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Culture and Personality

(Psychological Anthropology)



  Margaret Mead

 Spring 2016 Calendar [archive]
Sunday, 19 November 2017, 06:07 (06:07 AM) CST, day 323 of 2017
Mustard seed.

Selected Culture and Personality WebSites

 

Magic Eye©
Science, Optics




Cognition = Perception + Conception

under construction
sorry for the inconvenience







cognition




per
ception


sensory
vision


"per - cepts"
hearing
touch
taste
smell
conception


"con - cepts"


Cf., "Foundations of Cultural Knowledge," in Culture and Cognition: Rules, Maps, and Plans
(San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1972), pp. 3-38.

In the News . . .

Forthcoming at a Later Date

Review

      • W.H. R. Rivers and Mead, Mead-Freeman Review
      • Units of Analysis (.pptx)
      • Three Major Perennial Debates (.pptx)

 

This week we're going to have a look at
an Introduction to
Cognition: Per-ception / Con-ception
by looking at how the process sometimes goes askew

            • Synesthesia: Derek Tastes of Earwax
              (re-scheduled because of Mardi Gras)
            • Visual Agnosia

cognition:

per-ception / con-ception

. . . an introduction

In order to understand personality
one must understand cognition


In order to understand cognition
one must understand per-ception and con-ception


in order to understand conception
one must understand language


in order to understand language
one must understand culture


in order to understand culture
one must understand
"culturally constituted behavioral environments"


in order to understand
"culturally constituted behavioral environments"
must one have look at the Culture and Personlity work of A. Irving Hallowell ?

 

 

A.I. Hallowell.

Culture and Experience
  • Bear Ceremonialism in the Northern Hemisphere (1926)
  • The Role of Conjuring in Saulteaux Society (1942)
  • Culture and Experience (1955)
  • Contributions to Anthropology (1976)

in order to understand
the work of A. Irving Hallowell
one must have look at Anishinabe / Ojibwa / Chippewa Peoples

for e.g.,
Jimmy Jackson
(Week 11 Day 21)
Paul Buffalo
(Week 11 Day 22)
Anishinabe Curing
(Week 12 Day 23)
"Windigo Psychosis," one of many
"Culture-Bound Syndromes"

(Week 09 Day 18)

-- Tim Roufs

 

In order to understand personality
one must understand cognition

In order to understand cognition
one must understand per-ception and con-ception . . .



cognition = perception + conception







cognition




per
ception


sensory
vision


"per - cepts"
hearing
touch
taste
smell
conception


"con - cepts"


Cf., "Foundations of Cultural Knowledge," in Culture and Cognition: Rules, Maps, and Plans
(San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1972), pp. 3-38.


How many senses do we have anyway ? . . .

 

Ask Marilyn banner.

Parade Column - February 24, 2008

We’re taught in school that we have five senses: vision, hearing, touch, taste and smell. Yet we also feel pain—and hunger, for that matter. Aren’t they senses too?
—Brian Dozier, Cincinnati, Ohio

In addition to the usual five that we’re taught, humans have receptors for pressure, temperature, pain, balance and motion. So we have a total of 10 senses. But hunger is not one of them. Rather, it’s a motivation or desire, like sex. Well, not quite like sex.












cognition







per
ception





sensory
vision





"per - cepts"
hearing
touch
taste
smell
pressure
temperature
pain
balance
motion
conception


"con - cepts"

 

A more conventional view . . .












cognition







per
ception





sensory
vision





"per - cepts"
hearing
touch
taste
smell
extra - sensory
(ESP)
6th ?

"?
"
conception


"con - cepts"
Cf., "Foundations of Cultural Knowledge," in Culture and Cognition: Rules, Maps, and Plans
(San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1972), pp. 3-38.


What about ESP -- Extra - Sensory Perception ? . . .













cognition







per
ception





sensory
vision





"per - cepts"
hearing
touch
taste
smell
pressure
temperature
pain
balance
motion
extra - sensory
(ESP)
6th ?

"?"
conception


"con - cepts"


Let's look at just one . . .

 

cognition
perception
sensory
(eyes)
vision
"per - cepts"

 

Week 5 Day 10 nlt 3:00, Thursday, 19 February 2015 video:
Discussion 4:00-4:10
Feedback 4:10-4:15

Stranger in the Mirror: An Examination of Visual Agnosia
(60 min., 1993, UM DULUTH Martin Library Video Cassette VC 2464)
[From NOVA ]

Book: The Man who Mistook His Wifefor a Hat, by Oliver Sacks.



 

The problems with visual agnosia
occur "between" the percepts and the "concepts" stages . . .

 

 

 

cognition


per
ception:

vision
wife's face
wave / particle
eyes brain "per - cepts"
   

 

 


con
ception

"con - cepts"

Spradley's diagram of percepts.

   

Source: James P. Spradley (Ed.), Culture and Cognition: Rules, Maps, and Plans
(San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1972), p. 9.

Cf., "Foundations of Cultural Knowledge," in Culture and Cognition: Rules, Maps, and Plans
(San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1972), pp. 3-38.

 

 


Go to the "Magic Eye" page and look at the Image of the Week until you see the 3D image. Click on "Need Help Viewing 3D?" if necessary.

Magic Eye©

Optical Illusions


Cognition: Per-ception / Con-ception . . . Gone Wrong
and
ESP: Extra-Sens-ory Per-cept-tion

What your Brain Doesn't See


cognition:
per-ception /
con-ception

. . . Questions to Think About 
. . .

  • How man senses do we have?

    • Wha's the nature of the concepts/percepts beyond the five "standard" senses?

  • With visual agnosia there were percepts but no visual concepts

  • With synesthesia there were percepts and concepts, except that the concepts got mixed up and didn't "match up" properly with the percepts

  • What about ESP--Extra-Sensory-Perception?

    • Can we have concepts without percepts?

  • What is the role of whatever is already "in" the brain in concept formation?

  • Optical Illusions
    • Percepts are formulated into erroneous concepts


  • Correct Percepts and Concepts of non-existent "things"
    • e.g., one's mental processing of a galaxy in the sky


  • Pure fantasy
    • No percepts, but concepts


  • "Phantom Pain"
    • residual concepts, but no current concepts, but current pain


  • How can both the percepts and concepts be manipulated to create altered states of consciousness?

  • Culturally Constituted Behavioral Environment (CCBE) -- A. Irving Hallowell


 A. Irving Hallowell.
A. Irving Hallowell
1892 – 1974
Culture and Experience, 1955

 

  • How does the space you live in affect your per-ception?

    • Mike Robbins

 

An Excellent lecture on smell, from the Nobel Conference 46 Making Food Good Conference -- Gustavus Adolphus College (5-6 October 2010)
(archives are available online at <http://gustavus.edu/events/nobelconference/2010/archive.php>)

Linda Bartoshuk
Fifth Lecture: "Variation in sensation and affect: We live in 'different taste worlds'"
view video on-line


One of the five main characteristics of American Anthropology is fieldwork, "a primary research technique, involving “participant observation," which usually means living among the people one is interested in learning from and about. And fieldwork, almost above everything else, requires attentive observation and recording of information.

Much of what we are going to do for the rest of the semester is "fieldwork" via video materials from around the world. Before we get into the video-intensive part of the course (towards the middle and end), take the Selective Attention Test (below) developed by Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris. This should give you a little insight into the nature of observing—which lies at the very heart of anthropological fieldwork.

See also "An Important Note on Videos and Visual Anthropology".

 

First, take the . . .

Selective Attention Test
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJG698U2Mvo>

Read and follow the directions carefully.
(Be sure to also count the bounce passes.)


 Selective Attention Test


Be sure to try your very best to follow the instructions.

(It's short, less than a minute and a half).

 

When you are finished with the Selective Attention Test, watch . . .

The Monkey Business Illusion
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IGQmdoK_ZfY>

(It too is short: 1:42)

Again, read and follow the directions carefully.

(And as with THe Selective Attention Test, be sure to also count the bounce passes.)

 The Monkey Business Illusion

 

(4) After you have taken Simon and Chabris' tests, think about how what you learned from them about perception might be applied as you view the videos for the rest of the semester as well as the cultural behaviors in real life as you roam the world thereafter


The main purpose of this exercise is to sensitize you to the fact that everyone views things selectively—”quite naturally, and maybe even by necessity. And one's culture plays a huge role in what one "sees" and focuses on (and what one doesn't see and focus on). American men, for e.g., most often do not "see" many details of clothing, color, and personal stylistic adornment (read hair styles, nail treatment, cosmetic adornments and the like).

To view things as a trained observer as anthropologists must do when they're in the field "doing" anthropology one must almost constantly be aware of this natural / cultural tendency to perceive things selectively, and try to compensate for it by paying attention to items not otherwise selected for, while at the same time being careful "not to miss anything".

Hopefully, this exercise will make you just a little more critical in the way you look at things—”and especially the class videos—”for the rest of the semester (and maybe even for the rest of your life, for that matter).

You are not expected anything to submit anything—no reaction, or report, or forum posting. This is a "re-vision" activity, and it should benefit you in performing well in the exams and overall for the course. And hopefully it will also help on your way to having a genuine anthropological perspective on life in general.

 

Other Materials from Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons . . .

"Demonstrations, videos from our research, videos of us speaking, etc. Dan's YouTube Channel includes most of these videos as well as favorites from around the web that are related to or mentioned in our book. You can view more videos on his personal website."

Other Videos --  the invisible gorilla

 

The Book . . .

 The Invisible Gorilla Book


. . . discusses six "everyday illusions" . . .

  1. The Illusion of Attention ("Inattentional Blindness")

  2. The Illusion of Memory

  3. The Illusion of Confidence

  4. The Illusion of Knowledge

  5. The Illusion of Cause

  6. The Illusion of Potential

 

Wilipedia

 Christopher Chabris

  Daniel Simons

 Inattentional blindness

 

Other Works of Interest

  • Optical Illusions WebPage

  • Kahneman, Daniel. Thinking Fast and Slow. NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011.

  • Macknik, Stephen L., Susana Martinez-Conde, and Sandra Blakeslee. Sleights of Mind: What the Neuroscience of Magic Reveals about Our Everyday Deceptions. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2010.

  • Nassim Nicholas Taleb

    • Incerto -- an investigation of luck, uncertainty, probability, opacity, human error, risk, disorder, and decision-making in a world we don’t understand

      • Fooled by Randomness: The Hidden Role of Chance in Life and in the Markets. 2nd Ed. NY: Random House, 2008.

      • The Black Swan: Second Edition: The Impact of the Highly Improbable: With a new section: "On Robustness and Fragility". NY: Random House, 2010.

      • Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder. NY: Random House, 2014.

      • The Bed of Procrustes: Philosophical and Practical Aphorisms. NY: Random House, 2016.

  • Malcolm Gladwell




Still More Questions
to
Think About

Cog-nition: Do you see what I see?

communication
slides: (.pptx)

Per-cept--ual and Con-cept--ual Cog-ni[to]--tive Processes

Percept--ual and Concept--ual Cogni--tive Processes

REM: Cognition = Perception + Conception

Cogni-tion = Per-cept-ion + Con-cept-ion

Cogni-tion = Percept-ion + Concept-ion

.

REM?:

per-son-ality
through - the sound - the essence or quality of

Greek Theatrical Mask -- Dionysus.
Dionysus,
Greek Theatrical Mask

Cognition = Perception + Conception

Cogni-tion = Per-cept-ion + Con-cept-ion

Cogni-tion = Percept-ion + Concept-ion

.

.

Still More Questions . . .
(to think about)

Mustard seed.

  • How do you think (about thinking, or anything else) ?

  • What role does culture and learning play ?

  • More specifically, what role does language play ?
    • "Perceptual and Cognitive Processes":

      • per-ception

        • ([late ME < L perceptiôn- (s. of perceptiô) comprehension, lit., a taking in]

      • per-ceive

        • ([ME perceive(n) . . . per- PER- + -cipere, comb. form of capere to take]

          • re-ceive

          • re-cept-or

      • per-cepts

      • "Perceptual and Cognitive Processes"


    Visual cortext.
    The Brain: A Road Map to the Mind -- MSNBC








    cognition

    p
    e
    r
    c
    e
    p
    t
    i
    o
    n








    sensory
    vision








    "per - cepts"


    c
    o
    n
    c
    e
    p
    t
    i
    o
    n









    brain
    states








    "con - cepts"
    hearing
    touch
    taste
    smell
    pressure
    temperature
    pain
    balance
    motion


    extra -
    sensory

    (ESP)



    6th ?



    " ? "

    Cf., "Foundations of Cultural Knowledge," in Culture and Cognition: Rules, Maps, and Plans
    (San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1972), pp. 3-38.

    The Formation of Percepts

    Spradley's diagram of percepts.

    Source: James P. Spradley (Ed.), Culture and Cognition: Rules, Maps, and Plans
    (San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1972), p. 9.

    The Formation of Concepts

    Spradley's diagram of concepts.

    Source: James P. Spradley (Ed.), Culture and Cognition: Rules, Maps, and Plans
    (San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1972), p. 10.


    And Still More Questions . . .
    (to think about)

    Mustard seed.



     

    Species Specific
    Behavioral Environment


    (The original B-EYE site seems to be off of the web. An archived site, courtesy of Pandora: Australia's Web Archive, can be found at <http://pandora.nla.gov.au/nph-arch/1999/O1999-Sep-6/http://cvs.anu.edu.au/andy/beye/beyehome.html>

    Views of a butterfly through a cat's and a human eye.

    Temple Grandin, professor at Colorado State University and autistic savant, used her unusual abilities to improve the tools of livestock farming.
    Temple Grandin, professor at Colorado State University and autistic savant, used her unusual abilities to improve the tools of livestock farming.
    -- Exploring Temple Grandin's Brain -- Discover (13 March 2013)

     Temple Grandin Brain Scan

    "If brain tissue is damaged or does not develop fully, the ventricles—vessels filled with cerebrospinal fluid, shown in blue in this image based on neuroimaging work—expand to fill the space. Temple Grandin’s enlarged left ventricle is a sign of abnormalities in her left hemisphere, which typically handles language, and may account for the difficulties she has with processing words."
    -- Exploring Temple Grandin's Brain -- Discover (13 March 2013)

     

    Animals Eyes
    -- An "Topic in Depth" report from the NSDL Scout Report
    (1 November 2002 -- Volume 1, Number 21)


    Sex Specific
    Behavioral Environment

    Culturally Constituted
    Behavioral Environment
    (CCBE)

    A.I. Hallowell

    A.I. Hallowell.

    The Stroop Effect

    Say the color the word is PRINTED in
    not the color named by the word

     Strop effect color chart.


     

    - - -

    "Special Effects"
    Environments

    Shrek 3D

    Shrek 3D


    Shrek 3D

    Shrek 3D

    Barack and Michelle Obama, along with their party, watch the commercials during Super Bowl XLIII in the White House theatre using ColorCode 3D.

    Barack and Michelle Obama, along with their party, watch the commercials during Super Bowl XLIII in the White House theatre using ColorCode 3D.
    Wikipedia

    Pocket stereoscope with original test image. Used by military to examine stereoscopic pairs of aerial photographs.

    Pocket stereoscope with original test image. Used by military to examine stereoscopic pairs of aerial photographs.
    Wikipedia
    Shrek 3D

    Wikipedia


    3D football image

    3D Football
     
    3D perception problems, Consumer Reports

    Consumer Reports

     "Hyperreality" -- Wikipedia

    Hyperreality--Wikipedia

    " . . . an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a simulation of reality, especially in technologically advanced post-modern societies. Hyperreality is a way of characterizing what our consciousness defines as "real" in a world where a multitude of media can radically shape and filter an original event or experience."

    Summary:

    Species Specific
    Behavioral Environment


    Sex Specific
    Behavioral Environment


    Special Effects Specific
    Behavioral Environment


    Culturally Constituted
    Behavioral Environment
    (CCBE)


     

    And Back to the Question
    of the Nature of Reality Itself . . .
    an age-old question . . .


    (and something else to think about . . .)
    (and people have been thinking about it a long time . . .)

    Mustard seed.

    In Ancient Eastern Philosophy . . .

    昔者莊周夢為蝴蝶,栩栩然蝴蝶也,
    自喻適志與,不知周也。俄然覺,
    則蘧蘧然周也。不知周之夢為蝴蝶與,
    蝴蝶之夢為周與?週與蝴蝶則必有分矣。此之謂物化。

    Zhuangzi dreaming of a butterfly (or a butterfly dreaming of Zhuangzi).
    Zhuangzi dreaming of a butterfly
    (or a butterfly dreaming of Zhuangzi)
    Wikipedia

    "Last night I dreamed I was a butterfly.

    How do I know that I am not a butterfly now dreaming I'm a man ?"

    "Once Zhuangzi dreamt he was a butterfly, a butterfly flitting and fluttering around, happy with himself and doing as he pleased. He didn't know he was Zhuangzi. Suddenly he woke up and there he was, solid and unmistakable Zhuangzi. But he didn't know if he was Zhuangzi who had dreamt he was a butterfly, or a butterfly dreaming he was Zhuangzi. Between Zhuangzi and a butterfly there must be some distinction! This is called the Transformation of Things." -- (2, tr. Burton Watson 1968:49)

    [From The Taoist book "Zhuangzi dreamed he was a butterfly" (莊周夢蝶 Zhuāng Zhōu mèng dié) -- Wikipedia]

    莊子
    Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)

    (4th Century B.C./B.C.E.)

    "Zhuangzi's philosophy was very influential in the development of Chinese Buddhism, especially Chán (also known as Zen)."

    The Yin and Yang Symbol with white representing Yang and black representing Yin.

    The Yin and Yang Symbol
    with white representing Yang and black representing Yin.
    Wikipedia

     

    Garrison Keillor notes of Gabriel García Márquez . . . "He learned to write short stories first from Kafka, and later from the American Lost Generation. He said that the first line of Kafka's Metamorphosis 'almost knocked [him] off the bed,' he was so surprised. In one interview, he quoted the first line ('As Gregor Samsa awoke that morning from uneasy dreams, he found himself transformed into a gigantic insect') and told the interviewer, 'When I read the line, I thought to myself that I didn't know anyone was allowed to write things like that.'" (06 March 2014)

    In Ancient Western Philosophy . . .

    Plato, "Allegory of the Cave"

    Plato's Cave.

    Seminar in Epistemology: Knowledge, Truth and Mathematics -- Russell Marcus

    Allegory of the Cave

    The Republic/Book VII

    Plato
    428/427 B.C. – 348/347 B.C.

    Plato, 428/427 B.C. – 348/347 B.C.

    Wikipedia



    Pheew!


    REM: People Live in Multiple Cultural Worlds

    • people live in multiple cultural worlds (roles)

      • sex / gender
      • age
      • ethnicity
      • race


        • Race: Can This Tenacious Concept Be Supplanted ?

      • class
      • institutions
      • common interest groups
        • "associations"

    • intergroup relations


    REM:

    • structure
    • function
    • meaning

    • emic
    • etic

    • synchronic
    • diachronic

    Culturally Constituted Behavioral Environment (CCBE)





    Male-Female differences in categorizing colors.
    Source: Currently Unknown

    © 1998 - 2018 Timothy G. Roufs    Envelope: E-mail
    Page URL: http:// www.d.umn.edu /cla/faculty/troufs/anth4616/cpcognition.html
    Last Modified Monday, 08 May 2017, 15:25 (03:25 PM) CDT, day 128 of 2017
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