- chimps make tools and use tools
(nest building, termite collecting, wadding and chewing leaves
to use as sponges, "weapons")
- Chimps also use other tools: they use leaves as sponges,
with which they get up to eight times more water from a tree
branch than by using their fingers alone; they use weapons
(as a type of tool) to scare away the baboons. Youngsters
like Fifi learn from older chimps; hence the skill is passed
on by learning.
- knuckle walking
- dominance hierarchy
- males are ranked and ranked adult males dominate society
- One male, Mike, rose to the top of the hierarchy by intelligence
rather than by strength, by rolling a noisy can. Orignally
one of the lowest ranking males, Mike became #1, the "alpha
- generally innovators in non-human primate societies are
the young who are low on the dominance hierarchy
- "warfare," "gang attacks," "killing and cannibalism"
- concentrated feeding in camp --> "violent aggression"
and intragroup conflict
- "aggression" is against conspecifics
- conspecifics — members of the
- home base
- where hominid groups gather at evening
for socializing, food sharing, and sleeping
- (cf., discussion re "home range"
- total area used
- The area a primate group uses for foraging, sleeping,
and so on in a year
- (cf., discussion re "territory"
- the area occupied and defended by individuals
or groups of animals against “conspecifics”
- conspecifics — members of
the same species
- Although chimps seem miserable in the rain, they make little
effort to seek shelter during a downpour. They do, however, occasionally
perform a "rain dance."
- Chimp studies provide models for interpreting prehistoric primates,
as sort of an "ethnographic analogy."
- By 1984 Jane Goodall's chimp studies had become the longest
continuous study of any animal group in the world; and they continue
through the present.
- Chimps are animals of great extremens (e.g., noisy - calm .
- Chimps systematically hunted other chimps, killed, and ate them.
Three to six adult male chimps attacked victims in "gang attacks"
- Chimps get human diseases (e.g., polio).
chimps have largely a vegetarian diet (eating
much fruit), but they also hunt and eat some meat
for the most part chimps only eat meat that
they themselves have killed
- chimps eat up to 7 hours per day
- the rainy season brings fertile, winged termites, which
the chimps harvest with tools (they are better at fishing
for termites than some humans; baboons can get termites only
on the serface.
- This is almost certainly a skill that is learned and
passed on to succeeding generations
- In January 2001 South African and French researchers
announced that "Ape-man
Ate Termites" (Australopithecus robustus),
producing "the world's oldest-known bone tools
- Baboons outnumber chimps at Gombe Stream 4 : 1.
- Chimps are as distinct from one another as humans. Jane Goodall
gave them names.
- "Learned behavior [is] passed on for generations."
- Child Rearing:
- Because much of maternal behavior is learned, Flo
is a role model for her daughter Fifi.
- Because females give birth only every five to six years
(and they start having offspring about xxx), a newborn always
stirrs interest among a chimpanzee troop
- "The only stable social bond is mother - child."
- Males take no part in child rearing.
- Re Owen Lovejoy's "provisioning hypothesis,"
note how much energy goes into child rearing on the part of
the mother chimp
- Note that mothering skills differ among the chimp mothers
portrayed in the video
- Physical contact for its own sake seems to be a primary goal
of chimp grooming, and chimps give reassurance to one another
- Chimps are stronger than humans, and if they lose their fear
they could be dangerous. Nowadays, the researchers try to minimize
all physical contact with the Chimps.
- Life expectancy of chimps living in the wild is guessed at between
forty to fifty years
- Although not apparent from the mirror scene in this video, chimpanzees
come to recognize themselves in a mirror, one of few animals besides
humans that do that
- Although Ollie knows her infant is not alive, she carries its
body for three days
Publications / Bibliography
- started her studies on the 14th of July,1960, without any
formal training, at the age of 26
- "Grub" born in 1967
- Through a Window: My Thirty Years With the Chimpanzees of
- My Life With the Chimpanzees
- The Chimpanzees of Gombe
- Kenneth P. Oakley, Man the Toolmaker, Chicago, 1957.
- De Vore, Irven, ed. 1965. Primate Behavior: Field Studies
of Monkeys and Apes. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
- Goodall, Jane. 1976. "Continuities Between Chimpanzee and
Human Behavior." Human Origins: Louis Leakey and the East
African Evidence, edited by Glynn Ll. Isaac and Elizabeth
R. McCown. Perspectives on Human Evolution, vol. 3. Menlo Park,
California: W.A. Benjamin, Staples Press Book, published for the
society for the Study of Human Evolution, Berkeley, California.
- Goodall, Jane. 1963. "My life Among Wild Chimpanzees."
National Geographic, August, 1963: 272-308.
- Goodall, Jane, and David A. Hamburg. 1975. "Chimpanzee
Behavior as a Model for the Behavior of Early Man: New Evidence
on Possible Origins of Human Behavior." American Handbook
of Psychiatry, edited by David A. Hamburg and H. Keith Brodie.
New Psychiatric Frontiers, Vol. 6. New York: Basic Books.
- Harding, Robert S. O. 1985. Review of Among the Wild Chimpanzees.
American Anthropologist, 87:4:979.
- van Lawick-Goodall, Jane. 1975. "The Behavior of the Chimpanzee."
Hominisation and Verhalten, Hominisation and Behavior,
edited by Gottfried Kuth and Irenaus Eibesfeldt. Stuttgart: Gustav
- van Lawick-Goodall, Jane. 1974. In the Shadow of Man.
A Delta Book. New York: Dell.
- van Lawick-Goodall, Jane. 1967. My Friends the Wild Chimpanzee.
Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
- van Lawick-Goodall, Jane. 1970. "Tool-using in Primates
and other Vertebrates." Advances in the Study of Behavior,
vol. 3, edited by David S. Lehrman, Robert A. Hinde, and Evelyn
Shaw. New York: Academic Press.