University of Minnesota Duluth block M and wordmark

UMD > CLA > Sociology-Anthropology  > Anthropology > Tim Roufs > Culture and Personality

 Skip to the ContentsA    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    X    Y    Z

  Anthropology in the News


 Culture and Personality 

(Psychological Anthropology)

  Margaret Mead
 Zhuangzi dreaming of a butterfly
(or a butterfly dreaming of Zhuangzi)


 Fall 2018 Calendar
Friday, 23 February 2018, 10:03 (10:03 AM) CST, day 054 of 2018

Mustard seed.
Selected Culture and Personality WebSites

Magic Eye©
Science, Optics

to top of page / A/Z index   to top of page / A-Z index


Online Reserve Materials

Cutting Costs for College Textbooks -- NPR

general textbook information

Textbooks Under Review for Fall 2018

Welcome to Anthropology 4616 Culture and Personality Spring 2016
(Psychological Anthropology)

Available online in your
Description: Moodle logo.
folder at

This will be a great course, and a great experience. You will see. . . .

Interest in personality and cross-cultural psychology and its relation to culture and to biology has never been higher. You can see that in the news and editorial pages of the weekly papers and the other news media. Lots of things are happening in personality research . . . virtually every week.

I am looking forward to meeting you in class on the 21st. In the meantime, you might want to have a look at the information in your Moodle folder at <>.

Right off the bat you might be interested in the textbook for the course . . .

Rethinking Psychological Anthropology: Continuity and Change in the Study of Human Action, Second Edition (1999), by Philip Bock,
is currently available online from about $31.48 new / $3.69 used [buy a used one]
(+ p/h, where applicable).
(24 December 2015)

Rethinking Psychological Anthropology, Second Edition, by Philip K. Bock.

NOTE: When you read this text, read it primarily for a sense of the historical development of Psychological Anthropology / Culture and Personality and for a sense of what the basic concepts are all about.

More information on the text for Culture and Personality can be found at <>.

Textbooks are available from the following vendors . . .

UMD Bookstore | | Barnes and Noble | Chegg [rental] | | | | |

Some excellent classic books in many fields are also often available online free. For example, the full text of Sigmund Freud's first major work, The Interpretation of Dreams (3rd Edition, 1911), Trans. by A.A. Brill, is available online at <>.

More textbook information in general can be found at <>.

The exams will be open-book essays, so it would be a good idea for you to have your own copy of the text, and it is a good idea that you take your reading notes right in your copy of the text itself. Midterm exam information is at <>, and the final exam information is at <>.

One thing that you should keep in mind when approaching these readings, which I will talk more about as the class progresses, is that, as mentioned above, the exams are open-book. And for that you should normally just need to read the text carefully and be able to discuss the materials therein intelligently. That is, you should read the text as if you had picked it up at an airport or neighborhood bookshop on the way to Austria or the South Seas because you were interested in the subject and wanted to know more about it.

PLEASE NOTE: Some students are used to principally memorizing facts in classes. This class is not one where that is the focus. It is about investigating new topics, observing, reading, listening, analyzing, synthesizing ideas, thinking, exploring, and becoming familiar enough with the various subjects, peoples and places to carry on an intelligent conversation in modern-day society. In short, this class aims to give you practice in critical thinking, and even creativity.

Critical thinking, involving evaluation and synthesis, has long been regarded as essential for success in the modern-day world. In recent years, actually for two decades, creativity has also become central to success, and "process skills" have become vital to creativity. Process skills involve "strategies to reframe challenges and extrapolate and transform information, and to accept and deal with ambiguity" (Pappano, "Learning to Think Outside the Box," The New York Times EducationLife, 9 February 2014, 8). Laura Pappano, writer in residence at Wellesley Center for Women at Wellesley College, points out that "In 2010 'creativity' was the factor mos crucial for success found in an I.B.M. survey of 1,500 chief executives in 33 industries. These days 'creative' is the most used buzzword in LinkedIn profiles two years running" (2014, 8).

Please keep that in mind when thinking about, and getting ready for, the exams.

Here's a recent interesting article from Minnesota Public Radio . . .

How to choose college classes: 6 tips
--Tracy Mumford, Minnesota Public Radio News (10 September 2015)


With all of the class materials you will be expected to share your ideas and comments with others in the Class Forums and wikis.

It is not accidental that TAPS, Canada’s leading Beer Magazine—in fact it’s THE BEER MAGAZINE—features this item from this class in its editorial of Winter 2012, p. 2); at least one major former Editor in Chief thinks it’s worth noting and imitating.

Overall, this course consists of three main segments:

I Background

  • Introduction
  • Basic Concepts
  • History / Theory / Method

II Explorations

  • Comparative / Cross-Cultural
  • Holistic
  • Ethnographic Case Studies from the Real World

III Student Presentations on Term Research Projects

For the first part of the course much of the material for the week will be presented in the form of on-line slide materials. In the second segment of the semester, once you have mastered the basic information relating to the Anthropology of Food, we will look (generally comparatively, cf., Main Characteristics of Anthropology in Week 01) at a series of video materials from around the world. The final section will focus on your research projects.

One of the four main characteristics of American Anthropology is fieldwork, "a primary research technique, involving “participant observation," which usually means living among the people one is interested in learning from and about. It would be wonderful if for anthropology classes we could just rent a bus or charter a plane and fly off for a year or more to learn first-hand from the people themselves. Money, time, and practicality prohibit that, so the next best things—when it comes to studying anthropology—is going to places and viewing subjects by video, and we will do a lot of that this semester. More information on Visual Anthropology is available on-line at <>.

You will find that there is "an awful lot" of material online—maybe even too much!

But don't worry. You will find the required materials center stage in your Moodle folder. Most of the rest of the materials are optional, but you may find those materials useful in working on your class project and extra credit paper.

Where to start?

Probably the best place is with the "First Day Handout," online at <>.

Then have a look at yourMoodle Gradebook folder, which gives a nice listing of the actual requirements and due dates for the course. (You'll find the link for that in the upper-left-hand corner of the top of page one of your Moodle folder. See the figure in the “First Day Handout.”)

Then have a look at the "Course Overview" in Block 1 (the top of page one) of yourMoodle folder.

A word of caution. Moodle recommends that you use the Firefox browser (available free at <>). The Windows Internet Explorer (IE) occasionally will not display items on your screen. These items will simply not be there on IE when they are fine on Moodle or even on Chrome. Microsoft Word should likewise not be used to cut and paste things to Moodle; bad things can happen to your file if you do—randomly. Almost every time you are asked to enter text in Moodle, you will see the message, “Please do not copy/paste text directly from Microsoft Word. See explanation here <>.” Please pay attention to that request.

So once again, welcome to Anth 4616 Culture and Personality. This will be a great course, and a great experience. You will see.

. . . Thanks for signing on for Culture and Personality. I’m looking forward to the 21st.

If you have any questions right now, please do not hesitate to post them on the Moodle "Messenger" or e-mail

I hope you had a great Boxing Day, and are having a great Christmas-Hanukkah-Kwanza season. Have a great New Year’s Evening and New Year’s Day and a great New Year.  And have a good Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day as well. 

Throughout much of Europe people will be eating lintels on New Year’s Day. Eating lintels helps you have a great new year. So on New Year’s Day, be sure to eat plenty of lentils. . . . .

My office hours (and regular schedule information) can be found at <>.

Finally, laptops are welcome, in fact encouraged, in the classroom. Many find a laptop quite useful in following the class materials. You can, for example, download all of the slide materials used in class.

Your Moodle site is now on-line. Have a look at <>.

If you have any questions right now, please do not hesitate to post them on the Moodle "Messenger" or e-mail

See you on the 21st of January.

Best Wishes,

Tim Roufs
Duluth, MN
28 December 2013

If you are new to the world of "technology" in general or Moodle in particular, don't worry too much about that. Things may not "work" for you at first, but hang in there and we'll help you along. (And they will work better in Firefox and if you do not cut and paste from your Word documents.)

 general textbook information

Rethinking Psychological Anthropology, Second Edition, by Philip K. Bock.

Philip K. Bock.

"In this introduction to an important field, Bock provides a critical account of the ways that anthropologists have used and misused psychological concepts in their studies of various societies. He argues that we must be aware of these past efforts and errors if we are to develop culturally sensitive ways of understanding the relationship of individuals to their societies. Starting with nineteenth-century studies of 'primitive mentality,' the book examines the school of culture and personality, including cross-cultural correlational studies, and continuing on to recent work on sociobiology, shamanism, self, and emotion. Relevant psychological concepts are explained as needed, and each approach is presented in its own terms before critical examination. Chapter supplements and a new chapter bring the book completely up to date." -- Waveland Press

Rethinking Psychological Anthropology: Continuity and Change in the Study of Human Action, Second Edition
(1999) is currently available online from about $31.48 new / $3.69 used [buy a used one]
(+ p/h, where applicable).
(24 December 2015)


NOTE: When you read this text, read it primarily for a sense of the historical development of Psychological Anthropology / Culture and Personality and for a sense of what the basic concepts are all about.

Psychological Anthropology:
Continuity and Change in the Study of Human Action, Second Edition

by Philip K. Bock

(Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 1999)

ISBN-10: 1577660552
ISBN-13: 978-1577660552

Table of Contents
Prelude. All Anthropology Is Psychological
The Psychology of Primitive Peoples
  • The Psychology of Primitive Peoples
  • Perception, or "Do You See What I See?"
  • Motivation, or "The Natives Are Restless Tonight"
  • Cognition, or "Thinking Can Make It So"
  • Supplement, 1999

Psychoanalytic Anthropology

  • Elements of Psychoanalysis
  • The Origins of Psychoanalytic Anthropology
  • Totemism and Exogamy
  • Psychoanalysis and Clothing
  • Summary and Critique
  • Supplement, 1999
Configurations of Culture and Personality
  • Configrations of Culture
  • To and from the South Seas
  • Summary
  • Supplement, 1999
Basic and Modal Personality
  • Basic Personality Structure
  • The Modal Personality Approach
  • Projective Tests: Rorschach and Thematic Apperception
  • Applications of Projective Tests
  • Summary
  • Supplement, 1999
National Character Studies
  • The Yellow Peril
  • On the Western Front
  • The Slavic Soul
  • The Lonely Crowd
  • And Elsewhere
  • Summary
  • Supplement, 1999
The Culture and Personality Midterm Exam will be in class Week 7 Day 13 Tuesday, 9 October 2018

REM: Bring your Laptop
Interlude. The Crisis in Culture and Personality
  • What Next?
  • Supplement, 1999

Cross-Cultural Correlations

  • The Yale Synthesis
    • Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)
  • Correlations and Customs Galton's Problem
  • Male Initiation Rites
  • Causes of Incest Taboos
  • Summary
  • Supplement, 1999
The Return of the Repressed
  • Instinct and Culture
  • Symbolic Wounds
  • Insight and Identity
  • Psychohistory and the Interpretation of Myth
  • Psychosocial Adaptation
  • Summary
  • Supplement, 1999
Social Structure and Personality
  • Materialist Approaches
  • Positionalist Approaches
  • Interactionist Adaptation
  • Summary
  • Supplement, 1999
Focusing on Behavior
  • Six Cultures
  • Human Ethology
  • Attachment, Separation, and Crowding
  • Sociobiology
  • Supplement, 1999

Cognitive Anthropology

  • Ethnosemantics
  • Cognitive Development
    • Stages
    • Styles
    • Maps
  • Race, Culture and Intelligence
  • Supplement, 1999

Shamans, Alternative States, and Schizophrenia

  • Alternative States of Consciousness
  • Mental Illness and Society
  • Supplement, 1999
Emotions and Selfhood
  • Role, Self, and Identity
  • Psychology and Cultural Change
  • Supplement, 1999
Some Newer Approaches
  • Evolutionary Psychological Anthropology
  • Cultural Psychology
  • About The Body
  • Person-Centered Ethnology
  • Into Century Twenty-One
  • Supplement, 1999
Postlude. All Psychology Is Cultural
Personal Epilogue, 1999

The Culture and Personality Final Exam is scheduled for tba, tba December 2018, tba in Cina 214

REM: Bring your Laptop

UMD Bookstore | | Barnes and Noble | Chegg [rental] | | | | |



  • Read: Ch. 19 "The Sacrifice." From The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Anne Fadiman (NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997), pp. 278-288.

 The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, by Anne Fadiman (NY: Farrar, Strauss and Biroux, 1977).
Anne Fadiman
NY: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1997.

Lia Lee is a Hmong child diagnosed with severe epilepsy,
whose family believes her seizure was caused by the slamming of a door by an older sister,
which caused Lia's soul to flee her body and the soul became lost to a dab.

dab, a spirit, is pronounced "da"
txiv neeb, a Hmong shaman, is pronounced "tsi neng"
(pp. 291-292)

Lia LEe
Life Went On Around Her, Redefining Care by Bridging a Divide
-- Margalit Fox, The New York Times (15 September 2012)


 Paul Buffalo collecting medicine

© 1998 - 2018 Timothy G. Roufs    Envelope: E-mail
Page URL: http:// /cla/faculty/troufs/anth4616/cptext.html
Last Modified Thursday, 23 November 2017, 23:59 (11:59 PM) CST, day 327 of 2017
Site Information / Disclaimers ~ Main A-Z Index