to be Grand Medicine. The Medicine Man throws medicine:

. . . . .

. . . . .

"He's got it!!"

And when we throw the injection at him, it'll go six feet. They go like that!(79) They "throw" the power out with all the fingers heading straight for the mark. They feel it. It'll go six feet. But if you want to do wrong and backlash somebody else, that would go farther. That's dangerous too.

How often they throw power like that all depends. The older class would do that more often. The older class would do that more often, but I don't think they do that much now. They're scared of it.

You know why?

This party that sends it(80) off might have kids. And those kids of his or hers might accidently get hooked.(81) If the kids are in the way, you might accidentally hook one of them.

It's very dangerous! So that's why we leave it alone. We leave it just the way it lays. That's nothing to monkey with. You could feel that power injection in your arms. You could feel the electricity there.

They throw it out with those animal skins. It will reach about six or eight feet. They slump over when they get hit. That's infection. They're infected. You don't get infected like with germs; they drill it in you. And when they fall over they just lay down and rest, then get up again. That shows what power the Indians have. Most generally the one who gets hit will get out up on his own. They don't help one another get up. He'll break into a sweat, maybe, and that will get that bad blood out. They purify it.


That's what they say when they throw their medicine.

When that medicine power hits him, you could see him flinge.(82) Ohh!!, that's a great thing! Well, that's the way they confirm(83) him. After he's been confirmed, he's a Medicine Man and he belongs in a medicine group. He's a Mide, a Grand Medicine man, and he belongs to the Midewiwin, the Grand Medicine Society.

Confirming is going to a high staff, a high staff of Indian religion. Confirm, maa-mào m^'sh-ka-way-zíi, that's "he's got the power." màa-mo, that's "all together," m^sh-k^-waa-dI-zíz, strong, health, and everything. And he's the leader, he's màa-mo m^'ss-k^-wàa, "strong-with-good-will medicine man."

Every time there's a problem he's used as a Medicine Man. If anybody has a problem they drag them in to him. They drag them in sickly and they use him to get well. They use the words.

When I was little I could hardly use my hand. It was crippled, but I can work with it now. When I was little they saw I was dropping everything in my left hand. My mother said, "He got strickened." But she couldn't say anything to make it better.(84) There was no cure for it. They took me to a medicine Indian. They knew it would get better, but he said anyway, "It might be healthy, but it all depends on how he lives."

We call that disease of stricken by the nature of life, wii-à-o ka-pi-tàks-k^n wii-ù, "he didn't believe." He didn't believe anything! bI-tàks-ka-go, bI-tà-ko-sk^'n, that means he ran into, he ran into something wrong, of his own will. That's a disease you run into.

In Old John Smith's(85) time they all understood the Midewiwin. But there gradually got to be less and less who did. When they started drifting away from the Indian belief I was a young man. There were places where I stopped and saw the Indian way when I was a young man. Ya, I saw the way the Indians believe. So I was brought up in the Indian way when I was up to six and seven years old.

My folks said, "Be careful where you go amongst people."

I said, "Why?"

"Those Indians have beliefs. They have beliefs and they respect their beliefs. They have marks that they use in words."

"What, what do you mean, ma?"

"Well they have services. They meditate when you go to higher staff from the bottom up. And when you practice, when you practice as you go older, you get staffed. You know that. Then your power, your will power, commence to act. You know. You have to be very careful."

That's the way they'd use one another. And they respected one another in my time.

I was pretty small when I first followed that . . . . I was about eight, nine years old. I used to go to the Midewiwin meetings. I used to go to them up to Tower, Minnesota. I was about nine or ten years old, and I was up in the north. I was going to school at Tower.(86) There's a big government school there, and when we were there a bunch of us boys and girls would go watch the medicine dance.

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Government Indian school, Tower.

Government Indian school, Tower.
Photograph Collection, Postcard, 1910
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.7V r1 Negative No. 33573

We had a lot of Canadian Indians there that we called "Ojibway." Some of them were from Canada, some were from pretty close to the Canadian boarder.

There was a session of Grand Medicine there. Grand Medicine men had a special session there in the spring of the year. They had a feast to re-meditate, to help the sick, to help the needy, to help problem-solving. That's where I first saw Grand Medicine. All the school children and employees went and looked at them.

They didn't mind; the old class didn't mind. They didn't mind us at all. They didn't pay any attention to the younger class, because they knew we were going to school those days. They knew we had a government school there.

It was quite interesting how they performed.

You couldn't understand Midewiwin in English, but you could by sitting by the ring and listening in Indian.(87) They knew that before they let the young person go to the Midewiwin, and set and listen to what he hears from the Grand Medicine Man, he had to be seven years old. He could understand what it is for after he was seven years old.(88) He could understand it by talking Indian.

Midewiwin is a big thing. Midewiwin is a spirit that cannot be seen. It's a spirit. That Great Spirit of yours belongs to you and it belongs to everyone.(89) They didn't go against any religion.(90)

There was one Indian on the lead, and he was talking. They got some kind of a sling(91) that they understand in Grand Medicine. The Indian on the lead is high-staffed(92) with his practice. He practiced that Grand Medicine for many years.

He had a medicine hide. As I remember, it looked to me like it was a mink hide. They worked meditating. You might as well say it was about the same as baptizing.(93) "Re-meditation" they call this practice in the spring of the year. Everybody had trouble: problems, ailments, and everything. That's why they re-meditate one another.

The leader would dance around with that hide, and "throw"(94) that hide a certain distance. He'd point that hide at the person being meditated, and, the way it reads, in Indian belief, it "shoots" him. But there's nothing there, no noise. It seemed to me that he was blowing at the same time. But he had nothing in his mouth.

Then they kept dancing on the ring. Each of the great behind-scouts had hides. But they were just candy hides(95); they didn't throw their hides, only the chief throwed. The last time they came around the ring they were drumming, same as in the powwow; they were drumming.

Oh, it was so nice looking! I was wondering about their practice. I thought to myself, "That's their rites, and that's the belief of the Indians. That's why(96) they respect one another, and that's why they were carefully to one another, careful what they say."

That's the way I picked it out. That's why they didn't allow us too close. They forbid us to get too close to their ring made of poles tied together.(97) They'd tell us, "Stay away. You can go just so far. Do not get too close." Just those that were joining(98) could go and dance there. We believe in another religion and they knew it. Maybe we were Catholic, Methodist, or something. They didn't want to have these kids too close. But they let us look on.

But we always had some boys go in there. They didn't know any better. They thought it was a powwow, and they'd join the dance. They'd call them out: "This is a special doings. It's special."

And while they were dancing you see a big campfire on the side; all the women, most of the women, were there with three or four of them cooking around it. There were men there too, and they had great big dishes with handles. When it came to meal time, they had big dishes, big dish pans, old-time dish pans with two handles, full of crackers, and cookies, and maple sugar and wild rice. They had big stews with wild pickings and raisins(99) and everything put in there. Meat, wild rice, everything, they put in the stew. It had wild rice, meat, maple sugar, all kinds of berries, dried berries they boiled over.(100)

Boy it looked good!

We were hungry!

Oh it was a big feast!

I was just set for that, and I was just going to eat some of that food when I found out that it was just for the comers(101) that visited that area. Well, we had plenty to eat in that government school, and my sister told me, "No, that's for these people that are coming to visit this area. Don't eat."

In those days they believed in eating dogs. That was a great offer to them. And I've seen them. Gee that looked good when they cooked up a dog. I was going to eat a dog too, but my sister stopped me. She said, "That's a Medicine Man offering. You're a Catholic." She said I was already baptized. But I knew that I wasn't baptized through the priest.

You didn't ever trust a dog, and in those days there were so many dogs. a-n-mush, "dog," -- that isn't a very good word. That's the low, too low to the ground. Ya. They eat them. The Indians most generally eat them -- used to eat them. You didn't have to eat a dog them days,(102) but they did that as a gift to their Spirit. That's what those Indian believers use. They made wild rice dog soup, putting maple sugar with it.

I pred'near dug into that too, once, but my sister called me back. I was going to join everybody to eat. I was hungry. I was going to sit down there, when my sister, Mary Buffalo, called me back: "You don't eat there. You ate your dinner. You don't belong in that religion."

"What difference does that make?"

"You're a Catholic. You're a Catholic!"

"But I'd like to go back to that religion."

"No, you can't right now. You have to be re-meditated."

They wouldn't let me eat the food that the Grand Medicines use, because I had a sister and I had folks who were Catholic. They said, "You're mixed."

So I stopped. We did stop, but it was late in the afternoon when we went there on the weekend, and I was hungary. So I looked at them eat.

After they ate, they went in the ring again, and did just the same thing. Different ones had a re-meditation this time. Those getting re-meditated were sitting on each end of the ring.

There was a big crowd of Indians on Lake Vermillion. I couldn't say just how many, but there were a lot of us onlookers, and there were a lot of Indians there. I asked where these Indians, most of them, came from. "Some of 'em live here, but some of 'em come from far and near. This is a special occasion."

I couldn't say how many people were dancing. I would judge about, anyhow, 30 or 40. They would dance around single-file behind one another. There's a leader, a master, and a drummer. If this drummer is great, he knows how to order(103) the leader by signals, by songs.

The women-folk were dancing too, but they also kept the children away to look on. The children all set and played outside of the ring, far enough away.

Well, that's just the way they lived. That's their rite. I always remember that. It's a wonderful picture. I've seen it. I think I went along pretty good.

That happened about 1909, '10, '11. Ya. That happened in Tower, Minnesota. Ya. They use Grand Medicine up there. They were meditating and re-meditating people. We all stood around and looked at it. But we didn't get too close, because the old chief said, "Stay back a little." That thing(104) flies about six or seven feet, maybe. It all depends on how much power he's putting on it.

Except what we saw, what we ran into at Inger,(105) I don't remember if I saw power shot like that anywhere else. Anyhow, a time before, I think I saw one, before I saw this, in 1912. I haven't seen this practiced very often because they don't have it very often anymore.

But they have curing ceremonies whenever somebody needs it. I think that they have this one here that we saw in Inger(106) more often. I know an aunt, my dad's sister, that went to one of these places.(107) She had to go back three times before she was ready for Grand Medicine. She had become a Catholic. When she went back to the Grand Medicine they had to have a special duty on that, a special session on that. She had to be re-initiated in that.

I think this Grand Medicine leader-of-all has a strong mind. Because my aunt went to church, probably got baptized, he felt that he didn't want to destroy anybody's mind. He felt that this lady, my aunt, had been baptized, and before he operated(108) on her, he wanted to make sure she was strong-willed. And he wanted to know that she had changed for the betterment of all.

The Grand Medicine leader-of-all, can almost read your mind. They almost know what you're thinking of. A person might come there to the Grand Medicine when he comes back from another church. He might have gone from religion to religion.

But, I think jumping around from one church to another might show weakness in there somewhere, and that weakness might take affect. It's hard to convince the leaders to change, or that you changed. When you were baptized you promised to stay with that religion.(109) The more you stay with that religion, the more power you can have. The Spiritual will then be with you at all times. It's all the same,(110) to tell the truth about it. The same principle is working for the next world. He(111) pointed that out. Over there at Ryan'sVillage they just take that peyot.(112)They drink that. And sometimes, I believe, the Grandes feel that it may be dope. They go beyond the truth of life, they overdone it, just like Holy Rollers.

At Ryan's Village, they were affected by outsiders coming into this area.(113) You see, the Indian told there'll be a different denomination coming in: "There'll be different religious people coming, many of them, researching for God, searching for God, searching for the future. And there'll be a lot of dictators where they'll tell you what to believe."

"But stay with one religion and do right. That's all you have to do, the right thing to others. When you jump around from one church to another, although you believe in the Great, you start to believe everything, and it kind of destroys you. What are you going to believe? You get confused and it destroys your mind. But it's a good thing to research and find where the best lie."

You can change and get into Grand Medicine, but most generally they don't like to do anything to harm anybody, or to draw people's attention from their own belief.

You see, that's the trouble: people are easily dictated to by outsiders disturbing what they wish to do. The Indian always said they don't want to be dictated to. They wish to do what's right, and if they do what's right, I think they feel as though they get results. They get results when they do what's right, on earth, and in the future, and in the past. There's truth in the good words.

Maybe we should understand clearly by looking. We all have to go through life. That life is coming; there's no way out of it. The Great's truth is one thing you can't say "no" to.

A lot of the younger class, the younger generation, had a little schooling and they didn't bother with Indian medicine. But most of the Midewe, those that believe in the Indian way of life, they still believed in Indian medicine and in the Indian spiritual way. "I live here, and I took this religion when I began. Maybe I should stay with it." That's what a lot of them think.

I think that's right.

The Indians around here don't all believe that Midewiwin. Some of them are Catholic.(114) The Catholic priest came in and told them there's a God too. So wherever you see people, there will always be somebody who will come in there and tell them different.

That's where your religious comes in. The white man brightens up, tries to civilize, using the method of the "religious." But the Indians have "religious" of their own. Indians have a religion of their own, and that's medicine. The Medicine Men have used this power(115) and have shown that this power works. All the medicine has shown and proven itself. They studied their own means of doctoring and lots of them get results out of this, which proves it. They get secure about it, serious about it. They get serious about medicine, the whole group of Indians gets serious about medicine. They've got grand medicine -- that's Grand Medicine.

You couldn't go into a service, a Grand Medicine service, just bust in, and joke and say the things you want to, because you don't know how the medicine doctor felt. He was so serious about the Great Spirit that he felt like It.(116)

These Indians here years ago had the Midewiwin, that's all they had. It was their only belief. To get it clear here, and there's lots to that, let me tell you something. This was a good book(117) I read today, and I took notice that some things were already written out about the Midewiwin, and that's why I said I saw that ceremony.

Midewiwin is grand Medicine. Midewe is individual. Midewe is individual. Midewiwin is the group that's Grand Medicine. Mide-we-win is a group of Grand Medicine. Midewiwin. They use it like that all the time.

MI-dày-wi-wIn is good or bad, but m^j-i-mI-dày-wîns, that's bad. ni-miss-kan, that's a real bad the last track dirt language that you could use against anybody. He throws you the whole deal(118) as if you were low as a dog.(119) He throws you the whole works. He takes all his fingers and throws them toward you, all at once. And when he does that to you, you can feel it. That's how much power they have. They use a dog because they're low. That's why they use that. Ya, that's ni-nish-k^m, that's the worst sign in Indian. That's the worst sign we have.

They don't have words that go with that sign, but they can think anything they want to. They could think you're a devil, or you're going back to the devil, or you're too mean and your drifting without searching for help.(120) You're no good. But they don't say that. No! Their mind works when they do that. They have words prayed on the mind. They'd keep it to themselves why they do that. They might call you a son-of-a-gun at that. They might say that you aren't going to last long. They give you the whole works right there.(121) That's all they've got. That's the last sacrament they give you, then you're done.(122) They go to work like that.

I used to see them quarrel over that hand movement -- the hand movement! The old ladies are worse on it. Ya, they go "yayh-aay-oi ôe-yhh!!" See? "You're not worth it." uaay$ aay$ is "you're not worthwhile to talk to." "uoe-y$!!." See, that's when they're really mad. You better get the heck out of there when they do that.

The Midewiwin had birch bark writing, but we don't say much about that -- to anybody!!(123)

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Harry Smith and others holding Midiwiwin articles, Squaw Point, Leech Lake Reservation.

Harry Smith and others holding Midiwiwin articles,
Squaw Point, Leech Lake Reservation.
Creator: Monroe P. Killy (1910-)
Photograph Collection, 1931
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. E97.1S p14 Negative No. 35481

I heard them say you should say nothing about them. That's the way it's supposed to be. That's the way we want it.

To interpret them writings you have to be in their session when they make them. A lot of stuff backfires on a lot of people! A lot of them aren't here because they didn't respect that fence. And they didn't respect where it's fenced on them writings.(124) The Indians said that's a stop sign. Don't go against it, in any way! That's what I believe in.

I've asked my brother-in-law that question. I said, "What about that birch bark?(125) When you write that, can you read that then?"

"I used to be able to read it when I practiced that, but it's been so long that since I've never practiced. Then when we mixed with the whites and their religious people I just let that down. It's hard to come back, to pick it up and come back. There's a lot of meaning to that."(126)

Yes, I believe he was a typical(127) Indian. He didn't know how to talk English, much. Oh, he could if he wanted to talk to somebody, but he's kind of broken in the way he talks English, and he's kind of backward about it. He was a nice fellow. He's interested.(128) He knows those old Indian ways. He's up in a home in Grand Rapids now. Oh, they like him up there. He's in a home, an old-age home. They adopted him up there. There were some girl scouts that adopted him last year. Somebody was telling me they saw his picture in the paper when they adopted him. Oh, he's a great old man. He's a gentleman. He's a real Indian, from Mille Lacs. Oh, everybody likes old Jim. I had a good brother-in-law. Ya. He was a good provider. Hunt!! Oh! he could hunt deer, that guy! As soon as you hit that track of that deer, it was just as good as the deer'd be dead. He'd circle, and he'd circle. And when the deer's slowing down, in his tracks, he'll stop and look. Then he'll look up and check which way the wind's blowing, and he'll look for a big cluster of trees. If he figures that the deer might be laying in that cluster of trees, he'll circle 'round that, then he'll sneak up there. Most generally he finds them jumping up, standing up on their feet. Oh he's a quick shot.

But he was chI-mI-dày-wi$!

And chI-mI-dày-wi$, the one that goes to the Grand Medicine doings, is big. He's higher staff(129) and the one that tends to the mI-dày-wi$. He's right on the ball. Sometimes he calls in the people for a ceremony.

Jim wouldn't say anything about birch bark writing. We just don't say much about those birch barks, to anybody! And anyhow, reading of the Indian is pretty hard. I should take it over. I should. Boy you guys(130) would see more things, and understand it more. I would translate it. But I've got to get that bark that has the reading of it. The reading's on bark; it's on wooden dolls; it's on birch clipping.(131) All of those birch barks have faces and knots, and you can write words on them. There's a mark in there, a writing, on the birch bark, in the Indian way of writing language, that means the devil. Watch out, with this guy here, the devil. If you're not careful you'll be caught with it.(132) And if you're caught with it, you'll suffer.(133)

The Grand Medicine is just a part of our religion. The Indian understands nature and believes by the nature of this earth. They study nature and they practice what they learn. And when they practice they understand nature even more. The birds are given to us to clean out the insects. They clean up certain parts of the earth -- insects, vegetation, bugs, worms, and all that. And the big animals are given to us to eat on. Nature -- that's what the Indian looks at!

We study the same things as the white man. We see that there is a Spirit somewhere, and we're looking forward to find that Spirit in our lives. And this spirit that we wish to find someday will meet us again when we're through on this earth.

Now you have it from a speaker who's holding with you.(134) That's God's word. He gave you the tools to use, and if you use them right you'll be happy.

Years ago a lot of people from Ball Club married people from Inger. But now-a-days the generation coming behind aren't marrying up there so much any more. Years ago they were all following suit. Ya, they were all following the same belief in those days. That's the only means they had. The one's from Ball Club sat right in with them there at Inger. That's the only means they had in life. Now some are using that Indian medicine, but many aren't. They're swinging around now. They are using that marijuana. They don't want to go with this Indian outfit. They think they have a channel of their own, which they have. But they still ask me a lot of stuff about Grand Medicine.

I talked to them, "Aren't you following the medicine, Grand Medicine, any more?"

"No. Heck, there's too much responsibility in that."

So, I don't bother them.

They want to be left alone.

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Grand Medicine Cemetary [i.e. Cemetery]. Leech Lake Indian Reservation

Grand Medicine Cemetary [i.e. Cemetery].
Leech Lake Indian Reservation
Creator: Cameron Booth (1892-1980)
Art Collection, Oil, 1923
Gift of Lila J. and Robert E. Goff
  Collections Online
Minnesota Historical Society
Location No. AV1992.104 Negative No. 63256

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1. That's OK and "according to the Bible" that's part of Baptism, but according to Indian belief he was not really authorized to impart the full part of Baptism because he wasn't a priest or power man.

2. Returned to.

3. REM: C-BIB not yet done for this also check supplement A index from master index in office.

For further information on the Midewiwin see the following: A. Balikci, 1956, "Note sur le midewiwin," Anthropological, 2: 165-217; Victor Barnouw, 1954, "Reminiscences of a Chippewa Mide Priest," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 35:4:83-112; Robert C. Dailey, 1958, "The Midewiwin, Ontario's First Medical Society," Ontario History, 50:3:133-138; Frances Densmore, 1929, Chippewa Customs, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institutes, Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 86:1-204 (reprinted xxx); A. Irving Hallowell, 1936a, "The Passing of the Midewiwin in the Lake Winnipeg Region," American Anthropologist, 38:1:32-51; Harold Hickerson, 1962a, "Notes on the Post-Contact Origin of the Midewiwin," Ethnohistory, 9:4:404-423; Harold Hickerson, 1962b, "The Southwestern Chippewa: An Ethnohistorical Study," American Anthropologist, 64:3:(Part 2), Memoir 92; Harold Hickerson, "The Sociohistorical Significance of Two Chippewa Ceremonials," American Anthropologist, 65:1:67-85; Harold Hickerson, 1970, The Chippewa and Their Neighbors: A Study in Ethnohistory, NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston; Hoffman, Walter James. "The Midewiwin; or 'Grand Medicine Society' of the Ojibwa," in Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Seventh Annual Report, 1885-1886, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1891), pp. 143-300; Basil H. Johnson, Ojibwa Ceremonies, (Toronto: McClelland and Steward, 1982); Basil Johnston, Ojibwa Heritage, (N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1976), pp. 80-93; L.J. Lafleur, 1940, "On the Mide of the Ojibway," American Anthropologist, 42:4:706-708; Ruth Landes, 1937b, Ojibwa Sociology. Columbia Contributions to Anthropology, 29:1-144. NY: Columbia University Press (reprinted, NY: AMS Press, 1969), pp. xxx; Landes, Ruth. The Ojibwa Woman, Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology, 31:1-247, (1938; reprinted, NY: AMS Press, 1969; reprinted NY: W.W. Norton, 1971), pp. xxx; Ruth Landes, 1968, Ojibwa Religion and the Midewiwin, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press (reprinted, NY: AMS Press, 1969); Jean-Louis Michon, 1964, "La Grande Medecine des Ojibways," Societe Suisse des Americanistes, Bulletin, 27:33-34, 28: 13-14; Jean-Louis Michon, 1972, "La Grande Medecine des Ojibways," Societe Suisse des Americanistes, Bulletin, 36:37-72; Jordan Paper, 1980, "From Shaman to Mystic in Ojibwa Religion," Studies in Religion, 9:2:185-199; Ruth B. Phillips, 1984, "Zigzag and Spiral: Geometric Motifs in Great Lakes Indian Costume," Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, 1983, ed. by William Cowan, (Ottawa: Carleton University, pp. 409-424; Vivian J. Rohrl, 1967, "A Chippewa Funeral," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 48:2:137-140; S.C. Simms, 1906a, "The Metawin Society of the Bungees or Swampy Indians of Lake Winnipeg," Journal of American Folklore, 19:330-333; xxxcheck 1197 from p. 136; Christopher Vecsey, 1983, Traditional Ojibwa Religion and its Historical Changes, Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, pp. 174-190; Christopher Vecsey, "Midewiwin Myths of Origin," Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, Ed. by William Cowan (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1983), pp. 445-467; Winchell, Newton H. (ed.), The Aborigines of Minnesota. . . ., (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1911).

4. Midewiwin.

5. The people in the Midewiwin.

6. Old people are privileged to talk about some things that younger people may or should not. This includes matters relating to Indian beliefs.

7. An important distinction is usually made between things that you are told and things that you know because you have participated in them. Psychologically these two things have different realities. If you act on something that you are told about Midewiwin that might be dangerous. In the next sentences Paul Buffalo verified that he actually "knows" what happened and therefore can pass it on, i.e., he has that knowledge from participation not from being told about it. The difference amounts to something like the difference between hearsay evidence and evidence one witnesses personally. See also footnote number 238.

8. Paul Buffalo specially meditates the information on Midewiwin so that it will be all right to include it in this book.

9. Paul Buffalo considered explaining and interpreting Indian customs and ways to non-Indians as "translating" that information to them.

10. He knows the information from experience rather than by hearsay, and the fact that he is willing to talk about it shows that he knows about it. He is not saying that he knows "all" about it, just that what he talks about he knows all of it from experience. See also footnote number 235.

11. Even though Paul Buffalo is able and willing to talk about the Midewiwin there are still some things that he will not discuss. He's just calling that fact to your attention. For example, Paul Buffalo and others will not talk about are someone else's Midewiwin birch bark scrolls (cf., page 788), or about the actual names of the Grand Medicine staffs (cf., page 755), or about the powerful medicine of the most powerful Medicine Man (cf., page 753), or about the sacred Megis (Mii-giss) shell (cf., page xxx?).

12. If you know something about Midewiwin, but you're not trained to handle the knowledge then "you know too much." And if you tell what you know about but can't handle, that's a violation. And dangerous!

13. He doesn't want to give either hearsay information, or information ABOUT using power from someone who isn't USING the belief, or information TO someone who isn't going to use it, and use it properly. He wants to give firsthand information from a practicing individual, to someone who wants to use the information -- but not to someone who is simply curious about it.

14. Midewiwin members were taught not to be hasty in action. Cf. footnote number xxx 250.

15. Paul Buffalo has established that much of what he will say is secret, especially from whites, but that whether or not to tell it for the book is his own personal business. He has also established that he will not tell everything that he knows, and he will set the limits. He has also established that he will tell the information at the rate he wants to, viz., slowly. In fact he recorded parts of this chapter, then waited a long time (in some cases longer than a year) to see what would happen, then continued on recording further information. He continued that pattern from 1967 - 1977, thus testing his decision to talk about this matter. In his introduction he also establishes that individuals have been critical of him talking to a white person about this matter. He also notes that he knows what he is talking about -- as opposed to some who talk about things, including Midewiwin, when they have little or no first-hand personal knowledge of the subject. His initial willingness to consider talking about the matter on record came from the dream that his mother had that someone would come to record these matters, and her recommendation that when that person arrived Paul Buffalo should talk about all of the Indian beliefs. And when he saw Hoffman, he was willing to talk about Midewiwin (cf., xxxfootnote 117).

16. Cf., Ch. 13, "Indian Medicine."

17. If someone comes to a medicine doctor with a problem, for example, the medicine doctor will go through a ritual and a curing ceremony which involves, in part, meditating or praying over the medicine that he/she will use to try to solve the original problem of the patient. That meditation is one main part of "the requirement for the question that arises for this medicine. . . ." In meditating the medicine the medicine doctor empowers it so that it can be used to help cure the problem.

18. The patient.

19. A Midewiwin "staff" is an initiated person of rank. A "staff" is more or less like a priest, although there are different "staff" levels.

20. Mide is the person who believe in Grand Medicine, Midewiwin is the organization of those who believe in Grand Medicine.

21. See description of Inger, MN curing ceremony in Ch. 31, "An Indian Curing Ceremony." Inger, MN is a traditional Indian community north of the fork of the Leech and Mississippi Rivers. See map xxx.

22. Frances Densmore, 1929, Chippewa Customs, p. 87, notes that "the highest conception of the Midewiwin was of a deity called Mide manido ("Grand Medicine spirit)," and that none of the individuals she worked with used the more common term Gitchi manido ("great spirit"), or the term Gijië' manido' ("kind spirit"). She continues, "Subordinate to this were four manido, one at each of the cardinal points, and a multitude of lesser manido who assumed the forms of animals. The manido in the form of a bear and of animals who live in the water were most closely connected with the Midewiwin."

23. Living to be an old person is a strong sign that you are living the right kind of life. Frances Densmore, 1929, Chippewa Customs, pp. 86-87, quotes a member of the Midewiwin, Gage-win: "The Midewiwin is not so much to worship anything as to preserve the knowledge of herbs for use in prolonging life. The principal idea of the Midewiwin is that life is prolonged by right living, and by the use of herbs which were intended for this purpose by the Mide manido ["Grand Medicine spirit"]." She continues, "The ethics of the Midewiwin are simple but sound. They teach that rectitude of conduct produces length of life, and that evil inevitably reacts on the offender. Membership in the midewiwin does not exempt a man from the consequences of his sins. Respect toward the Midewiwin is emphasized and respect toward women is enjoined upon the men. . . . Lying, stealing, and the use of liquor are strictly forbidden. . . . Men were taught to be moderate in speech and quiet in manner, and not hasty in action."

24. Depends on how often they call a session.

25. See Ch. 24, Ni-mi-day-win, for powwows.

26. Cf., Ch. 29, "'What's Behind the Sun?': An Indian Sermon."

27. It is usually likely that they would also have a gathering in the fall.

28. In the multigenerational patrilineal-like extended family.

29. "Last" in the sense of being the highest, or ultimate, not necessarily "last" in the sense of the old Catholic rite of the dying, Extreme Unction, now referred to in the Roman Catholic church as the "Sacrament of the Sick."

30. Now living and practicing in Paul Buffalo's area.

31. They gradually spread out, as the people spread out.

32. The "old history of the Indian." Cf., William W. Warren, 1885, The History of the Ojibwa Nation, St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, pp. xxx.

33. Paul Buffalo is here probably making reference to them talking about the power of the spirit of the sacred Megis which is generally not discussed, and is generally a tabu topic to discuss. Cf., page 763.

34. They use that as the ultimate medicine.

35. Grand Medicine.

36. Phrases like "he's got it," or "that's where we get it," usually refer to Indian power, see also Ch. 28, "Power." Generally speaking everyone knows, or should know, who the powerful individuals are and who would be powerful enough to carry ohn-naa-màn.

37. A Grand Medicine session.

38. There are four to eight staffs or degrees of membership, the number depending on local custom. More often there are either four or eight.

39. The more information on the Grand Medicine society you see.

40. Paul Buffalo probably knows most, if not all, of the names of the stages of Midewiwin staff. In this case he's simply not telling, noting explicitly that it's "secretive." Also, as noted next the names of the staffs are different in different regions.

41. That is they grind them up, then mix them together, usually in a small leather pouch, but it could be put into anything, well, almost anything. For further information on medicine bags/bundles see the following: Fred K. Blessing, Jr., 1969, "Medicine Bags and Bundles of Midewiwin,: Minnesota Archaeologist, 30:4:79-121; Frances Densmore, 1929, Chippewa Customs, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institutes, Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 86:1-204 (reprinted xxx, see esp. pp. 93-94); Richard Nelson, 1984, "Midewiwin Medicine Bags of the Ojibwa," Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, 1983, ed. by William Cowan, (Ottawa: Carleton University, pp. 397-408).

42. The power itself is neutral. One can use it for a good purpose or for one that is not good. Either way, if you handle the medicine "properly" whatever you ask for will happen.

43. Indian "tobacco" made from red willows.

44. Pipe tobacco from the store, like Prince Albert tobacco or Union Leader tobacco. Typically "pipe tobacco" is mixed with kinnickinik in order to "cut" it and reduce the strength.

45. Like fasting and self-sacrifice.

46. They're guards and lookouts stationed around the area of the ceremony. At casual glance they appear to be guarding the ceremony to keep intruders out. However, they are there to help insure that no one accidentally gets harmed by what's happening in the ceremony by accidentally coming upon it. In other words they're there to help protect the outsiders rather than to protect against them.

47. Other societies, like, for example, the Knights of Columbus, the Masons, The Holy Name Society. . . .

48. There's some hesitancy about talking about the fact that it is still going on. In fact Paul Buffalo was at a Grand Medicine ceremony just days before this was taped in July of 1966. See Ch. 31, "An Indian Curing Ceremony" for a description of that event. Talking about it happening "four, five years ago" is an acceptable way of talking about it still going on. The events in Ch. 31 also were not in any way discussable until after five years had passed. Shortly after the ceremony described in Ch. 31 the person being cured told Paul Buffalo and Tim Roufs, "This doesn't go on any more. The last ceremony was about xxx years ago, wasn't it." xxx check fieldnotes for exact quote.

49. Taped July 1966.

50. This is Paul Buffalo's way of saying that it is going on, without actually saying that it is going on. It actually still is going on. See also footnote 275, 276 above.

51. The "fenced church" is a special lodge known as the midewigan. It looked similar to a long, narrow Quonset hut made of saplings, with the high point of the roof about six feet. It was usually about fifteen feet wide and from 80 to 200 feet long. Inasmuch as the mide mythology gave east significance, members entered on that side. Unless inclement weather threatened, they placed no covering over the lodge. See Timothy G. Roufs, 1975, The Anishinabe of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series; Reprinted, Cass Lake, MN: Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, 2013, pp. 8-11 (photos on pp. 10-11), Frances Densmore, 1929, Chippewa Customs, reprinted 1970, Minneapolis, MN, Ross and Haines, pp. 92-93 and Plate 35a-b, and W. J. Hoffman, The Mide'wiwin or "Grand Medicine Society" of the Ojibway, 1891, Washington, DC: Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Seventh Annual Report, 1885-1886, pp. 1187-189, and Figs. 10-11.

52. For information on Midewiwin songs and music and dance see the following: Victor Barnouw, 1960, "A Chippewa Mide Priest's Description of the Medicine Dance," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 41:4:77-97; William E. Culkin, 1915, "Tribal Dance of the Ojibway Indians," Minnesota History Bulletin, 1:3:83-93; Frances Densmore, 1910, Chippewa Music, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institutes, Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 45:1-209 (reprinted xxx); Frances Densmore, 1913, Chippewa Music--II, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institutes, Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 53:1-334 (reprinted xxx); Frances Densmore, 1950, Songs of the Chippewa, Washington, DC: U.S. Library of Congress, Music Division, Archive of American Folk Song (Recording) AAFS L22; W. Chatfield, 1954, "The Midewiwin Songs of Fine-Day," South Dakota University, William H. Over Museum, Museum News, 15:10:1-2; Gertrude P. Kurath, 1954, "Chippewa Sacred Songs in Religious Metamorphis," Scientific Monthly, 79:5:311-317; Albert B. Reagan, 1922, "Medicine Songs of George Farmer," American Anthropologist, 24:3:332-369; Albert B. Reagan, 1934, "The O-ge-che-dah or Head-Men Dance of the Bois Forte Indians," Americana, 28:302-306; Thomas Vennum, Jr., 1973, "Constructing the Ojibwa Dance Drum," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 54:4:162-174; Thomas Vennum, Jr., 1978, "Ojibwa Origin-Migration Songs of the Mitewiwin," Journal of American Folklore, 91:36:753-791.

53. For further descriptions of the Midewiwin sweat lodge, called "purification lodge" by Basil Johnson (1976), see Densmore, xxxx, Chippewa Customs, pp. 94-95 and Plate 37b; and Hoffman, 18xxx, Midewiwin, p. 204; Basil Johnston, Ojibwa Heritage, (N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1976), pp. 85-93; Cf. Ch. 38, "Finns, 'The Sweatbath-Men'."

54. The sweat lodge wigiwam associated with the mide'wigân at White Earth, MN was described by W. J. Hoffman, xxx 1891, pp. 189:

"About a hundred yards east of the main entrance is constructed a wig'iwam or sweat lodge, to be used by the candidate, both to take his vapor baths and to receive final instructions from his preceptor."

"This wig'iwam is dome-shaped measures about 10 feet in diameter and 6 feet in height in the middle, with an opening at the top which can be readily covered with a piece of bark. The framework of the structure consists of saplings stuck into the ground, the tops being bent over to meet others from the opposite side. Other thin saplings are then lashed horizontally to the upright ones so as to appear like hoops, decreasing in size as the summit is reached. They are secured by using strands of basswood bark. The whole is then covered with pieces of birch bark--frequently the bark of the pine is used -- leaving a narrow opening on the side facing the Midé'[should be flat line over last e]igân, which may be closed with an adjustable flap of bark or blankets."

"The space between the Midé [line]'wigân and the sweat lodge must be kept clear of other temporary shelters, which might be placed there by some of the numerous visitors attending the ceremonies."

55. See pp. 770 ff. for further discussion on "throwing" power.

56. See below and et passim for a discussion on animal hides.

57. At the Inger ceremony the old medicine Indian sat at the very end of the room, on the other side of the room from the door, but off to the side a bit. See Ch. 31, "An Indian Curing Ceremony."

58. There's meditated medicine in the drum.

59. They get a message back from the messenger animal, and also they get an answer to what they asked [prayed] for in seeing what they asked for happen.

60. Cf., Ch. 34 , "Messengers and Unusual Events."

61. The shell itself is small, but the effect it has is big.

62. Cf., Ch. 28, "Power."

63. The belief is that the spirit is actually in them.

64. Acknowledge.

65. "Believers" are people who believe in the Indian way, but who are not necessarily members of the Midewiwin. But in some contexts "believers" can include the Mide.

66. They use drums to meditate their hides.

67. Some Indian people believe in God and go to a Christian church, while some believe in God and believe in an Indian religion but are not in the Midewiwin.

68. See Ch. 31, "An Indian Curing Ceremony."

69. The cure was successful and this was proof that one believed in it and wanted to hear it.

70. A medal like some Roman Catholics wear, like a St. Christopher medal. With Paul Buffalo the most important part of the metal is not the image on it, but the fact that it was once an integral part of the earth when it was still metal in the ground.

71. Healthy.

72. What you try to do to them or to anyone else will eventually come back and harm you.

73. It will be returned some day, because persons who know about how hides work will know that it is only useful to the rightful owner, and others who try to use it will find bad luck in store for them and will eventually want to get rid of it.

74. He has a large medal with the head of an Indian on it.

75. He doesn't actively use it in ceremony and belief rituals. He does believe in it and has it around for protection. That's not uncommon. It's also dangerous to use it if you aren't qualified. See below.

76. With power.

77. The newcomers joining the Midewiwin.

78. They throw the power, wishes . . . into the person. There is no material object (hide, plants-medicine. . . ) actually thrown as part of the Midewiwin initiation ceremony. This is a ceremonial "throwing" of spiritual medicine. They don't physically throw the medicine itself.

79. Demonstrates the five finger throw.

80. The medicine, the injection.

81. "Hooked" means to get jibek-ed, which is something like being hexed.

82. Recoil with the hit of the power.

83. Initiate.

84. Although Paul Buffalo's mother was a powerful Medicine Woman she couldn't do/say anything to make it better. Typically native medicine doctors can not cure or effectively treat their own "blood" relatives.

85. See Ch. 41, "John Smith Wrinkle Meat."

86. See Ch. 36, "School."

87. Although they had a special language for it.

88. This "seven year old" statement probably actually came from the older Catholic teaching that you attained the age of reason when you were seven years old.

89. Everyone's spirit is part of a general life spirit. All living things are related.

90. The Mide practiced their own belief and it was not aimed against any other religion, Indian or white.

91. Slang, dialect.

92. One who is toward the top of the hierarchy of Midewiwin priests.

93. It is more like the Christian practice of confirmation than Christian baptism.

94. As before, this is a spiritual throwing, a spiritual throwing of the power in the hide, not an actual throwing of the hide.

95. Not very powerful by comparison to the hides of the higher staff.

96. They respect one another because they know the others have power. Cf., Ch. 28, "Power," and Ch. 33 "Medicine Men / Medicine Women." They were careful of what they said to avoid irritating someone who could use jibik. (More or less jibik can be though of as "black magic," although it is more like uncolored magic used for a not-so-good purpose. Jibik can also be used for good purposes, for example, getting rid or subduing a person in the community who is or is creating a public nuisance.)

97. The "fence church." In writings on Midewiwin birch bark scrolls, the fence also appears. One should not "go beyond the fence" when interpreting the scrolls either -- if you don't know what you're doing. Physical harm, even death, is the penalty for violating either.

98. Those who belonged to the Midewiwin.

99. Dried blueberries.

100. Dried berries that they boiled to rehydrate them.

101. Visitors, i.e., the people that came to visit.

102. That is, there was enough other food, you didn't have to eat dogs for food.

103. Direct.

104. Thrown power.

105. A curing ceremony at Inger, MN. See Ch. 31, "An Indian curing Ceremony."

106. The ceremony at Inger, MN. See Chapter 31 "An Indian curing Ceremony" for a description of this ceremony.

107. One of the places where they have the Grand Medicine curing ceremony.

108. Performed a re-meditation ceremony, not a physical medical operation.

109. Many do not like converts to another religion if they converted as adults. Keeping one's word is generally considered one of the most important things in life. Likewise, to go back on one's word was considered one of the greatest of all failures in life. Hence, to promise to change to follow another religion and then not do it is a violation of the sacredness of one's word and a person who does that is often despised -- not because of the change of religion so much as because one didn't keep one's word.

Elsewhere Paul Buffalo tells how early on Indian people severely mocked whites by saying to one another, "They even need Notary Publics!" "The whites have to verify, certify and notorize everything!" For many, that is perhaps the ultimate insult -- that you need someone to verify that you are telling the truth. Elsewhere Paul Buffalo says that at first the Indians of his area found it difficult to even understand what a Notary was.

110. That is, they all work basically the same way.

111. The Grand Medicine leader.

112. Peyote. See Barbara D. Jackson, 1980.

113. "In 1922 a Native American Church (NAC) was established at Ryan's Village just outside of Bena, bringing the syncretic peyote religion from the plains to the north woods. Different times were on the move in Bena during the first half of the twentieth century and Indians both benefited from and were dispossed by the economic order initiated by the Nelson Act. (It depends on which Indians we're talking about.) As for religious expression, Bena had all kinds: NAC peyotists, Catholics, Episcopalians, sinners of various stripes, and participants in Mike Rabbit's Midewiwin lodge, which eventually went dormant during the 1940s." (Lyons, 2010, p. 14; Cf., Barbara D. Jackson, 1980.)

114. See Chapter XX.

115. See Ch. 28, "Power," for a discussion of power.

116. That is, he actually felt like the spirit itself.

117. Walter J. Hoffman, 1891, The Midewiwin; or 'Grand Medicine Society' of the Ojibwa. Washington, DC: Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Seventh Annual Report, 1885-1886, pp. 143-300. After Paul saw that there already was something written on the Midewiwin he thought it was OK to tell about the ceremonies here. (cf., footnote 15).

118. That is, all the power he can muster up, even if it is more power than he can control himself. It's much like a hex.

119. A dog is the lowest thing you can call someone. They say that there are no swear words in Chippewa. The closest thing you can do to someone is call them a dog. See. . . .

120. "Drifting without searching for help" is considered an extremely bad trait. "Drifting without searching for help" is akin to selling your soul to the devil. Not caring about things is also considered a very bad trait.

121. The five-finger sign along with a shot of all of the power that they can generate.

122. If they are powerful enough you die of the hex. Medically speaking, from the point of view of western medicine, what happens is that the power person is strong enough to generate self-induced shock in the victim, and the victim dies of medical shock much the same as one might die of shock in a car accident.

123. For information on Anishinabe birch bark writings see: Fred K. Blessing, Jr., 1963, "Birchbark Mide Scrolls from Minnesota," Minnesota Archaeologist, 25:3:89-142; Donald A. Cadzow, 1926, "Bark Records of the Bungi Midewin Society," Indian Notes, 3:123-134; Michael P. Closs, 1986, "Tallies and the Ritual Use of Number in Ojibway Pictography," in Native American Mathematics, edited by Michael P. Closs, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, pp. 181-211; W.J. Hoffman, 1888, "Pictography and Shamanistic Rites of the Ojibwa," American Anthropologist, 1:3:209-229 (reprinted in Native North American Art History, ed. by Zena P. Mathews and Aldona Jonaitis, Palo Alto, CA, 1982); Vernon W. Kinietz, 1940a, "Birch Bark Records Among the Chippewa," Indiana Academy of Science, Proceedings, 49:38-40; Richard Nelson, "Inscribed Birch Bark Scrolls and Other Objects of the Midewiwin," Papers of the Fourteenth Algonquian Conference, 1982, ed. by William Cowan, (Ottawa: Carleton University, 1983), pp. 219-235); Howard Norman, 1971, "Ojibwa Pictures and Song-Pictures," Alcheringa, 3:64-67; Albert B. Reagan, 1927, "Picture Writings of the Chippewa Indians," Wisconsin Archaeologist, 6:80-83; Albert B. Reagan, 1935, "A Ritual Parchment and Certain Historical Charts of the Bois Fort Chippewa of Minnesota," Americana, 29:228-244; Joan M. Vastokas, 1984, "Interpreting Birch Bark Scrolls," Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, 1983, ed. by William Cowan, (Ottawa: Carleton University, pp. 425-444.

xxxAdd footnote indicating that Midewiwin scroll references are in chapter 25 courtship about #26 footnote, ca p. 22 -- or move the mide part of the footnote to midewiwin chapter.

124. They went beyond the Midewiwin fence, either literally, at the Midewiwin ceremony, or figuratively, by trying to pry into the meaning of the Midewiwin birchbark writings. Some of the birch bark writings Paul Buffalo saw earlier in the day included schematic fences on them. Cf., W. J. Hoffman, 1891, Pl. III (following p. 166), Pl. IV (following p. 170), and Pl. VIII (following p. 182). Paul Buffalo was also looking at some photographs of Midewiwin scrolls set by Pat Houlihan of the xxx Heard Museum in Phoenix, AZ.

125. For information on birch bark scrolls see footnote XXX -cross-ref-to footnote ca. 47 in ch xxx 25.

126. It is quite common, instead of affirming or denying something, or explaining it, to say that it doesn't happen any more and that it happened so long ago that you don't remember the details. See also xxx Ch. 30 for two similar incidents. See also Ch. XX for his wife finding his small medicine pouch.

When one wants to avoid talking about a certain subject, it is also very common to make a brief statement about the certain subject, then change the topic almost immediately to some neutral or more public topic. This is what is happening here and in the following passage.

127. "Typical Indian" is a term used with the highest respect. It means that he is, in a very honored way, a very "traditional Indian."

128. Being interested in things is a very positive trait.

129. Higher in the hierarchy of Midewiwin priests.

130. Whites.

131. Little figures and designs made out of birch bark.

132. The devil, conceptualized as an "it."

133. It is also fairly typical, when you are dealing with a topic that is secret or very private, to give a warning to the questioner, indicating how dangerous the topic is, and to be careful of it. In this case, the penalty for not heeding the warning, and going ahead without knowing what you're doing, is suffering and maybe even death.

134. Who is staying with you and telling you many things about this.


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