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Flying Bird Image

When Everybody Called Me Gah-bay-bi-nayss,
"Forever-Flying-Bird":
An Ethnographic Biography of
Paul Peter Buffalo

Timothy G. Roufs
University of Minnesota Duluth

a note on tenses
a note on style

orignal tapes information

Table of Contents

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Buffalo Image

Paul Buffalo Interviews Index

B

video and audiotape index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
This is an index of the hardcopy transcripts, not the 0n-line chapters.
Index numbers refer only to where a discussion starts, or resumes.

tape number:
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75
76 77 78 79 80 81 82 (videotape)

babies 61-16, 65-25, 69-02
background 07-11
bacon grease 64-22
"bad" 15-35, 15-36
bag 79-35, see also "medicine bag"
Bagley, MN 66-21
balance 02-02, 05-05, 05-06, 12-31, 14-130
ball 81-27, see also "games"`
Ball Club, MN 08-63, 08-77 (council), 08-80, 08-94, 13-72, 13-92, 13-95, 45-08, 52-14, 52-45, 53-02, 61-24, 63-03, 66-16, 66-20, 66-33, 77-09, 78-11, 78-16, 78-29, 81-30
Ball Club Lake 08-92, 81-22
Ball Club River 66-27
ball team 07-22 (Cass Lake, MN), 07-23, see also "team"
balsam 14-131, 61-01, 63-20, 63-22, 63-23, 63-35, 70-24
Balsam (sp?) [Indian agent] 11-03
bands 04-05 (Mississippi; general discussion), 06-18 (population), 06-19 (and cars; population increase), 08-12 (moccasin game), 08-71 (White Oak and Mississippi; 1920s councils and resolutions), 08-79 (band = en-dah-nah-kiid = "that's where he works"),, 10-63 (and working together; Old Council -- pre-New-Deal; and government), 15-43 (and food), 31-34 (family groups getting together), 41-03 (?), 81-06 (linguistics, cf., 08-79) , see also "group," "bunches," "divisions," "residence / residential groups"
bank 14-80, 78-03, 78-13
baptism 10-44 (mother's willing), 12-11, 12-12, 52-16, 66-15 (leg stroke >> dream), 66-16, 69-03,
bark 01-11 (in April), 01-12 (baskets; bird houses); 29-09 (roofing), 31-01, *31-03 (wigiwams; preparing bark) , 35-30 (spots in the river picked over), 42-07 (Hiawatha / Winibozho), 55-02 (scrolls), 57-21 (cutting ash diamond shape), 63-07 (ash; birch), 63-14, 68-23, see also individual trees
Barnes, Joe 05-12, 05-36, 09-26, 09-59, 10-18, 41-24, 63-04, 66-20, 71-14
baskets 13-73 (maple sugar storage), 29-06 (deer-hoof), 31-11 (sap baskets), 57-16 (deer-hoof), 58-07 (winnowing), 63-35 (ling; large syrup; sap;mah-kak), 63-39 (ling; small naa-du-bin; cf . 31-11) , 64-04 (mah-kak for sugar) , 80-26 (young people buy baskets, old people make them; resthome baskets)
bass 66-11
basswood 63-23, 80-27
Battle Point 10-38
Bay-bu-ka-way 52-41
beads / beadwork 35-04 (to sell; selling to lumberjacks), 51-04 (beads from megis), 52-12 (?), 61-17 (and velvet in store; 1st = 1918; Canadian), 66-13 (ling; # on items sold), 79-10
bear / bear claws 01-03 (could see in right seasons; and porcupine), 09-50 (and birchbark picking; and Steve Jackson; and bear getting deer), 09-52 (bear getting deer, and hunting with Michaud; eating meat), 09-54 (killing bear), 09-58 (stepping on cubs, and eating), 10-37 (raising bear story), 25-28 (bear claw; and philosophy; raising bear story; eating meat), 27-29 (eating; shooting bear), 57-06 (bear deadfall), 61-14 (ling), 61-26 (mating; in camping spot)
Beaulieu, Paul 49-11
beaver 08-19, 68-19, 80-05
Bebeau, Jim  
bedding 63-19
bedwetting (cure of) 37-11
beer 49-10
bees 10-40, 10-68, 35-13, 66-30
beliefs 08-22, 13-140, 13-126, 27-54, 37-02, 74-04, 82-06, see also "values," and "views"
Bellengers 79-25
Bemus 72-23
Bena, MN 08-81 (council), 09-01 (Bena school = 1st, ca. 1909, 1906) , 09-31 (and farm at Bena), 10-67 (council and interpreting letter re drinking representative) , 11-01 (council), 13-72 (as early camping grounds), 13-114 (gong to Bena Indian school), 41-21 (CC camp), 49-03 (Fred Crow = grandfather; store; mother), 57-01 (logging/gardening; selling place >> social security), 57-28 (Tom selling mother firewood; Bena place ? going to heck), *60-02 (name ceremony), 61-17 (Flemming's general store, ca. 1925), 62-27 (and wife leaving, 1917; dance incident and Ed Rogers, 1919), 62-32 (dance hall), *63-02 (paper shack -- Jack Nason), *66-16 (man; sickly -- baptism), 66-19 (Bena church), 66-24 (Flemming's store), 70-08 (mother >> Bena; distance oved = 10-11 mi.), *70-13 (s....), 70-14 (wigiwam; Jack Nason) , 72-21 (rations), 72-23 (Flemming's store; Bemis [?] = agriculture agent), 78-28 (Flemming's store), 78-40 (CC camp)
berries 01-11 (blueberries = sure of the season), 01-12 (energy for blueberry picking for sugar), 29-12 (maple sugar >> blueberries), 31-16 (scouting for blueberries; drying blueberries; etc.), 35-02, 63-23 (and dye), 67-21 (selling), see also individual types of berries
best years 51-13, 51-51
betterment 05-03, 13-15, 14-04, 22-30 (et passim), 22-40, 55-10, see also "development," and "community development"
BIA see "Bureau of Indian Affairs"
Bible 66-17 ff.
birch bark 01-12, 55-02 (scrolls), 57-21, 63-07, 63-08, see also "bark"
birch trees 14-91, 14-129, 70-20
birds 45-02, 45-14, 60-23
birth 27-39, 36-12, 47-17, 47-18, 61-32, 70-22, 70-23, 78-44
blackberries 14-72, 72-26
black face 44-17
blackgowns 12-15
black horses 44-12
"black man" 75-23, see also "shadow man"
black (wild) rice 64-19
Blacks 08-67, 27-65, 49-09
"blanket shoes" 73-17
blood 06-31 (white), 14-43, 37-09, 72-07
bloodletting 12-55 (headache, high blood pressure, snowblind >> Paul Buffalo's bloodletting), 14-57 (sucking doctor), 45-15 (and women), 59-04 (and sweatbath; Mati Kaups interview; scar), 69-25, 72-10 (stopped doing it), 77-08 (ling and general description)
bloodroots 47-24
blowing 68-13
blueberries 09-07 (looking for blueberries on river; selling, at Dumas' store or Deer River; seeing deer along the river when it was hotter, during blueberry time), 31-16 (scouting for blueberries; drying; etc.), 38-02 (drying blueberries; didn't have jars), 62-15 (ling; swamp berries; cranberry; blueberry), 64-05 (100 quarts sauce; 300 quarts picked), see also "berries"
boarding schools 35-18, 56-24, see also "schools" and "education"
boat 05-13, 05-19, 27-32 (river), 57-25, 76-01, 78-45, 79-22
bobcat 62-33
Boblink, John 10-74
body 01-10, 13-02, 13-137, see also other entries
body movements 08-05
boiling over 09-45
Bois Forte see "Nett Lake"
"bone doctor" 77-01, 79-29, see also "medicine doctors"
bones 14-57, 46-02, 52-30
bood / "book" 08-27, 08-32, 14-36, 38-01, 43-07, 47-13, 68-16, 80-17
bootlegging 62-88
borrowing 27-16
bounty 30-
Bovey, MN 77-11
bow and arrow 09-09 (partridge hunting; descripton), 29-06, 46-16 (hunting; description), 57-13 (general), 57-15 (shooting distance)
bowl 64-02
Bowstring 79-04, 80-37
Bowstring, Tom 79-19
Boyd, George 47-35
boyhood days 10-65, see also other listings
Boy River, MN 57-35, 78-33, 79-20, 79-25
Bradley, Tom 45-39, 74-27, 77-09
bragging 09-23, 13-48
brain 01-06, 03-06 (food), 65-20, 74-34
brave

35-15, see also "scouts"

bread 05-18, 29-12, 31-17, 43-13, 43-16, 46-01, 46-02, 61-21, 73-28, see also "frybread," and "sourdough bread"
breastfeeding 65-25, see also "nursing"
"breed" 81-06, see also "mixedbloods"
brothers see "family," "relatives," and names of brothers
brown-ees 47-06, 62-06, 68-22, see also "dwarfs," and "little people"
buckskin 63-27, 63-32, 79-01, 79-36
Budreau 01-07, 08-45
Buffalo, Dave see "Staples, Dave"
buffalofish 66-10
Buffalo, Henry 21-29, 50-25, 54-, 60-06, 60-15
Buffalo, Mrs. Henry 55-23
Buffalo, Jim 58-34, 67-05, 67-06, 70-16
Buffalo, Katie 67-08
Buffalo, Mary 37-03
Buffalo, "Old Lady" 60-15
Buffalo, "Tiny" 61-13, see also sons
Buffalos 50-23, 52-28
bull 78-15
bullheads 64-23, 66-09, 80-70, see also "fish / fishing"
"bunch" / bunches 10-63 (working together), *13-63 (basic groups), *13-68 (basic groups), 13-71, 31-34, 35-25, 64-32 (ling "division"; chief = "business man of the group"), 67-10 (bunch), 67-37 (definition of bunch; buying canoes; grand mother's time in Duluth, how to portage, Canadian beads), 68-31 (; def; splitting up), 69-01 (ling), 80-13 (ling), see also "bands," "divisions," "factions," "groups," "group residence / residential groups"
Bungo 49-09
Bureau of Indian Affairs 04-06, 08-35, 08-73, 08-78, 43-36, 78-36
burials 14-25, 51-46 (scaffold burial), 52-17, 60-11, 67-39, see also "wakes," "funerals," "death / dead / dying," and "mourning"
burns 71-01
businesses 53-23
butterflies 58-26
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